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Index Senescence

Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation. [1]

223 relations: ABC News, Acetylation, Advanced glycation end-product, Ageing, Aging brain, Aging-associated diseases, Amino acid, AMP-activated protein kinase, Animal, Antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis, Anti-aging movement, Antioxidant, Arginine, Atherosclerosis, Basal metabolic rate, Biological immortality, Biomarkers of aging, Biopolymer, Blood sugar level, Blood vessel, Brooke Greenberg, Caenorhabditis elegans, Calorie restriction, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Case fatality rate, Cataract, Cause of death, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell damage, Cell division, Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase, Cell fusion, Cellular senescence, Chromosome, Cloning, Collagen, Compensation law of mortality, Compression of morbidity, Copper, COQ7, Coral, Cross-link, Daf-16, Daf-2, De Barsy syndrome, Death, Diabetes mellitus, DNA, ..., DNA damage theory of aging, DNA repair, DNA-SCARS, Dolly (sheep), Downregulation and upregulation, Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophilidae, Edward S. Curtis, Electric potential, Enzyme, Epigenetic clock, Extrachromosomal rDNA circle, Ezekiel Emanuel, Failure rate, Food chain, FOX proteins, Free-radical theory of aging, Fructose, Function (biology), Gene expression, Gene therapy, Genetic disorder, Genetic drift, Genetic engineering, Genetics, Genetics of aging, George C. Williams (biologist), Gerontology, Glucocorticoid, Glucose, Glycation, Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality, Grape, Guanine, Hapten, Hayflick limit, Health effects of wine, Heat shock, Heredity, Heterochromatin, Histone, Homeostasis, Homeostatic capacity, Homologous recombination, Hormesis, House mouse, Human, Human skin, Huntington's disease, Hydra (genus), Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxy group, Hypertension, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Ian Wilmut, Immortality, Impact of alcohol on aging, Indefinite lifespan, Index of topics related to life extension, Infection, Injury, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor, Ion, Iron, J. B. S. Haldane, Kidney, Kidney failure, Kingdom (biology), Late-life mortality deceleration, Life expectancy, Life extension, Ligand, Lipid, Lipofuscin, List of supercentenarians from the United States, Little brown bat, Liver failure, Lobster, Locus (genetics), Longevity, Lysine, Lysosome, Max Rubner, Maximum life span, Mayo Clinic, Miguel A. Faria Jr., Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Model organism, Morphogenesis, Mortality rate, Mouse, Mutation, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature Publishing Group, Nature versus nurture, Negligible senescence, Niacin, Nicotinamidase, Nicotinamide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, Non-communicable disease, Nucleotide, Old age, Oncogene, Ontogeny, Organism, Osmotic shock, Oxidative stress, Oxygen, P300-CBP coactivator family, P53, Perennial plant, Peroxide, Peter Medawar, PHB2, Phenoptosis, Phenotype, Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1, Planarian, Plant senescence, Pleiotropy, Polyphenol, Progeria, Progerin, Progeroid syndromes, Programmed cell death, Protein, Proteostasis, RAD52, Radical (chemistry), Raymond Pearl, Reactive oxygen species, Redox, Regenerative medicine, Rejuvenation (aging), Reliability engineering, Reproductive value (population genetics), Reproductive-cell cycle theory, Resveratrol, Ribosomal DNA, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SAGE KE, Seabird, Selection shadow, Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, Singlet oxygen, Sirtuin 1, Somatic cell, Species, Sponge, Stem cell, Stem cell theory of aging, Stochastic, Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence, Sugar, Superoxide, Superoxide dismutase, Taxon, Telomerase, Telomere, The Journals of Gerontology, Timeline of senescence research, Titration, Transcription factor, Transgenerational design, Ultraviolet, Weibull distribution, Wilson's disease, Yeast. Expand index (173 more) »

ABC News

ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.

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Advanced glycation end-product

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that become glycated as a result of exposure to sugars.

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Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.

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Aging brain

Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.

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Aging-associated diseases

An aging-associated disease is a disease that is most often seen with increasing frequency with increasing senescence.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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AMP-activated protein kinase

5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis

The antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis was first proposed by George C. Williams in 1957 as an evolutionary explanation for senescence.

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Anti-aging movement

The anti-aging movement is a social movement devoted to eliminating or reversing aging, or reducing the effects of it.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Biological immortality

Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.

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Biomarkers of aging

Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that could predict functional capacity at some later age better than will chronological age.

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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Brooke Greenberg

Brooke Megan Greenberg (January 8, 1993 – October 24, 2013) was an American who remained physically and cognitively similar to a toddler, despite her increasing age.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Calorie restriction

Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Case fatality rate

In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.

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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Cause of death

In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is a term which refers to an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell damage

Cell injury is a variety or changes of stress that a cell suffers due to external as well internal environmental changes, is also known as Cell Injury.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase

Cell division cycle 7-related protein kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC7 gene.

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Cell fusion

Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinuclear cell, known as a syncytium.

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Cellular senescence

Cellular senescence is one phenomenon by which normal cells cease to divide.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Compensation law of mortality

The compensation law of mortality (late-life mortality convergence) states that the relative differences in death rates between different populations of the same biological species decrease with age, because the higher initial death rates in disadvantaged populations are compensated by lower pace of mortality increase with age.

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Compression of morbidity

The compression of morbidity in public health is a hypothesis put forth by James Fries, professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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The clk-1 (clock-1) gene encodes an enzyme (demethoxyubiquinone monooxygenase) that is necessary for ubiquinone biosynthesis in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and other eukaryotes.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

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DAF-16 is the sole ortholog of the FOXO family of transcription factors in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

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The DAF-2 gene encodes for the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans.

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De Barsy syndrome

De Barsy syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA damage theory of aging

The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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DNA-SCARS (short for DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence) are nuclear substructures with persistent DNA damage and DNA damage response proteins found in senescent cells.

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Dolly (sheep)

Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.

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Downregulation and upregulation

In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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The Drosophilidae are a diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies, which includes fruit flies.

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Edward S. Curtis

Edward Sheriff Curtis (February 16, 1868 – October 19, 1952) was an American photographer and ethnologist whose work focused on the American West and on Native American peoples.

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Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epigenetic clock

An epigenetic clock is a type of a molecular age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels.

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Extrachromosomal rDNA circle

Extrachromosomal rDNA circles (aka ERC) are extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA), are self replicating sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) found in a strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and are suggested to contribute to their aging and found in their aged cells.

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Ezekiel Emanuel

Ezekiel Jonathan "Zeke" Emanuel (born September 6, 1957) is an American oncologist and bioethicist and senior fellow at the Center for American Progress.

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Failure rate

Failure rate is the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails, expressed in failures per unit of time.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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FOX proteins

FOX (Forkhead box) proteins are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and longevity.

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Free-radical theory of aging

The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.

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Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Function (biology)

In biology, function has been defined in many ways.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene therapy

In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genetics of aging

Genetics of aging is generally concerned with life extension associated with genetic alterations, rather than with accelerated aging diseases leading to reduction in lifespan.

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George C. Williams (biologist)

George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.

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Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycation (sometimes called non-enzymatic glycosylation) is the result of the covalent bonding of a sugar molecule, such as glucose or fructose, to a protein or lipid molecule, without the controlling action of an enzyme.

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Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality

The Gompertz–Makeham law states that the human death rate is the sum of an age-independent component (the Makeham term, named after William Makeham) and an age-dependent component (the Gompertz function, named after Benjamin Gompertz), which increases exponentially with age.

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A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Haptens are minute molecules that elicit an immune response only when attached to a large carrier such as a protein; the carrier may be one that also does not elicit an immune response by itself.

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Hayflick limit

The Hayflick limit or Hayflick phenomenon is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.

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Health effects of wine

The health effects of wine are mainly determined by its active ingredient alcohol.

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Heat shock

In biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a temperature that is greater than the optimal temperature range of function of the cell.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.

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In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Homeostatic capacity

Homeostatic capacity refers to the capability of systems to self-stabilize in response to external forces or stressors, or more simply the capability of systems to maintain homeostasis.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.

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House mouse

The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human skin

The human skin is the outer covering of the body.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Hydra (genus)

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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Ian Wilmut

Sir Ian Wilmut, OBE FRS One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: FMedSci FRSE (born 7 July 1944) is a British embryologist and Chair of the Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh.

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Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.

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Impact of alcohol on aging

The impact of alcohol on aging is multifaceted.

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Indefinite lifespan

Indefinite lifespan (also known as indefinite life extension or bio-indefinite) is a term used in the life extension movement and transhumanism to refer to the hypothetical longevity of humans (and other life-forms) under conditions in which ageing is effectively and completely prevented and treated.

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Index of topics related to life extension

Following is a list of topics related to life extension.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin-like growth factor

The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Late-life mortality deceleration

In gerontology, late-life mortality deceleration is the phenomenon of hazard rate increasing at a decreasing rate in late life – rather than increasing exponentially as in the Gompertz law – and in some cases plateauing (asymptoting) at a constant rate.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Life extension

Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipofuscin is the name given to fine yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion.

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List of supercentenarians from the United States

This article includes lists of supercentenarians from the United States (people from the United States who have attained the age of at least 110 years).

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Little brown bat

The little brown bat (sometimes called little brown myotis) (Myotis lucifugus) is a species of the genus Myotis (mouse-eared bats), one of the most common bats of North America.

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Liver failure

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.

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Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.

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Max Rubner

He studied at the University of Munich and worked as an assistant under Adolf von Baeyer and Carl von Voit (doctorate 1878).

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Maximum life span

Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.

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Mayo Clinic

The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.

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Miguel A. Faria Jr.

Miguel A. Faria Jr. (born 30 September 1952) is an associate editor-in-chief in socioeconomics, politics, medicine, and world affairs of Surgical Neurology International from 2012–present, before that a member of the Editorial Board of Surgical Neurology from 2004 to 2010.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Publishing Group

Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.

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Nature versus nurture

The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behaviour is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.

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Negligible senescence

Negligible senescence is the lack of symptoms of aging in some organisms.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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In enzymology, a nicotinamidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are nicotinamide and H2O, whereas its two products are nicotinate and NH3.

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Nicotinamide (NAA), also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAmPRTase or Nampt) also known as pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF1) or visfatin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NAMPT gene.

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Non-communicable disease

A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Old age

Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.

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An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.

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Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Osmotic shock

Osmotic shock or osmotic stress is physiologic dysfunction caused by a sudden change in the solute concentration around a cell, which causes a rapid change in the movement of water across its cell membrane.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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P300-CBP coactivator family

The p300-CBP coactivator family is composed of two closely related transcriptional co-activating proteins (or coactivators).

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Perennial plant

A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years.

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Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

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Peter Medawar

Sir Peter Brian Medawar (28 February 1915 – 2 October 1987) was a British biologist born in Brazil, whose work on graft rejection and the discovery of acquired immune tolerance was fundamental to the practice of tissue and organ transplants.

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Prohibitin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PHB2 gene.

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Phenoptosis (pheno – showing or demonstrating, ptosis – programmed death), designated by V.P. Skulachev in 1999, signifies the phenomenon of programmed death of an organism, i.e. that an organism's genes include features that under certain circumstances will cause the organism to rapidly degenerate and die off.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1

POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.

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A planarian is one of many flatworms of the Turbellaria class.

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Plant senescence

Plant senescence is the process of aging in plants.

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Pleiotropy (from Greek πλείων pleion, "more", and τρόπος tropos, "way") occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.

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Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.

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Progeria is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder in which symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at a very early age.

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Progerin is a truncated version of lamin A protein involved in Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome.

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Progeroid syndromes

Progeroid syndromes (PS) are a group of rare genetic disorders which mimic physiological aging, making affected individuals appear to be older than they are.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proteostasis, a portmanteau of the words protein and homeostasis, is the concept that there are competing and integrated biological pathways within cells that control the biogenesis, folding, trafficking and degradation of proteins present within and outside the cell.

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RAD52 homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as RAD52, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RAD52 gene.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Raymond Pearl

Raymond Pearl (3 June 1879 – 17 November 1940) was an American biologist, regarded as one of the founders of biogerontology.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Regenerative medicine

Regenerative medicine is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology which deals with the "process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function".

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Rejuvenation (aging)

Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.

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Reliability engineering

Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes dependability in the lifecycle management of a product.

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Reproductive value (population genetics)

Reproductive value (not to be confused with breeding value) is a concept in demography and population genetics that represents the discounted number of future female children that will be born to a woman of a specific age.

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Reproductive-cell cycle theory

Rather than seeing aging as a loss of functionality as we get older, this theory defines aging as any change in an organism over time, as evidenced by the fact that if all chemical reactions in the body were stopped, no change, and thus no aging, would occur.

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Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.

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Ribosomal DNA

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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The Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE) was an online scientific resource provided by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

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Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.

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Selection shadow

The selection shadow is a concept involved with the evolutionary theories of ageing that states that selection pressures on an individual decrease as an individual ages and passes sexual maturity, resulting in a "shadow" of time where selective fitness is not considered.

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Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase

Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal or SABG) is a hypothetical hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides only in senescent cells.

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Singlet oxygen

Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.

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Sirtuin 1

Sirtuin 1, also known as NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIRT1 gene.

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Somatic cell

A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stem cell theory of aging

The stem cell theory of aging postulates that the aging process is the result of the inability of various types of stem cells to continue to replenish the tissues of an organism with functional differentiated cells capable of maintaining that tissue's (or organ's) original function.

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The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence

Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS) is the term coined by British biogerontologist Aubrey de Grey for the diverse range of regenerative medical therapies, either planned or currently in development, for the periodical repair of all age-related damage to human tissue with the ultimate purpose of maintaining a state of negligible senescence in the patient, thereby postponing age-associated disease for as long as the therapies are reapplied.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.

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Superoxide dismutase

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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The Journals of Gerontology

The Journals of Gerontology are the first scientific journals on aging published in the United States.

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Timeline of senescence research

This page is a timeline of senescence research, including major theories, breakthroughs and organizations.

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Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transgenerational design

Transgenerational design is the practice of making products and environments compatible with those physical and sensory impairments associated with human aging and which limit major activities of daily living.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Weibull distribution

No description.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence

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