107 relations: Action potential, Adequate stimulus, Afferent nerve fiber, Amacrine cell, Aminoglycoside, Ampullae of Lorenzini, Aortic body, Auditory processing disorder, Auditory verbal agnosia, Baroreceptor, Bipolar neuron, Brain, Bulboid corpuscle, Carotid body, Central nervous system, Chemoreceptor, Cochlea, Color, Cone cell, Constraint-induced movement therapy, Cortical remapping, Cranial nerves, Cutaneous receptor, Dermis, Diabetic retinopathy, Distortion, Diurnality, Dorsal root ganglion, Edward Taub, Efferent nerve fiber, Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electroreception, Endocochlear potential, Epidermis, Free nerve ending, Gabapentin, Glaucoma, Glomus cell, Graded potential, Hair cell, Hydrodynamic reception, Hyperalgesia, Infrared, Infrared sensing in snakes, Interoceptor, Joint capsule, Lamellar corpuscle, Light, Macular degeneration, ..., Magnetic field, Magnetoreception, Mammal, Mechanoreceptor, Mirror box, Muscle spindle, Neural coding, Neural pathway, Neuron, Neuropathic pain, Neuroplasticity, Nociception, Nociceptor, Nocturnality, Odor, Olfaction, Olfactory receptor, Olfactory receptor neuron, Osmoreceptor, Osmotic concentration, Ototoxicity, Oxygen, Pain, Peripheral chemoreceptors, Phantom limb, Photoreceptor cell, Posterior column, Pressure, Proprioception, Pseudounipolar neuron, Receptive field, Receptor (biochemistry), Retina horizontal cell, Retinal ganglion cell, Rod cell, Sensory nerve, Sensory nervous system, Silver Spring monkeys, Soma (biology), Sound, Spinal cord, Spinal nerve, Stereocilia, Stimulus (physiology), Stimulus modality, Stress (mechanics), Sympathetic nervous system, Taste bud, Taste receptor, Tawny owl, Temporal lobe, Thermoreceptor, Tonic (physiology), Transduction (physiology), TRPM8, Ultraviolet, Visual phototransduction. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
The adequate stimulus is a property of a sensory receptor that determines the type of energy to which a sensory receptor responds with the initiation of sensory transduction.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
The ampullae of Lorenzini are special sensing organs called electroreceptors, forming a network of jelly-filled pores.
The aortic body is one of several small clusters of peripheral chemoreceptors known as glomus cells, baroreceptors, and supporting cells located along the aortic arch.
Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.
Auditory verbal agnosia (AVA), also known as pure word deafness, is the inability to comprehend speech.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
A bipolar neuron or bipolar cell, is a type of neuron which has two extensions.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The bulboid corpuscles (end-bulbs of Krause) are cutaneous receptors in the human body.
The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI, CIT, or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.
Cortical remapping, also referred to as cortical reorganization, is when a cortical map is affected by a stimulus, is changed and then creates a 'new' cortical map.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
The cutaneous receptors are the types of sensory receptor found in the dermis or epidermis.
The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.
Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.
Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve.
Edward Taub (born 1931, Brooklyn New York) is a behavioral neuroscientist on the faculty at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electroreception or electroception is the biological ability to perceive natural electrical stimuli.
The endocochlear potential (EP; also called endolymphatic potential) is the positive voltage of 80-100mV seen in the cochlear endolymphatic spaces.
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.
A free nerve ending (FNE) or bare nerve ending, is an unspecialized, afferent nerve fiber ending of a sensory neuron.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
A glomus cell (type I) is a peripheral chemoreceptor, mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies, that helps the body regulate breathing.
Graded potentials are changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed to being all-or-none.
Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates.
Hydrodynamic reception refers to the ability of some animals to sense water movements generated by biotic (conspecifics, predators, or prey) or abiotic sources.
Hyperalgesia (or; 'hyper' from Greek ὑπέρ (huper, “over”), '-algesia' from Greek algos, ἄλγος (pain)) is an increased sensitivity to pain, which may be caused by damage to nociceptors or peripheral nerves and can cause hypersensitivity to stimulus, stimuli which would normally not be cause for a pain reaction (ex/ eyes or brain having a painful reaction to daylight).
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The ability to sense infrared thermal radiation evolved independently in several different families of snakes.
An interoceptor is a sensory receptor that detects stimuli within the body.
In anatomy, a joint capsule or articular capsule is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint.
Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles, are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous (hairless) mammalian skin.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Magnetoreception (also magnetoception) is a sense which allows an organism to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.
A mirror box is a box with two mirrors in the center (one facing each way), invented by Vilayanur S. Ramachandran to help alleviate phantom limb pain, in which patients feel they still have a limb after having it amputated.
Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle.
Neural coding is a neuroscience field concerned with characterising the hypothetical relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.
A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Nociception (also nocioception or nociperception, from Latin nocere 'to harm or hurt') is the sensory nervous system's response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli.
A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.
An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.
An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, for example, as a side effect of a drug.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (of the carotid and aortic bodies) are so named because they are sensory extensions of the peripheral nervous system into blood vessels where they detect changes in chemical concentrations.
A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
The posterior columns (dorsal columns) are nerve tracts in the white matter of the spinal cord.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
A pseudounipolar neuron (pseudo – false, uni – one) is a kind of sensory neuron in the peripheral nervous system.
The receptive field of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space (e.g., the body surface, or the visual field) in which a stimulus will modify the firing of that neuron.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).
The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.
Not to be confused with the feral monkeys in Silver Springs, Florida. The Silver Spring monkeys were 17 wild-born macaque monkeys from the Philippines who were kept in the Institute of Behavioral Research in Silver Spring, Maryland.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.
Stereocilia (or stereovilli) are non-motile apical modifications of the cell, which are distinct from cilia and microvilli, but closely related to the latter.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Taste buds contain the taste receptor cells, which are also known as gustatory cells.
A taste receptor is a type of receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste.
The tawny owl or brown owl (Strix aluco) is a stocky, medium-sized owl commonly found in woodlands across much of Eurasia.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
A thermoreceptor is a non-specialised sense receptor, or more accurately the receptive portion of a sensory neuron, that codes absolute and relative changes in temperature, primarily within the innocuous range.
Tonic in physiology refers to a physiological response which is slow and may be graded.
In physiology, sensory transduction is the conversion of a sensory stimulus from one form to another.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM8 gene.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Visual phototransduction is the sensory transduction of the visual system.
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