265 relations: A. V. Dicey, Adam Przeworski, Advice and consent, Age of Enlightenment, Alec Stone Sweet, American Civil War, Anglicanism, Appeal, Appellate court, Aristocracy, Aristotle, Arm's length principle, Attorney general, Australia, Autocracy, Bad faith, Balance of power (parliament), Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic structure doctrine, Belgium, British Hong Kong, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundestag, Cabinet of Denmark, Cabinet of Germany, Cabinet of Pakistan, Cabinet of the United Kingdom, Carnation Revolution, Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Chief Prosecutor of Hungary, Church of England, Civil service commission, Codification (law), Commander-in-chief, Common law, Comptroller, Congregational church, Connecticut, Consociationalism, Constituent assembly, Constitution, Constitution of Austria, Constitution of France, Constitution of New Zealand, Constitution of the Republic of China, Constitution of the Roman Republic, Constitution of the United Kingdom, Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation, Constitutional Council (France), Constitutional Court of Hungary, ..., Constitutional economics, Constitutional Reform Act 2005, Constitutionalism, Constitutionality, Control Yuan, Corruption Perceptions Index, Costa Rican Civil War, Council of State (Norway), Council of the European Union, Court of Justice of the European Union, Courts of Denmark, Criminal law, Crown Prosecution Service, Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920, Declaration of war by the United States, Defendant, Democracy, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Doctrine, Election commission, Election Committee, Electoral college, Empire of Brazil, European Commission, European Council, European Court of Auditors, European Court of Justice, European Parliament, European Union, Examination Yuan, Executive (government), Executive Council of Hong Kong, Executive order, Executive Yuan, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal Convention (Germany), Federal Council (Switzerland), Federal government of the United States, Federal judiciary of the United States, Federalism in India, Federalist No. 51, Fifth power, Fishing expedition, Folketing, Fourth Estate, France, Freedom of religion, Freeman (Colonial), French Directory, French Parliament, Fusion of powers, General Court (European Union), Governance, Government of Hong Kong, Government of Hungary, Government of India, Government performance auditing, Hans Kelsen, High crimes and misdemeanors, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Basic Law, House of Commons, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Human rights, Impeachment in the United States, India, Institutions of the European Union, International organization, James Madison, John Calvin, John Locke, Joint Senate of the Supreme Courts of the Federation, Judicial activism, Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, Judicial functions of the House of Lords, Judicial independence, Judicial review, Judicial review in Hong Kong, Judicial review in the United States, Judicial Yuan, Judiciary, Judiciary of France, Judiciary of Hong Kong, Judiciary of Norway, Judiciary of Pakistan, Justice ministry, Kingdom of England, Labour Party (Norway), Latin America, Law reform, Lawyer, Legislative Council of Hong Kong, Legislative Yuan, Legislature, Liberal democracy, List of heads of state of Hungary, Lord Chancellor, Lord Chancellor's Department, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Lord Speaker, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, Marbury v. Madison, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Metonymy, Mixed government, Mixed-member proportional representation, Montesquieu, Motion of no confidence, Multi-party system, National Assembly (France), National Assembly (Hungary), National Assembly (Republic of China), New Jersey, Ninth-of-May Constitution, Of Plymouth Plantation, One country, two systems, Parliament of India, Parliament of Pakistan, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary sovereignty, Parliamentary system, Party-list proportional representation, Pennsylvania, Philosophy of law, Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Pith and substance, Plymouth Colony, Plymouth General Court, Police, Political philosophy, Politics (Aristotle), Politics of Canada, Politics of Italy, Politics of New Zealand, Politics of Switzerland, Polybius, Power (social and political), Premier of the Republic of China, President, President of France, President of Germany, President of India, President of the Republic of China, President of the United States, Presidential system, Prime minister, Prime Minister of Denmark, Prime Minister of France, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Norway, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Prosecutor, Questia Online Library, R (Factortame Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport, Recess appointment, Regulation, Regulatory agency, Reserve power, Rhode Island, Richard Corbett, Roman assemblies, Roman consul, Roman Senate, Rule according to higher law, Rule of law, Schematic overview of Belgian institutions, Secretary of State for Justice, Selective enforcement, Senate (France), Separation of church and state, Separation of duties, Separation of powers, Signing statement, Sino-British Joint Declaration, Special administrative regions of China, Standard of review, State (polity), State governments of India, States of Germany, Storting, Subsidiarity, Sun Yat-sen, Supreme Court of Hungary, Supreme Court of Pakistan, Supreme Court of the Republic of China, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Electoral Court of Costa Rica, Taxing and Spending Clause, The Spirit of the Laws, Treaty of Kiel, Trial, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Unicameralism, Union Council of Ministers, Unitary executive theory, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States federal budget, United States federal executive departments, University Press of America, Veto, Vice President of the Republic of China, Vice President of the United States, Westminster system, William Bradford (Plymouth Colony governor), World War II, 1814 in Norway, 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia. 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Albert Venn Dicey, KC, FBA (4 February 1835 – 7 April 1922), usually cited as A. V. Dicey, was a British jurist and constitutional theorist.
Adam Przeworski (born May 5, 1940) is a Polish-American professor of Political Science.
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alec Stone Sweet grew up in Bellingham, Washington.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The arm's length principle (ALP) is the condition or the fact that the parties to a transaction are independent and on an equal footing.
In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General (sometimes abbreviated as AG) or Attorney-General (plural: Attorneys General (traditional) or Attorney Generals) is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions, they may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Bad faith (Latin: mala fides) is double mindedness or double heartedness in duplicity, fraud, or deception.
In parliamentary politics, the term balance of power may describe a parliamentary situation in which a member or a number of members of chamber are in a position by their uncommitted vote to enable a party to attain and remain in minority government, and the term may also be applied to the members who hold that position.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial principle that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Cabinet of Denmark (regering) has been the chief executive body and the government of the Kingdom of Denmark since 1848.
The Cabinet of Germany (Bundeskabinett or Bundesregierung) is the chief executive body of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Cabinet of Pakistan (کابینہ پاکستان, Kabina-e-Pakistan) is a formal body composed of senior government officials chosen and led by the Prime Minister.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong in China.
The Prosecutor General (Legfőbb ügyész is an official who is charged with prosecuting cases at national level in Hungary. The Prosecutor General is elected by qualified majority of the parliament to 9 year terms (formerly 6 years), has a fixed office budget, and has no government oversight. The Office of Prosecutor General has evolved into a separate branch of the government of Hungary since 1989.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
A civil service commission is a government agency that is constituted by legislature to regulate the employment and working conditions of civil servants, oversee hiring and promotions, and promote the values of the public service.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A comptroller is a management level position responsible for supervising the quality of accounting and financial reporting of an organization.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of Austria (Österreichische Bundesverfassung) is the body of all constitutional law of the Republic of Austria on the federal level.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
The Constitution of New Zealand is the sum of laws and principles that make up the body politic of the realm.
During the National Constituent Assembly session on 25 December 1946 in Nanking, the fifth and current Chinese constitution was officially adopted on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied.
The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of unwritten norms and customs, which together with various written laws, guided the manner by which the Roman Republic was governed.
The United Kingdom does not have one specific constitutional document named as such.
The Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation (Ústavní zákon o československé federaci, Ústavný zákon o česko-slovenskej federácii) was a constitutional law in Czechoslovakia adopted on 27 October 1968 and in force from 1969 to 1992, by which the unitary Czechoslovak state was turned into a federation.
The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.
The Constitutional Court of Hungary (Magyarország Alkotmánybírósága) is a special court of Hungary, making judicial review of the acts of the Parliament of Hungary.
Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".
The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (c. 4) is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
The Control Yuan (CY) one of the five branches of the Government of the Republic of China, is an investigatory agency that monitors the other branches of government.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Costa Rican Civil War was the bloodiest event in 20th-century Costa Rican history.
The Council of State (Norwegian: Statsrådet), is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, and functions as the collective decision-making organ constituting the executive branch of the Kingdom.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
The Courts of Denmark is the ordinary court system of the Kingdom of Denmark.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is the principal public prosecuting agency for conducting criminal prosecutions in England and Wales.
After World War I, Czechoslovakia established itself and as a republic and democracy with the establishment of the Constitution of 1920.
A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation and another.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
An election commission is a body charged with overseeing the implementation of election procedures.
The Election Committee is a Hong Kong electoral college, the function of which is to select the Chief Executive (CE).
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and (until 1828) Uruguay.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Council, charged with defining the European Union's (EU) overall political direction and priorities, is the institution of the EU that comprises the heads of state or government of the member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
The Court of Auditors (European Court of Auditors, ECA) (French: Cour des comptes européenne) is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Executive Council of Hong Kong (ExCo;; Chinese name before the transfer of sovereignty: 行政局) is a formal body of advisers to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong that serves as a core policy-making organ of the Government of Hong Kong.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal Convention, also known as the Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung), is a special constitutional body in the political and federal institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of the premature termination of a presidential term.
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Constitution of India gives a federal structure to the Republic of India, declaring it to be a "Union of the States".
The fifth power is a term, apparently created by Ignacio Ramonet, that intends a continuation of the series of the three estates of the realm and the fourth power, the mass media.
A fishing expedition is an informal, pejorative term for a non-specific search for information, especially incriminating information.
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Fourth Estate (or fourth power) is a segment of society that wields an indirect but significant influence on society even though it is not a formally recognized part of the political system.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freeman is a term which originated in 12th-century Europe and was common as an American Colonial expression in Puritan times.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
Fusion of powers is a feature of some parliamentary forms of government, especially those following the Westminster system, where the executive and legislative branches of government are intermingled.
The General Court (EGC) is a constituent court of the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR.
The Government of Hungary (Magyarország Kormánya) exercises executive power in Hungary.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
Government performance auditing focuses on improving how governments provide programs and services.
Hans Kelsen (October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher.
The charge of high crimes and misdemeanors covers allegations of misconduct peculiar to officials, such as perjury of oath, abuse of authority, bribery, intimidation, misuse of assets, failure to supervise, dereliction of duty, unbecoming conduct, and refusal to obey a lawful order.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada and historically was the name of the lower houses of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Southern Ireland, North Carolina and South Korea.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Impeachment in the United States is the process by which the lower house of a legislature brings charges against a civil officer of government for crimes alleged to have been committed, analogous to the bringing of an indictment by a grand jury.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
The Joint Senate of the Federal Supreme Courts of Justice (Gemeinsamer Senat der Obersten Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, also called the Common Senate) is often regarded as one of the supreme courts of justice in Germany, but it is rather, as the name suggests, an ad hoc judicial body, that is convened in specific cases only.
Judicial activism refers to judicial rulings that are suspected of being based on personal opinion, rather than on existing law.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
Judicial review in Hong Kong is conducted according to the Constitutional and Administrative Law List (Practice Direction 26.1).
In the United States, judicial review is the ability of a court to examine and decide if a statute, treaty or administrative regulation contradicts or violates the provisions of existing law, a State Constitution, or ultimately the United States Constitution.
The Judicial Yuan is one of the five branches of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan, and serves as the highest judicial organ.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
In France, career judges are considered civil servants exercising one of the sovereign powers of the state, and, accordingly, only French citizens are eligible for judgeship.
The Judiciary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the judicial branch of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
The judiciary of Norway is hierarchical with the Supreme Court at the apex.
The judiciary of Pakistan (پاکستان کا عدلیہ) is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary.
A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet, A/Ap), formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Law reform or legal reform is the process of examining existing laws, and advocating and implementing changes in a legal system, usually with the aim of enhancing justice or efficiency.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (LegCo) is the unicameral parliamentary legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
The following is a list of heads of state of Hungary, from the Hungarian Declaration of Independence and the establishment of the Hungarian State in 1849 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lord Chancellor's Department was a United Kingdom government department answerable to the Lord Chancellor with jurisdiction over England and Wales.
The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales.
The Lord Speaker is the speaker of the House of Lords in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the British House of Lords in order to exercise its judicial functions, which included acting as the highest court of appeal for most domestic matters.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.
Mixed government (or a mixed constitution) is a form of government that combines elements of democracy (polity), aristocracy, and monarchy, making impossible their respective degenerations (conceived as anarchy (mob rule), oligarchy and tyranny).
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Assembly (Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary.
The National Assembly refers to several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
The Ninth-of-May (1948) Constitution was the second constitution of Czechoslovakia, in force from 1948 to 1960.
Of Plymouth Plantation was written over a period of years by William Bradford, the leader of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts.
"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence that seeks to answer basic questions about law and legal systems, such as "What is law?", "What are the criteria for legal validity?", "What is the relationship between law and morality?", and many other similar questions.
The Pilgrims or Pilgrim Fathers were early European settlers of the Plymouth Colony in present-day Plymouth, Massachusetts, United States.
Pith and substance is a legal doctrine in Canadian constitutional interpretation used to determine under which head of power a given piece of legislation falls.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
The Plymouth General Court (formerly styled, The General Court of Plymouth Colony) was the original colonial legislature of the Plymouth colony from 1620 to 1692.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Politics (Πολιτικά, Politiká) is a work of political philosophy by Aristotle, a 4th-century BC Greek philosopher.
The politics of Canada function within a framework of parliamentary democracy and a federal system of parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions.
The politics of Italy are conducted through a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system.
The politics of New Zealand function within a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democracy.
Switzerland is a semi-direct democratic federal republic.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
The President of the Executive Yuan, commonly known as the Premier of Republic of China (sometimes as Prime Minister), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of Germany, officially the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident der Bundesrepublik Deutschland),The official title within Germany is Bundespräsident, with der Bundesrepublik Deutschland being added in international correspondence; the official English title is President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the head of state of Germany.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of Denmark (Danmarks statsminister; literally "Minister of the State") is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark.
The French Prime Minister (Premier ministre français) in the Fifth Republic is the head of government.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The Prime Minister of Norway (statsminister, literally the "minister of the state") is the head of government of Norway and the most powerful person in Norwegian politics.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan (وزِیرِ اعظم —,; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system.
Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
R (Factortame Ltd) v Secretary of State for Transport was a judicial review case taken against the United Kingdom government by a company of Spanish fishermen who claimed that the United Kingdom had breached European Union law by requiring ships to have a majority of British owners if they were to be registered in the UK.
In the United States, a recess appointment is an appointment by the President of a federal official when the U.S. Senate is in recess.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
Richard Graham Corbett (born 6 January 1955) is the UK Labour Party leader in the European Parliament.
The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
The rule according to a higher law means that no law may be enforced by the government unless it conforms with certain universal principles (written or unwritten) of fairness, morality, and justice.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The table below provides a schematic and hierarchic overview of the institutions of the Belgian federated state, according to the principle of the Trias Politica (the theoretical concept of the Separation of political powers) in law-making, executive and judicial powers (the horizontal separation of powers) and according to their territorial level or so called subsidiarity (the vertical separation of powers).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Justice is a senior position in the cabinet of the United Kingdom, held in conjunction with the office of Lord Chancellor since it was created in 2007, replacing the former post of Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs.
In law, selective enforcement occurs when government officials such as police officers, prosecutors, or regulators exercise enforcement discretion, which is the power to choose whether or how to punish a person who has violated the law.
The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Separation of duties (SoD)(Also known as Segregation of Duties) is the concept of having more than one person required to complete a task.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
A signing statement is a written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into law.
The Sino–British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by Premier Zhao Ziyang of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom (UK) on behalf of their respective governments on 19 December 1984 in Beijing.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
In law, the standard of review is the amount of deference given by one court (or some other appellate tribunal) in reviewing a decision of a lower court or tribunal.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
State governments in India are the governments ruling States of India and the head of the council of ministers in a state is chief minister.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The Supreme Court of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország Legfelsőbb Bírósága), also known as the Curia (Kúria) is the Supreme Court and highest legal authority of Hungary.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan (عدالت عظمیٰ پاکستان; Adālat-e-Uzma Pākistān) is the apex court in the judicial hierarchy of Pakistan.
The Supreme Court of the Republic of China is the court of last resort in the Republic of China although matters regarding interpretation of the Constitution and unifying the interpretation of laws and orders are decided by the Constitutional Court of the Judicial Yuan.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
The Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones de Costa Rica (Supreme Electoral Court of Costa Rica) is the supreme election commission of the Republic of Costa Rica.
The Taxing and Spending Clause (which contains provisions known as the General Welfare Clause) and the Uniformity Clause, Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, grants the federal government of the United States its power of taxation.
The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.
The Treaty of Kiel (Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish and Kielfreden or freden i Kiel) was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.
The unitary executive theory is a theory of American constitutional law holding that the President possesses the power to control the entire executive branch.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States federal budget comprises the spending and revenues of the U.S. federal government.
The United States federal executive departments are the primary units of the executive branch of the Federal government of the United States.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
The Vice President of the Republic of China is the second-highest executive official of the Republic of China.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
William Bradford (19 March 1590May 9, 1657) was an English Separatist originally from the West Riding of Yorkshire.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Events in the year 1814 in Norway.
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Ústava Československé socialistické / Československej socialistickej republiky in Czech / Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law 100/1960 Sb., was the third constitution of Czechoslovakia, and the second of the Communist era.
3 powers, Arm of government, Arm of state, Arm of the government, Arms of government, Arms of the government, Balance of powers, Branch of government, Branches of government, Check and balance, Checks & balances, Checks and Balances, Checks and balances, Checks in the government, Democratic stability, Division of power, Division of powers, Government branch, Limited power, Organ of state, Organs of state, Separation Of Powers, Separation of Powers, Separation of arms, Separation of branches, Separation of branches of government, Separation of power, Separation of powers principle, Separation of the branches of government, Seperation of Powers, Seperation of powers, The separation of powers, Three branches of goverment, Three branches of government, Three organs of state, Three political branches, Three powers of government, Three powers of the State, Trias politica, Tripartite system (politics).