345 relations: Abdomen, Acetylcysteine, Acinetobacter baumannii, ACTH stimulation test, Acute kidney injury, Acute pancreatitis, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenal insufficiency, Adrenaline, Aerobic organism, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Alanine transaminase, Albumin, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Altered level of consciousness, American College of Chest Physicians, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Aminoglycoside, Anaerobic organism, Anaphylaxis, Annals of Intensive Care, Annals of Internal Medicine, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Antibiotic, Antifibrinolytic, Antigen, Antigen presentation, Antihypotensive agent, Anuria, AP-1 transcription factor, APACHE II, Apoptosis, Arterial line, Ascending cholangitis, Asplenia, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Avicenna, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Bacterial adhesin, Base excess, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Bile acid, Bilirubin, Biological target, Biomarker, Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases, Blood culture, Blood gas test, ..., Blood plasma, Blood sugar level, British Journal of Pharmacology, Broad-spectrum antibiotic, Burn, C-type lectin, Cancer, Candida (fungus), Capillary refill, Carbapenem, Cardiac output, Caspofungin, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central nervous system, Central venous catheter, Central venous pressure, Chemical pneumonitis, Chest (journal), Chest radiograph, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic lung disease, Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Coagulation, Coagulopathy, Cochrane Library, Complete blood count, Confusion, Continuous positive airway pressure, Coronary artery disease, Corticosteroid, Cortisol, CpG site, Creatinine, Critical Care Clinics, Critical Care Medicine (journal), Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, Cyanotic heart defect, Cytochrome c oxidase, Cytokine, Cytokine release syndrome, Cytoplasm, Damage-associated molecular pattern, Decomposition, Deep vein thrombosis, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dialysis, Differential diagnosis, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Distributive shock, Dobutamine, Domperidone, Dopamine, Drotrecogin alfa, Dysuria, Early goal-directed therapy, Echinocandin, Edema, Electrolyte imbalance, Electronic health record, Elsevier, Encephalopathy, Endothelium, Eritoran, Erythromycin, Erythropoietin, Escherichia coli, Etomidate, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, Exotoxin, Experimental & Molecular Medicine, Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Feeding tube, Fever, Flagellin, Fluconazole, Fluid replacement, Fresh frozen plasma, Fungemia, Fungus, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Glasgow Coma Scale, Glucocorticoid, Glycocalyx, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Growth medium, H2 antagonist, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart rate, Hemoglobin, Hemoperfusion, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Heparin, Hippocrates, Hospital-acquired infection, Hydrocortisone, Hydroxyethyl starch, Hypercapnia, Hyperglycemia, Hyperthyroidism, Hyperventilation, Hypotension, Hypothermia, Hypovolemia, Hypoxemia, Ileus, Immune system, Immunity (journal), Immunodeficiency, Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin therapy, Immunosuppression, Immunotherapy (journal), Incidence (epidemiology), Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammation, Inotrope, Insulin, Intellectual disability, Intensive Care Medicine (journal), Intensive care unit, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 6, Interleukin-1 family, Intermittent pneumatic compression, Intravenous therapy, Intubation, Itraconazole, JAMA (journal), Jaundice, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Journal of Bacteriology, Journal of Critical Care, Journal of Immunology, Journal of Infection, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Kidney failure, Klebsiella, Lactic acid, Lactic acidosis, Legionella, Lipid A, Lipopolysaccharide, Lipoteichoic acid, Low molecular weight heparin, Lung, Macrolide, Major histocompatibility complex, Major trauma, Mammal, McGraw-Hill Education, Mean arterial pressure, Mechanical ventilation, Medical imaging, Meningitis, Metabolic acidosis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Metoclopramide, Micafungin, Microorganism, Millimeter of mercury, Minerva Medica, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Mitochondrion, Mouse, Multiple drug resistance, Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, Muramyl dipeptide, Neonatal sepsis, Neurogenic shock, Neuromuscular-blocking drug, NF-κB, Nitric oxide, NOD-like receptor, Norepinephrine (medication), Oliguria, Omega-3 fatty acid, Organ (anatomy), Organ dysfunction, Oxygen saturation, Oxygen saturation (medicine), Packed red blood cells, Pancreatitis, Parasitism, Parenteral nutrition, Pathogen-associated molecular pattern, Pattern recognition receptor, Pediatric Clinics of North America, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Peptic ulcer disease, Peptidoglycan, Percutaneous, Petechia, Pharmacotherapy (journal), Platelet, Pneumonia, Point of care, Polymerase chain reaction, Polytrauma, Positive end-expiratory pressure, Pressure ulcer, Procalcitonin, Prokinetic agent, Protein C, Prothrombin time, Proton-pump inhibitor, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism, Purpura, Purpura fulminans, Pus, Pyelonephritis, QT interval, Quinolone antibiotic, Recombinant DNA, Renal replacement therapy, Respiratory alkalosis, Respiratory failure, Respiratory rate, Review, Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, RIG-I-like receptor, Science (journal), Sensitivity and specificity, Sepsis Alliance, Sepsis Six, Septic shock, Shock (circulatory), Society of Critical Care Medicine, Sodium bicarbonate, SOFA score, Southern Medical Journal, Specific developmental disorder, Spontaneous breathing trial, Staphylococcus, Steroid, Streptococcus pyogenes, Stress ulcer, Stroke volume, SuPAR, Superantigen, Superior vena cava, Surviving Sepsis Campaign, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, T helper cell, T-cell receptor, Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Teicoplanin, The BMJ, The Journal of Emergency Medicine, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, The Lancet, The New England Journal of Medicine, The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Thermoregulation, Thrombosis, Tidal volume, Toll-like receptor, Torsades de pointes, Toxin, Triazole, Troponin, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United Kingdom, United States, University of Chicago, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Urinary system, Vancomycin, Vascular resistance, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Venous thrombosis, Vibrio cholerae, Virulence (journal), Virulence factor, Virus, Volume expander, Volume overload, White blood cell, World Journal of Gastroenterology, Yeast. 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Acetylcysteine, also known as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is a medication that is used to treat paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, and to loosen thick mucus in individuals with cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a typically short, almost round, rod-shaped (coccobacillus) Gram-negative bacterium.
The ACTH test (also called the cosyntropin, tetracosactide, or Synacthen test) is a medical test usually ordered and interpreted by endocrinologists to assess the functioning of the adrenal glands stress response by measuring the adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; corticotropin) or another corticotropic agent such as tetracosactide (cosyntropin, tetracosactrin; Synacthen) or alsactide (Synchrodyn).
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical condition occurring in critically ill or critically wounded patients characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) is a medical association in the United States consisting of physicians and non-physician specialists in the field of chest medicine, which includes pulmonology, critical care medicine, and sleep medicine.
The American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal published in two yearly volumes by the American Thoracic Society.
Aminoglycoside is a medicinal and bacteriologic category of traditional Gram-negative antibacterial therapeutic agents that inhibit protein synthesis and contain as a portion of the molecule an amino-modified glycoside (sugar); the term can also refer more generally to any organic molecule that contains aminosugar substructures.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
The Annals of Intensive Care is a monthly open access peer-reviewed medical journal covering intensive care medicine.
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).
The Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antifibrinolytics are a class of medication that are inhibitors of fibrinolysis.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigen presentation describes a vital immune process which is essential for T cell immune response triggering.
An antihypotensive agent, also known as a vasopressor agent or pressor, is any medication that tends to raise reduced blood pressure.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections.
APACHE II ("Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II") is a severity-of-disease classification system (Knaus et al., 1985), one of several ICU scoring systems.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
An arterial line (also art-line or a-line) is a thin catheter inserted into an artery.
Ascending cholangitis, also known as acute cholangitis or simply cholangitis, is an infection of the bile duct (cholangitis), usually caused by bacteria ascending from its junction with the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).
Asplenia refers to the absence of normal spleen function and is associated with some serious infection risks.
An ATP-sensitive potassium channel (or KATP channel) is a type of potassium channel that is gated by intracellular nucleotides, ATP and ADP.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Adhesins are cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion or adherence to other cells or to surfaces, usually the host they are infecting or living in.
In physiology, base excess and base deficit refer to an excess or deficit, respectively, in the amount of base present in the blood.
β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
A biological target is anything within a living organism to which some other entity (like an endogenous ligand or a drug) is directed and/or binds, resulting in a change in its behavior or function.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering hematology.
Blood culture is a microbiological culture of blood.
A blood gas test or blood gas analysis tests blood to measure blood gas tension values, it also measures blood pH, and the level and base excess of bicarbonate.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The British Journal of Pharmacology is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of experimental pharmacology.
The term broad-spectrum antibiotic can refer to an antibiotic that acts on the two major bacterial groups, gram-positive and gram-negative, or any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
A C-type lectin (CLEC) is a type of carbohydrate-binding protein domain known as a lectin.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Capillary refill time (CRT) is defined as the time taken for color to return to an external capillary bed after pressure is applied to cause blanching.
Carbapenems are a class of highly effective antibiotic agents commonly used for the treatment of severe or high-risk bacterial infections.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Caspofungin (INN) (brand name Cancidas worldwide) is a lipopeptide antifungal drug from Merck & Co., Inc. discovered by James Balkovec, Regina Black and Frances A. Bouffard.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein.
Central venous pressure (CVP) is the blood pressure in the venae cavae, near the right atrium of the heart.
Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by aspirating or inhaling irritants.
Chest is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering chest diseases and related issues, including pulmonology, cardiology, thoracic surgery, transplantation, breathing, airway diseases, and emergency medicine.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Chronic lung disease may refer to.
Clinical Medicine is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Royal College of Physicians.
Clinical Microbiology Reviews (CMR) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes scholarly works of interest in the areas of clinical microbiology, immunology, medical microbiology, infectious diseases, veterinary microbiology, and microbial pathogenesis.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
A bleeding disorder (coagulopathy) is a condition that affects the way the blood clots.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a form of positive airway pressure ventilator, which applies mild air pressure on a continuous basis to keep the airways continuously open in people who are able to breathe spontaneously on their own.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Critical Care Clinics is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering intensive care medicine.
Critical Care Medicine is a peer-reviewed monthly medical journal in the field of intensive-care medicine.
Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) is a form of adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients who have blood corticosteroid levels which are inadequate for the severe stress response they experience.
Cyanotic heart defect is a group-type of congenital heart defect (CHD) that occurs due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation or a mixture of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytokine release syndrome is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome that arises as a complication of some diseases or infections, and is also an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell therapies.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), also known as danger-associated molecular patterns, danger signals, and alarmin, are host biomolecules that can initiate and perpetuate a noninfectious inflammatory response.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Distributive shock is a medical condition in which abnormal distribution of blood flow in the smallest blood vessels results in inadequate supply of blood to the body's tissues and organs.
Dobutamine is a sympathomimetic drug used in the treatment of heart failure and cardiogenic shock.
Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others, is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that was developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica and is used as an antiemetic, gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drotrecogin alfa (activated) (Xigris, marketed by Eli Lilly and Company) is a recombinant form of human activated protein C that has anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and profibrinolytic properties.
In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination.
Early goal-directed therapy was introduced by Emanuel P. Rivers in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2001 and is a technique used in critical care medicine involving intensive monitoring and aggressive management of perioperative hemodynamics in patients with a high risk of morbidity and mortality.
Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase and are thus called "penicillin of antifungals" (a property shared with papulacandins) as penicillin has a similar mechanism against bacteria but not fungi.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
An electronic health record (EHR), or electronic medical record (EMR), is the systematized collection of patient and population electronically-stored health information in a digital format.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Eritoran is an investigational drug for the treatment of severe sepsis, an excessive inflammatory response to an infection.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion.
The European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering clinical microbiology and infectious diseases.
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering biochemistry and molecular biology.
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal publishing review articles and original papers on all aspects of anti-infective therapy.
A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to people who cannot obtain nutrition by mouth, are unable to swallow safely, or need nutritional supplementation.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.
Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.
Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes.
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is a blood product made from the liquid portion of whole blood.
Fungemia or fungaemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable and objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
The glycocalyx, also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia, and other cells.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products from the United States that is developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemoperfusion or haemoperfusion (see spelling differences) is a method of filtering the blood extracorporeally (that is, outside the body) to remove a toxin.
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), also known as haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (British spelling), and hemophagocytic or haemophagocytic syndrome, is an uncommon hematologic disorder seen more often in children than in adults.
Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hydroxyethyl starch (HES/HAES), sold under the brand name Voluven among others, is a nonionic starch derivative, used as a volume expander in intravenous therapy.
Hypercapnia, also known as hypercarbia and CO2 retention, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hyperventilation (a.k.a. overbreathing) occurs when the rate or tidal volume of breathing eliminates more carbon dioxide than the body can produce.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunity is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal of immunology published by Cell Press.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Immunoglobulin therapy, also known as normal human immunoglobulin (NHIG), is the use of a mixture of antibodies (immunoglobulins) to treat a number of health conditions.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Immunotherapy is a peer reviewed medical journal covering immunology and more specifically immunotherapy.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Intensive Care Medicine is a monthly peer reviewed medical journal covering intensive care or critical care and emergency medicine.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
Intermittent pneumatic compression is a therapeutic technique used in medical devices that include an air pump and inflatable auxiliary sleeves, gloves or boots in a system designed to improve venous circulation in the limbs of patients who suffer edema or the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.
Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers antimicrobial chemotherapy, including laboratory aspects and clinical use of antimicrobial agents.
The Journal of Bacteriology is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1916.
The Journal of Critical Care is a peer reviewed medical journal which covers intensive care medicine.
The Journal of Immunology is a twice monthly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes basic and clinical studies in all aspects of immunology.
The Journal of Infection is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of infectious disease, covering microbiology, epidemiology and clinical practice.
The Journal of Leukocyte Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of immunology.
The Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI) is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in oncology that was established in August 1940.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream.
The genus Legionella is a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires' disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.
Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major constituent of the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria.
Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is a class of anticoagulant medications.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility.
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
Minerva Medica is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published in English and Italian.
In, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is the lowest concentration of a chemical which prevents visible growth of a bacterium.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), also known as multiple organ failure (MOF), total organ failure (TOF) or multisystem organ failure (MSOF), is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to achieve homeostasis.
Muramyl dipeptide is constituent of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria composed of N-acetylmuramic acid linked by its lactic acid moiety to the N-terminus of an L-alanine D-isoglutamine dipeptide.
Neonatal sepsis is a type of neonatal infection and specifically refers to the presence in a newborn baby of a bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) (such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis) in the setting of fever.
Neurogenic shock is a distributive type of shock resulting in low blood pressure, occasionally with a slowed heart rate, that is attributed to the disruption of the autonomic pathways within the spinal cord.
Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, in short NOD-like receptors (NLRs), are intracellular sensors of PAMPs that enter the cell via phagocytosis or pores and DAMPs that are associated with cell stress.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a medication used to treat people with very low blood pressure.
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organ dysfunction is a condition where an organ does not perform its expected function.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Oxygen saturation is the fraction of oxygen-saturated hemoglobin relative to total hemoglobin (unsaturated + saturated) in the blood.
Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Total parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion.
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, are molecules associated with groups of pathogens, that are recognized by cells of the innate immune system.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.
Pediatric Clinics of North America is a clinical medical journal in pediatrics published by W. B. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal that covers intensive care treatment of children and newborns.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
In surgery, a percutaneous procedure is any medical procedure or method where access to inner organs or other tissue is done via needle-puncture of the skin, rather than by using an "open" approach where inner organs or tissue are exposed (typically with the use of a scalpel).
A petechia, plural petechiae, is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels.
Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering human pharmacology and pharmacotherapy, published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, of which it is an official journal.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Clinical point of care is the point in time when clinicians deliver healthcare products and services to patients at the time of care.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Polytrauma and multiple traumata are medical terms describing the condition of a person who has been subjected to multiple traumatic injuries, such as a serious head injury in addition to a serious burn.
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is the pressure in the lungs (alveolar pressure) above atmospheric pressure (the pressure outside of the body) that exists at the end of expiration.
Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, and decubitus ulcers, are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis.
A gastroprokinetic agent, gastrokinetic, or prokinetic, is a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm.
Protein C, also known as autoprothrombin IIA and blood coagulation factor XIV, is a zymogen, the activated form of which plays an important role in regulating anticoagulation, inflammation, cell death, and maintaining the permeability of blood vessel walls in humans and other animals.
The prothrombin time (PT)—along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR)—are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure.
Purpura fulminans is an acute, often fatal, thrombotic disorder which manifests as blood spots, bruising and discolouration of the skin resulting from coagulation in small blood vessels within the skin and rapidly leads to skin necrosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.
In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is therapy that replaces the normal blood-filtering function of the kidneys.
Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
A review is an evaluation of a publication, service, or company such as a movie (a movie review), video game (video game review), musical composition (music review of a composition or recording), book (book review); a piece of hardware like a car, home appliance, or computer; or an event or performance, such as a live music concert, play, musical theater show, dance show, or art exhibition.
Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer FRS (27 March 1858 – 15 September 1945) was a German physician and bacteriologist.
RIG-I-like receptors (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, or RLRs) are a type of intracellular pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition of viruses by the innate immune system.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sepsis Alliance is a voluntary health organization dedicated to raising awareness of sepsis by educating patients, families, and healthcare professionals to treat sepsis as a medical emergency.
The Sepsis Six is the name given to a bundle of medical therapies designed to reduce the mortality of patients with sepsis.
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
The Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), established in 1970, is an independently incorporated, international, educational and scientific society.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sepsis-related organ failure assessment score, also known as sequential organ failure assessment score (SOFA score), is used to track a person's status during the stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) to determine the extent of a person's organ function or rate of failure.
The Southern Medical Journal is a peer-reviewed medical journal, established by Milton Antony.
Specific developmental disorders (SDD) are disorders in which development is delayed in one specific area or areas,Ahuja Vyas: Textbook of Postgraduate Psychiatry (2 Vols.), 2nd ed.
A goal for most patients on mechanical ventilation is to be weaned from the ventilator.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria.
A stress ulcer is a single or multiple mucosal defect which can become complicated by upper gastrointestinal bleeding physiologic stress.
In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
suPAR, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, (NCBI Accession no. AAK31795) is the soluble form of uPAR.
Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) is a global initiative to bring together professional organizations in reducing mortality from sepsis.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory state affecting the whole body.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant ''Staphylococcus aureus'' and Enterococcus faecalis.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Journal of Emergency Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering emergency medicine.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed biweekly medical journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatrics.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a branch of clinical chemistry and clinical pharmacology that specializes in the measurement of medication concentrations in blood.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
Tidal volume (symbol VT or TV) is the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
Torsades de pointes or torsade depointes (TdP or simply torsade(s)) (translated as "twisting of the points"), is a specific type of abnormal heart rhythm that can lead to sudden cardiac death.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
A triazole refers to any of the heterocyclic compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastrointestinal bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, commonly defined as bleeding arising from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
A venous thrombus is a blood clot (thrombus) that forms within a vein.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Virulence is a peer reviewed medical journal that covers microbiology and immunology specifically, microorganism pathogenicity, the infection process and host–pathogen interactions.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that has the function of providing volume for the circulatory system.
Volume overload refers to the state of one of the chambers of the heart in which too large a volume of blood exists within it for it to function efficiently.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
World Journal of Gastroenterology is a weekly peer-reviewed open access medical journal that covers research in gastroenterology.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Bacterial sepsis, Blood poisoning, Blood-poisoning, Candida septicaemia, Gonococcal septicaemia affecting skin, Sepsis-induced hypotension, Septacemia, Septasemia, Septecemia, Septicaemia, Septicaemia affecting skin, Septicemia, Septicimia, Septicæmia, Severe sepsis, Streptococcal septicaemia.