110 relations: Abstand and ausbau languages, Accusative case, Albanian language, Alexander the Great, Aorist, Đuro Daničić, Šatrovački, Šumadija–Vojvodina dialect, Balto-Slavic languages, Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian language, Bulgarian language, Chakavian, Church Slavonic language, Collation, Conditional mood, Constitution of Montenegro, Constitution of Serbia, Croatia, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Croatian language, Cyrillic script, Czech Republic, Dative case, Declension, Dialects of Serbo-Croatian, Digraphia, Dušan's Code, Eastern Herzegovinian dialect, Fusional language, Future tense, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Genitive case, German–Serbian dictionary (1791), Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Hungary, Imperative mood, Imperfect, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Instrumental case, Jacob Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kajkavian, Kosovo, Latin script, Ljudevit Gaj, ..., Loanword, Locative case, Macedonian language, Matica hrvatska, Matica srpska, Middle Ages, Milorad Pavić, Miroslav Gospel, Montenegrin language, Montenegro, Nominative case, Official script, Ottoman Empire, Paper size, Participle, Pavle Ivić, Perfect (grammar), Pero Budmani, Petar Skok, Phonemic orthography, Pluperfect, Present tense, Prizren-Timok dialect, Pro-drop language, Project Rastko, Proto-Slavic, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Radio Television of Serbia, Realis mood, Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Romano-Serbian language, RTV Pink, Secularity, Serbia, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian epic poetry, Serbian proverbs, Serbo-Croatian, Serbs, Shtokavian, Slavic languages, Slavonic-Serbian, Slovakia, Slovene language, Slovenia, Smederevo–Vršac dialect, South Slavic languages, Spoken language, Srpski rječnik, Standard language, Tomislav Maretić, Torlakian dialect, Tristan and Iseult, Vocative case, Voice (grammar), Vuk Karadžić, Yugoslav Braille, Zagreb, Zeta-Raška dialect. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
Đura Daničić (born Đorđe Popović; Ђуро Даничић,; April 4, 1825 – November 17, 1882), was a Serbian philologist, translator, linguistic historian and lexicographer.
Šatrovački (Serbian Cyrillic: шатровачки) or šatra (шатра) is a form of pig latin used in Serbo-Croatian.
Šumadija–Vojvodina dialect (Serbo-Croatian: Latin: Šumadijsko-vojvođanski dijalekat, Cyrillic: Шумадијско-војвођански дијалекат) is a subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
The Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language (translit) is a linguistic institute in Serbia, Montenegro and Republika Srpska whose purpose is to preserve and foster the Serbian language.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Chakavian or Čakavian,, (čakavski, proper name: čakavica or čakavština, own name: čokovski, čakavski, čekavski) is a dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language spoken by a minority of Croats.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
The current Constitution of Montenegro was ratified and adopted by the Constitutional Parliament of Montenegro on 19 October 2007 on an extraordinary session by achieving the required two-thirds supermajority of votes.
The current Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (Устав Републике Србије / Ustav Republike Srbije), also known as Mitrovdan Constitution (Митровдански устав / Mitrovdanski ustav) was adopted in 2006, replacing the previous constitution dating from 1990.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
The dialects of Serbo-Croatian include the regional varieties of Serbo-Croatian as a whole or as part of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian.
In sociolinguistics, digraphia refers to the use of more than one writing system for the same language.
Dušan's Code (Душанов законик, Dušanov zakonik, known historically as Закон благовјернаго цара Стефана - Law of the pious Emperor Stefan) is a compilation of several legal systems that was enacted by Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia in 1349.
The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect (Serbo-Croatian: istočnohercegovački/источнохерцеговачки or istočnohercegovačko-krajiški/источнохерцеговачко-крајишки) is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian, both by territory and the number of speakers.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
The 1791 German–Serbian dictionary, referred to as the Avramović Dictionary (Аврамовићев речник or Avramovićev rečnik; full title in Deutsch und Illyrisches Wörterbuch zum Gebrauch der Illyrischen Nation in den K. K. Staaten; full title in Slavonic-Serbian: Нѣмецкïй и сербскïй словарь на потребу сербскагѡ народа въ крал. державахъ, transliterated as Německij i serbskij slovar' na potrebu serbskago naroda v kral. deržavah, meaning "German and Serbian Dictionary for Use by the Serbian People in the Royal States"), is a historical bidirectional translation dictionary published in the Habsburg Empire's capital of Vienna in 1791, though 1790 is given as the year of publication in some of its copies.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Kajkavian (Kajkavian noun: kajkavščina; Shtokavian adjective: kajkavski, noun: kajkavica or kajkavština) is a South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats in much of Central Croatia, Gorski Kotar and northern Istria.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Ljudevit Gaj (born Ludwig Gay;According to Djuro Šurmin: Hrvatski preporod, vol I-II, Zagreb, 1903), 8 August 1809 – 20 April 1872) was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Matica hrvatska (Matrix Croatica) is the oldest independent, non-profit and non-governmental Croatian national institution.
The Matica srpska (Матица српска) is the oldest cultural-scientific institution of Serbia.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milorad Pavić (Милорад Павић,; 15 October 1929 – 30 November 2009) was a Serbian novelist, poet, short story writer, and literary historian.
Miroslav's Gospel (Мирослављево Јеванђеље / Miroslavljevo Jevanđelje) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript Gospel Book on parchment with very rich decorations.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Many paper size standards conventions have existed at different times and in different countries.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Pavle Ivić (Павле Ивић,; 1 December 1924 – 19 September 1999) was a Serbian South Slavic dialectologist and phonologist.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
Petar "Pero" Budmani (October 27, 1835 - December 27, 1914) was a writer, linguist, grammarian, and philologist from Dubrovnik and a renowned polyglot of Croatian origin.
Petar Skok (1 March 1881 – 3 February 1956) was a Croatian linguist and onomastics expert.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
The Prizren-Timok dialect is a dialect of the Serbian language, which is spoken in the area from Prizren in the south to the Timok River in the north.
A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).
Project Rastko — Internet Library of Serb Culture (Пројекат Растко — Електронска библиотека српске културе, Projekat Rastko — Elektronska biblioteka srpske kulture) is a non-profit and non-governmental publishing, cultural and educational project dedicated to Serb and Serb-related arts and humanities.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Radio Television of Serbia (Радио-телевизија Србије (РТС)/Radio-televizija Srbije (RTS)) is the public broadcaster in Serbia.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romano-Serbian language is a mixed language (referred to as a Para-Romani variety in Romani linguistics) resulting from language contact between Serbian and Romani in Serbia and former Yugoslav countries and distinct from the Vlax Romani dialects spoken in Serbia.
Radio Television Pink (Радио-телевизија Пинк (РТВ Пинк)/Radio-televizija Pink (RTV Pink), also known as TV Pink or just Pink) is a popular, privately owned, national TV network in Serbia.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serb epic poetry (Српске епске народне песме/Srpske epske narodne pesme) is a form of epic poetry created by Serbs originating in today's Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski / штокавски) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin standards.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slavonic-Serbian (славяносербскій, slavyanoserbskiy), Slavo-Serbian, or Slaveno-Serbian (славено-сербскiй, slaveno-serbski; славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) was a literary language used by the Serbs in the Habsburg Empire, mostly in what is now Vojvodina, from the mid-18th century to the first decades of the 19th century.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Smederevo–Vršac dialect (Serbo-Croatian: Latin: Smederevsko-vršački dijalekat, Cyrillic: Смедеревско-вршачки дијалекат) a subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
Srpski rječnik (Српски рјечник,, The Serbian Dictionary; full name: Српски рјечник истолкован њемачким и латинским ријечма, "The Serbian Dictionary, paralleled with German and Latin words") is a dictionary written by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, first published in 1818.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Tomislav Maretić (13 October 1854 – 15 January 1938) was a Croatian linguist and lexicographer.
Torlakian, or Torlak (Torlački/Торлачки,; Торлашки, Torlashki), is a group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia, southern Kosovo (Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian.
Tristan and Iseult is a tale made popular during the 12th century through Anglo-Norman literature, inspired by Celtic legend, particularly the stories of Deirdre and Naoise and Diarmuid Ua Duibhne and Gráinne.
The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.
Yugoslav Braille is a family of closely related braille alphabets used for the Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, and Macedonian languages.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
The Zeta–Raška dialect (Zetsko–raški dijalekat / Зетско–рашки дијалекат) is a subdialect of the Štokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian.
Description of standard Serbian language, ISO 639:scc, ISO 639:sr, ISO 639:srp, Serb language, Serbian (language), Serbian Language, Serbian Language Modernisation, Serbian standard, Serbian variant, Serbian-language, Serubiago, Srbski, Srbski jezik, Srpski, Srpski / Српски, Srpski jezik, Standard Serbian, Српски, Српски / Srpski, Српски језик.