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Index Serbo-Croatian

Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro. [1]

287 relations: Accusative case, Adjective, Adriatic Sea, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Ancient Greek, Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, Aorist, Approximant consonant, Arabic alphabet, Arebica, Aspirated consonant, August Šenoa, Australia, Austria, Austrian Empire, Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, Đuro Daničić, Baška tablet, Balto-Slavic languages, Ban Kulin, Baranya County, Bartol Kašić, Béni Kállay, Bernhard Gröschel, Bilabial nasal, Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Bosnian Cyrillic, Bosnian language, Brazil, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Breviary, Bunjevac dialect, Bunjevci, Burgenland Croatian, Canada, Carașova, Chakavian, Charter of Ban Kulin, Chile, Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor, Church Slavonic language, Clitic, Close back rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Cognate, Communism, Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian, ..., Conditional mood, Consonant, Consonant cluster, Cravat, Croatia, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Croatian language, Croats, Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Dative case, Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diacritic, Dialect continuum, Dialects of Serbo-Croatian, Digraph (orthography), Early Cyrillic alphabet, Eastern Herzegovinian dialect, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, Future tense, Gaj's Latin alphabet, General American, Genitive case, Germany, Glagolitic script, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical tense, Greek alphabet, Hindi, Hindustani language, History of the Slavic languages, Hrvoje's Missal, Humac tablet, Hungarians, Hungary, Illyrian movement, Imperative mood, Imperfect, Imperfective aspect, Independent State of Croatia, Indo-European languages, Indonesian language, Inflection, Inscription of Župa Dubrovačka, Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics, Instrumental case, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO 639, Italians, Italy, Ivan Broz, Ivan Gundulić, Jacob Grimm, Jezik, Jutarnji list, Kajkavian, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Kosovo Albanians, Krk, Labiodental approximant, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Law codex of Vinodol, Lexicology, Liturgy, Ljudevit Gaj, Locative case, Lupac, Macedonian language, Macedonians (ethnic group), Malay language, Malaysian language, Marija Bistrica, Marin Držić, Marko Marulić, Matica hrvatska, Matica srpska, Matulji, Mid back rounded vowel, Mid front unrounded vowel, Milan Rešetar, Minimal pair, Missal, Missale Romanum Glagolitice, Molise Croats, Monophthong, Montenegrin alphabet, Montenegrin language, Montenegrins, Montenegro, Morality play, Morphology (linguistics), Muhamed Filipović, Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi, Mutual intelligibility, Mystery play, Nasal consonant, Nominative case, North Germanic languages, Norwegian language, Noun, Novi list, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad Agreement, Old Church Slavonic, Old Church Slavonic Institute, Open central unrounded vowel, Orthography, Orubica, Ottoman Empire, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Palatal lateral approximant, Palatal nasal, Pan-Slavism, Past tense, Perfective aspect, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Pitch-accent language, Plomin tablet, Pluperfect, Plural, Pluricentric language, Poetry, Polish language, Political correctness, Polje, Posavina, Prefix, Present tense, Pro-drop language, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Slavic, Prunus spinosa, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Realis mood, Received Pronunciation, Religion, Republic of Macedonia, Rijeka, Romania, Russian language, Sandžak, Schleicher's fable, Second language, Serbia, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian grammar, Serbo-Croatian kinship, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Serbs, Shtokavian, Slang, Slavic languages, Slavomolisano dialect, Slivovitz, Slovak language, Slovene language, Slovenes, Slovo (journal), Snježana Kordić, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Sorting, South Slavic languages, Split, Croatia, Standard language, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Sweden, Swedish language, Syntax, Tamburica, Tanbur, Texas A&M University Press, The Slavonic and East European Review, Tone (linguistics), Tone contour, Tongue-twister, Torlakian dialect, Trill consonant, Unicode, United States, Universal Decimal Classification, University of Oslo, University of Sarajevo, Urbanization, Urdu, Uvala (landform), Valun tablet, Vatican Croatian Prayer Book, Vatroslav Jagić, Vehicle registration plate, Vienna Literary Agreement, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced bilabial stop, Voiced dental and alveolar stops, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar affricate, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiceless bilabial stop, Voiceless dental and alveolar stops, Voiceless labiodental fricative, Voiceless postalveolar affricate, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Vojvodina, Vowel, Vuk Karadžić, Yat, Yugoslav Braille, Zagreb, Zvonimir, 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence. 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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia

The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.

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Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arebica or Arabica (عَرَبٖىڄا) was a Bosniak variant of the Perso-Arabic script used to write the Bosnian language (بۉسانسقٖى يەزٖىق).

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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August Šenoa

August Šenoa (originally Schönoa; 14 November 1838 – 13 December 1881) was a Croatian novelist.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878

The campaign to establish Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina lasted from 29 July to 20 October 1878 against the local resistance fighters supported by the Ottoman Empire.

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Đuro Daničić

Đura Daničić (born Đorđe Popović; Ђуро Даничић,; April 4, 1825 – November 17, 1882), was a Serbian philologist, translator, linguistic historian and lexicographer.

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Baška tablet

Baška tablet (Bašćanska ploča) is one of the first monuments containing an inscription in the Croatian recension of the Church Slavonic language, dating from c. 1100.

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Balto-Slavic languages

The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.

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Ban Kulin

Kulin (d. November 1204) was the Ban of Bosnia from 1180 to 1204, first as a vassal of the Byzantine Empire and then of the Kingdom of Hungary, but his state was de facto independent.

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Baranya County

Baranya (Baranya megye); is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in Hungary, in the Baranya region, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary (see: Baranya (former county)).

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Bartol Kašić

Bartol Kašić (Bartholomaeus Cassius, Bartolomeo Cassio; August 15, 1575 – December 28, 1650) was a Jesuit clergyman and grammarian during the Counter-Reformation, who wrote the first Croatian grammar and translated the Bible and the Roman Rite into Croatian.

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Béni Kállay

Béni Kállay de Nagy-Kálló or Benjamin von Kállay (–) was an Austro-Hungarian statesman.

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Bernhard Gröschel

Bernhard Gröschel (19 June 1939 – 4 October 2009) was a German linguist and slavist.

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Bilabial nasal

The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages.

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Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language

The Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language (translit) is a linguistic institute in Serbia, Montenegro and Republika Srpska whose purpose is to preserve and foster the Serbian language.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Bosnian Cyrillic

Bosnian Cyrillic, widely known as Bosančica is an extinct variant of the Cyrillic alphabet that originated in medieval Bosnia.

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Bosnian language

The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Breakup of Yugoslavia

The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.

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The Breviary (Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private." Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although eventually the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church.

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Bunjevac dialect

The Bunjevac dialect (bunjevački govor or bunjevački jezik) is a Shtokavian–Western Ikavian dialect used by members of the Bunjevci community.

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Bunjevci are a South Slavic ethnic group living mostly in the Bačka region of Serbia (province of Vojvodina) and southern Hungary (Bács-Kiskun county, particularly in the Baja region).

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Burgenland Croatian

Burgenland Croatian (Gradišćanskohrvatski jezik; German: Burgenlandkroatische Sprache; Hungarian: Gradišćei horvát nyelv) is a regional variety of the Chakavian dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language spoken in Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carașova (Karaševo; Krassóvár) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, Romania.

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Chakavian or Čakavian,, (čakavski, proper name: čakavica or čakavština, own name: čokovski, čakavski, čekavski) is a dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language spoken by a minority of Croats.

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Charter of Ban Kulin

The Charter of Ban Kulin (Povelja Kulina bana/Повеља Кулина бана) was a trade agreement between the Banate of Bosnia and the Republic of Ragusa that effectively regulated Ragusan trade rights in Bosnia, written on 29 August 1189.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor

The Church of St.

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Church Slavonic language

Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close back rounded vowel

The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close front unrounded vowel

The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.

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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian

Standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian are different national variants and official registers of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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The cravat is a neckband, the forerunner of the modern tailored necktie and bow tie, originating from a style worn by members of the seventeenth-century military unit known as the Croats.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Academia Scientiarum et Artium Croatica, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti, abbrev. HAZU) is the national academy of Croatia.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.

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Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as the Bosnian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in that country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language

The Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language (Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika) was a document brought by Croat scholars in 1967.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals

The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Dialects of Serbo-Croatian

The dialects of Serbo-Croatian include the regional varieties of Serbo-Croatian as a whole or as part of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Early Cyrillic alphabet

The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.

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Eastern Herzegovinian dialect

The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect (Serbo-Croatian: istočnohercegovački/источнохерцеговачки or istočnohercegovačko-krajiški/источнохерцеговачко-крајишки) is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian, both by territory and the number of speakers.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Fusional language

Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gaj's Latin alphabet

Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

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General American

General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Glagolitic script

The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindustani language

Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.

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History of the Slavic languages

The history of the Slavic languages stretches over 3,000 years, from the point at which the ancestral Proto-Balto-Slavic language broke up (c. 1500 BC) into the modern-day Slavic languages which are today natively spoken in Eastern, Central and Southeastern Europe as well as parts of North Asia and Central Asia.

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Hrvoje's Missal

The Hrvoje's Missal (Hrvojev misal) is a 15th-century missal written in Glagolitic alphabet.

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Humac tablet

The Humac tablet (Humačka ploča, Хумачка плоча, Хумска плоча) is an Old Slavic epigraph in Cyrillic in the form of a stone tablet, believed to be variously dated to between the 10th and 12th century, being one of the oldest Serbo-Croatian preserved inscriptions.

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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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Illyrian movement

The Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret, Ilirsko gibanje) was a pan-South-Slavist cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of the 19th century, around the years of 1835–1849 (there is some disagreement regarding the official dates).

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).

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Imperfective aspect

The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.

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Independent State of Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Inscription of Župa Dubrovačka

Inscription of Župa Dubrovačka is a Croatian Glagolitic inscription dated to the 11th century.

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Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics

The Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje) is an official institute in Croatia whose purpose is to preserve and foster the Croatian language.

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Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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ISO 639

ISO 639 is a set of standards by the International Organization for Standardization that is concerned with representation of names for languages and language groups.

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The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Ivan Broz

Ivan Broz (21 January 1852 – 25 December 1893) was a Croatian linguist and literary historian.

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Ivan Gundulić

Ivan Franov Gundulić (also Gianfrancesco Gondola; 8 January 1589 – 8 December 1638; Nickname: Mačica), better known today as Ivan Gundulić, was the most prominent Croatian Baroque poet from the Republic of Ragusa.

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Jacob Grimm

Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist.

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Jezik (lit. "Language") is a Croatian language literary magazine published in Croatia by the Croatian Philological Society since 1952.

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Jutarnji list

Jutarnji list is a Croatian daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in Zagreb since April, 6, 1998, by EPH (Europapress holding, owned by Ninoslav Pavić) which eventually changed name in Hanza Media, when bought by Marijan Hanžeković.

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Kajkavian (Kajkavian noun: kajkavščina; Shtokavian adjective: kajkavski, noun: kajkavica or kajkavština) is a South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats in much of Central Croatia, Gorski Kotar and northern Istria.

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Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.

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Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).

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Kosovo Albanians

Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, commonly called Kosovar Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovo Albanians and simply Kosovars.

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Krk (Vegl; Curicta; Veglia; Vegliot Dalmatian: Vikla; Ancient Greek Kyrikon, Κύρικον) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of Primorje-Gorski Kotar county.

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Labiodental approximant

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Law codex of Vinodol

Law Codex of Vinodol or Vinodol statute (Vinodolski zakonik) is one of the oldest law texts written in the Chakavian dialect of Croatian language and is among the oldest Slavic codes.

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Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words.

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.

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Ljudevit Gaj

Ljudevit Gaj (born Ludwig Gay;According to Djuro Šurmin: Hrvatski preporod, vol I-II, Zagreb, 1903), 8 August 1809 – 20 April 1872) was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement.

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Locative case

Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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Lupac (Romanian: Lupac; Croatian: Lupak; Kiskrassó) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, Banat, Romania.

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Macedonian language

Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.

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Macedonians (ethnic group)

The Macedonians (Македонци; transliterated: Makedonci), also known as Macedonian Slavs or Slavic Macedonians, are a South Slavic ethnic group native to the region of Macedonia.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Malaysian language

The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.

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Marija Bistrica

Marija Bistrica is a village and municipality in the Krapina-Zagorje County in central Croatia, located on the slopes of the Medvednica mountain in the Hrvatsko Zagorje region north of the capital Zagreb.

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Marin Držić

Marin Držić (also Marino Darza or Marino Darsa; 1508 – 2 May 1567) is considered the finest Dubrovnikan Renaissance playwright and prose writer.

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Marko Marulić

Marko Marulić (Marco Marulo; 18 August 1450 – 5 January 1524) was a Croatian national poet and Renaissance humanist, known as the Crown of the Croatian Medieval Age and the father of the Croatian Renaissance.

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Matica hrvatska

Matica hrvatska (Matrix Croatica) is the oldest independent, non-profit and non-governmental Croatian national institution.

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Matica srpska

The Matica srpska (Матица српска) is the oldest cultural-scientific institution of Serbia.

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Matulji (Mattuglie) is a town and a municipality in Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia.

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Mid back rounded vowel

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Mid front unrounded vowel

The mid front unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound that is used in some spoken languages.

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Milan Rešetar

Milan Rešetar (Милан Решетар; February 1, 1860 – January 14, 1942) was a Serbian (a self-identified Serb Catholic from the Republic of Ragusa, today by some Croat researchers considered Croatian), linguist, historian and literary critic.

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Minimal pair

In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.

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A missal is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year.

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Missale Romanum Glagolitice

Missale Romanum Glagolitice (Misal po zakonu rimskoga dvora) is a Croatian missal and incunabulum printed in 1483.

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Molise Croats

Molise Croats (Moliški Hrvati) or Molise Slavs (Slavo-molisani, Slavi del Molise) are a Croat community in the Molise province of Campobasso of Italy, which constitutes the majority in the three villages of Acquaviva Collecroce (Kruč), San Felice del Molise (Štifilić) and Montemitro (Mundimitar).

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A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.

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Montenegrin alphabet

The Montenegrin alphabet is the collective name given to "Abeceda" (Montenegrin Latin alphabet) and "Азбука" (Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet), the writing systems used to write the Montenegrin language.

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Montenegrin language

Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.

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Montenegrins (Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci, or), literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.

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Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Morality play

The morality play is a genre of Medieval and early Tudor theatrical entertainment.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Muhamed Filipović

Muhamed Filipović (born 3 August 1929 in Banja Luka, Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian philosopher, politician, writer and one of the most prominent Bosniak historians.

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Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi

Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi (Muhamed Hevaija Uskufija Bosnevi, Mehmet Hevayi Uskufi, born c. 1600 in Dobrnja near Tuzla, died after 1651) was a Bosniak poet and writer of Aljamiado literature.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Mystery play

Mystery plays and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Novi list

Novi list is the oldest Croatian daily newspaper published in Rijeka.

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Novi Pazar

Novi Pazar (Нови Пазар, lit. "New Bazaar") is a city located in the Raška District of southwestern Serbia.

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Novi Sad Agreement

The Novi Sad Agreement (Serbo-Croatian Latin: Novosadski dogovor, Cyrillic: Новосадски договор) was a document composed by 25 Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian writers, linguists and intellectuals to build unity across the ethnic and linguistic divisions within Yugoslavia, and create the Serbo-Croatian language standard.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.

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Old Church Slavonic Institute

The Old Church Slavonic Institute (Staroslavenski institut) is Croatian public institute founded in 1952 by the state for the purpose of scientific research on the language, literature and paleography of the mediaeval literary heritage of the Croatian vernacular and the Croatian recension of Church Slavonic.

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Open central unrounded vowel

The open central unrounded vowel, or low central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in many spoken languages.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Orubica is a village in the municipality of Slavonski Brod, Croatia.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Palatal approximant

The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatal lateral approximant

The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Palatal nasal

The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.

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Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.

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Past tense

The past tense (abbreviated) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to place an action or situation in past time.

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Perfective aspect

The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pitch-accent language

A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.

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Plomin tablet

The Plomin tablet. Plomin tablet (Plominski natpis) is a Glagolitic inscription at the outer wall of the church of Saint George in Plomin, modern-day Croatia.

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The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Pluricentric language

A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.

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Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Political correctness

The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated to PC or P.C.) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society.

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A polje, also karst polje or karst field, is a large flat plain found in karstic geological regions of the world, with areas usually 5 to 400 km².

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Posavina (Posavina/Посавина) is the Slavic name for the region of the Sava river basin in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia that is adjacent or near the Sava river itself.

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A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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Pro-drop language

A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are pragmatically or grammatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Proto-Balto-Slavic language

Proto-Balto-Slavic is a reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European (PIE).

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Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.

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Prunus spinosa

Prunus spinosa (blackthorn, or sloe) is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae.

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Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".

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Realis mood

A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.

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Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Sandžak (Санџак) or Sanjak is a historical geo-political region, now divided by the border between Serbia and Montenegro.

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Schleicher's fable

Schleicher's fable is a text composed in a reconstructed version of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) language, published by August Schleicher in 1868.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbian Cyrillic alphabet

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Serbo-Croatian grammar

Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language that has, like most other Slavic languages, an extensive system of inflection.

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Serbo-Croatian kinship

The Serbo-Croatian standard languages (Croatian, Serbian, Montenegrin and Bosnian) have one of the more elaborate kinship (srodstvo) systems among European languages.

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Serbo-Croatian phonology

Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.

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The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski / штокавски) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin standards.

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Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

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Slavomolisano dialect

Slavomolisano, also known as Molise Slavic or Molise Croatian, is a variety of Shtokavian Serbo-Croatian spoken by Italian Croats in the province of Campobasso, in the Molise Region of southern Italy, in the villages of Montemitro (Mundimitar), Acquaviva Collecroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić).

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Slivovitz, Šljivovica, Śliwowica, Slivovitza, Schlivowitz, Slivovitsa, Slivovice, Slivovica or Slivovka is a fruit brandy made from damson plums, often referred to as plum brandy.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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The Slovenes, also called as Slovenians (Slovenci), are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Slovenia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak Slovenian as their first language.

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Slovo (journal)

Slovo is a biannual academic journal edited and managed entirely by postgraduates of the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies.

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Snježana Kordić

Snježana Kordić (born 29 October 1964) is a Croatian linguist.

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Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.

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Sorting is any process of arranging items systematically, and has two common, yet distinct meanings.

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South Slavic languages

The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.

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Split, Croatia

Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Tamburica or Tamboura (Tamburica, Tamburica, Тамбурица, meaning "little Tamboura"; Tambura; Ταμπουράς, sometimes written tamburrizza or tamburitza) refers to a family of long-necked lutes popular in Southern Europe and Central Europe, especially Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (especially Vojvodina), Slovenia, and Hungary.

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The terms Tanbur, Tanbūr, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor can refer to various long-necked, string instruments originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia.

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Texas A&M University Press

Texas A&M University Press (also known informally as TAMU Press) is a scholarly publishing house associated with Texas A&M University.

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The Slavonic and East European Review

The Slavonic and East European Review, the journal of the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College London, is an international peer-reviewed multidisciplinary academic journal in the fields of social sciences and humanities founded in 1922 by Bernard Pares, Robert William Seton-Watson and Harold Williams (SSEES) and dedicated to Slavonic and East European Studies published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by Maney Publishing for the Modern Humanities Research Association on behalf of SSEES.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tone contour

A tone contour, or contour tone, is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word.

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A tongue-twister is a phrase that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly, and can be used as a type of spoken (or sung) word game.

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Torlakian dialect

Torlakian, or Torlak (Torlački/Торлачки,; Торлашки, Torlashki), is a group of South Slavic dialects of southeastern Serbia, southern Kosovo (Prizren), northeastern Republic of Macedonia (Kumanovo, Kratovo and Kriva Palanka dialects), western Bulgaria (Belogradchik–Godech–Tran-Breznik), which is intermediate between Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Universal Decimal Classification

The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is a bibliographic and library classification representing the systematic arrangement of all branches of human knowledge organized as a coherent system in which knowledge fields are related and inter-linked.

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University of Oslo

The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.

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University of Sarajevo

The University of Sarajevo (Bosnian: Univerzitet u Sarajevu / Универзитет у Сарајеву) is a public university located in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Uvala (landform)

Uvala is originally a local toponym used by people in some regions in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia.

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Valun tablet

The Valun tablet (Valunska ploča) is an 11th-century bilingual (Old Croatian and Latin) and digraphic (Glagolitic and Latin) tablet, originally serving the role of a gravestone, found at the graveyard in Valun on the island of Cres.

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Vatican Croatian Prayer Book

The Vatican Croatian Prayer Book (Vatikanski hrvatski molitvenik) is the oldest Croatian vernacular prayer book and the finest example of early Shtokavian vernacular literary idiom.

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Vatroslav Jagić

Vatroslav Jagić (July 6, 1838 – August 5, 1923) was a prominent Croatian scholar of Slavic studies in the second half of the 19th century.

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Vehicle registration plate

A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.

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Vienna Literary Agreement

The Vienna Literary Agreement (Serbo-Croatian Latin: Bečki književni dogovor, Cyrillic: Бечки књижевни договор) was the result of a meeting held in March 1850, when writers from Croatia, Serbia, and one from Slovenia met to discuss the extent to which their literatures could be conjoined and united, and to standardize the Serbo-Croatian language.

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced alveolar fricative

The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.

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Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate

The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced bilabial stop

The voiced bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced dental and alveolar stops

The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced postalveolar affricate

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced postalveolar fricative

Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.

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Voiced velar stop

The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless alveolar affricate

A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless bilabial stop

The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Voiceless dental and alveolar stops

The voiceless alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Voiceless labiodental fricative

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.

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Voiceless postalveolar affricate

The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless postalveolar fricative

Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.

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Voiceless velar fricative

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless velar stop

The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vuk Karadžić

Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.

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Yat or jat (Ѣ ѣ; italics: Ѣ ѣ) is the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, as well as the name of the sound it represented.

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Yugoslav Braille

Yugoslav Braille is a family of closely related braille alphabets used for the Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, and Macedonian languages.

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Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.

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Zvonimir is a Croatian male given name, used since the Middle Ages.

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2008 Kosovo declaration of independence

The 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence was adopted on 17 February 2008 by the Assembly of Kosovo.

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53-AAA-g, BCS language, Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian, Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian language, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, Central South Slavic diasystem, Croat-Serbian, Croatian or Serbian, Croatian or Serbian language, Croatian-Bosnian-Serbo, Croatian-Serbo-Bosnian language, Croato-Serb language, Croato-Serbian language, Croato–Serb, Croato–Serb language, Croato–Serbian, Croato–Serbian language, Croat–Serbian, History of pre-standard Bosnian, History of pre-standard Croatian, History of pre-standard Serbian, History of pre-standard Serbo-Croatian, Hrvatski ili srpski, ISO 639:hbs, ISO 639:sh, List of alternative names for Serbo-Croatian, Naš jezik, Naški, SCB language, Serbian and Croatian, Serbian or Croatian language, Serbo Croatian language, Serbo croatian, Serbo-Croat language, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian language, Serbo-Croatian (language), Serbo-Croatian Language, Serbo-Croatian language, Serbo-Croatian languages, Serbo-Croatian-Bosnian language, Serbo-Croato-Slovene, Serbo-Croato-Slovene language, Serbo-Croato-Slovenian, Serbo-Croats, Serbo-croat, Serbo-croatian, Serbo-croatian language, Serbocroat, Serbocroatian, Serbocroatian language, Serbo–Croat, Serbo–Croat language, Serbo–Croatian, Serbo–Croatian language, Sprskohrvatski, Srpsko-hrvatski jezik, Srpskohrvatski, Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски, Srpskohrvatski jezik, Српскохрватски, Српскохрватски језик.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbo-Croatian

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