207 relations: Aerospace engineering, Alexey Leonov, Andrei Tupolev, Andy Duncan (writer), Arkady Ostashev, Asteroid, Astronautics, Astronomical naming conventions, Ballistic missile, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, BBC, Bolsheviks, Booster (rocketry), Boris Chertok, Boris Yeltsin, Cancer, Carpentry, Cold War, Communist party, Cossacks, Crimea, Cruise missile, Darrell D'Silva, Dmitry Ustinov, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dyfan Dwyfor, East Germany, Energia (corporation), Engineer, Execution by shooting, Explorer 3, Far side of the Moon, France, Friedrich Zander, Fritz Karl Preikschat, Gagarin: First in Space, Gallbladder, Georgy Langemak, Glider (aircraft), Gorodomlya Island, Great Purge, Greeks, Group for the Study of Reactive Motion, Gulag, Gyroscope, Hampstead Theatre, Heart arrhythmia, Helmut Gröttrup, Hemorrhoid, Henry Holt and Company, ..., Hermann Oberth, Hero of Socialist Labour, Honorary citizenship, Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, Imperial Russian Army, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Geophysical Year, Intubation, Ivan Grave, Ivan Kleymyonov, JATO, Jim Ottaviani, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kazan, Kerim Kerimov, Kevin Cannon, Kiev, Kirill Lavrov, Kolyma, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Korolev (lunar crater), Korolev (Martian crater), Korolyov, Moscow Oblast, Kremlin Wall Necropolis, Laika, Laika (comics), Lake Seliger, Large intestine, Lavochkin La-7, Lavrentiy Beria, Lenin Prize, Leonid Brezhnev, Library of Congress, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of cosmonauts, Lubyanka Building, Luna 1, Luna 2, Luna 3, Luna E-1A No.1, Mars, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematics, Maxime Faget, Medal "For Labour Valour", Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow", Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, Mikhail Filippov, Mogilev, Moon, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Mstislav Keldysh, Myocardial infarction, N1 (rocket), National Air and Space Museum, Nauka (publisher), Nazi Germany, Neoplasm, New Mexico Museum of Space History, Nick Abadzis, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Yezhov, Nizhyn, NK-33, NKVD, Nobel Prize, Nuclear weapon, Obituary, October Revolution, Odessa, Operation Osoaviakhim, Operation Paperclip, Order of Lenin, Order of the Badge of Honour, Petlyakov Pe-2, Pioneer 3, Pluton (complex), Poles, Polkovnik, Polyp (medicine), Pravda, Project Gemini, Public Service Broadcasting (band), R-1 (missile), R-2 (missile), R-5 Pobeda, R-7 Semyorka, Red Army, Rehabilitation (Soviet), Repatriation, Robert Ludvigovich Bartini, Rocket, Rona Munro, Royal Shakespeare Company, Ruble, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian state archive for scientific-technical documentation, Saint Petersburg, Scientific American, Scurvy, Sergei Khrushchev, Sharashka, Simferopol, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz programme, Space Race, Space Race (TV series), Space suit, Spaceflight, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Sputnik 3, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, Starfleet, Stargate SG-1, Stratosphere, Taming of the Fire, The Chief Designer (novella), The Observer, The Right Stuff (film), Transliteration, TsNIIMash, Tupolev TB-3, Tupolev Tu-2, Typhus, Ukraine, United Federation of Planets, United States, Urania (magazine), V-2 rocket, Valentin Glushko, Valentina Tereshkova, Van Allen radiation belt, Vasily Mishin, Venus, Vladimir Chelomey, Voskhod (rocket), Voskhod (spacecraft), Voskhod 2, Vostok (spacecraft), Vostok 5, Vostok 6, Vostok programme, Wernher von Braun, World War II, Yuri Gagarin, Zander Cannon, Zhytomyr, ZIS-110, 1855 Korolev. Expand index (157 more) » « Shrink index
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev (Андрей Николаевич Туполев; November 10, 1888 – December 23, 1972) was a pioneering Soviet aircraft designer.
Andy Duncan (born 21 September 1964) is an American science fiction and fantasy writer whose work frequently deals with Southern U.S. themes.
Arkady Ilyich Ostashev (Аркадий Ильич Осташев); September 30, 1925, village Maly Vasilyev, Noginsky District, Moscow Oblast, USSR – July 12, 1998, Moscow, Russian Federation was an engineer, Soviet, Russian scientist, participant in the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite and the first cosmonaut, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, laureate of the Lenin and state prizes of the, senior test pilot of missiles and space-rocket complexes of OKB-1, the disciple and companion of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.
In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few hundred stars and the most easily visible planets had names.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Bauman Moscow State Technical University, BMSTU (Московский государственный технический университет им.), sometimes colloquially referred to as the Bauman School or Baumanka (Ба́уманка) is a public technical university (Polytechnic) located in Moscow, Russia.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
A booster rocket (or engine) is either the first stage of a multistage launch vehicle, or else a shorter-burning rocket used in parallel with longer-burning sustainer rockets to augment the space vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability.
Boris Evseyevich Chertok (Бори́с Евсе́евич Черто́к; 1 March 1912 – 14 December 2011) was a Russian electrical engineer and the control systems designer in the Soviet Union's space program, and later the Roscosmos.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
Darrell D'Silva (born 5 January 1964 in Rotherham, West Riding of Yorkshire) is a British film and theatre actor, notable for his work with the Royal Shakespeare Company.
Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (Дмитрий Фёдорович Устинов; 30 October 1908 – 20 December 1984) was Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union from 1976 until his death.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
italic is a Welsh actor, originally from italic and now living in London.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
Execution by shooting is a method of capital punishment in which a person is shot to death by one or more firearms.
Explorer 3 (international designation 1958 Gamma) was an artificial satellite of the Earth, nearly identical to the first United States artificial satellite Explorer 1 in its design and mission.
The far side of the Moon (sometimes figuratively known as the dark side of the Moon) is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friedrich Zander (Фридрих Артурович Цандер Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander. Frīdrihs Canders, – 28 March 1933), was a Baltic German pioneer of rocketry and spaceflight in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Fritz Karl Preikschat (September 11, 1910 – September 2, 1994) was a German, later American, electrical and telecommunications engineer and inventor.
Gagarin: First in Space (Гагарин.) is a 2013 Russian docudrama biopic about the first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, and the mission of Vostok 1.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
Georgy Erikhovich Langemak (Георгий Эрихович Лангемак) (26 June (N.S. 8 July) 1898–11 January 1938) was a Soviet rocket designer of German/Swiss background.
A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.
Gorodomlya Island (остров Городомля) is located on Lake Seliger in Tver Oblast, Russia, northwest of Moscow.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Moscow-based Group for the Study of Reactive Motion was a Soviet research bureau founded in 1931 to study various aspects of rocketry (Группа изучения реактивного движения, Gruppa izucheniya reaktivnogo dvizheniya, abbreviated ГИРД, GIRD).
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
Hampstead Theatre is a theatre in South Hampstead in the London Borough of Camden.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Helmut Gröttrup (12 February 1916 – 5 July 1981) was a German engineer and rocket scientist.
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.
Henry Holt and Company is an American book publishing company based in New York City.
Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.
Hero of Socialist Labour was an honorary title of the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact countries.
Honorary citizenship is a status bestowed by a country on a foreign individual whom it considers to be especially admirable or otherwise worthy of the distinction.
The National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" (NTUU "KPI") (Національний технічний університет України «Київський політехнічний інститут імені Ігоря Сікорського») is a major university in Kiev, Ukraine.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.
Ivan Platonovich Grave (Иван Платонович Граве in Russian) (in Kazan – March 3, 1960 in Moscow) was a Russian and Soviet scientist in the field of artillery, Doctor of Technical Sciences (1939), professor (1927), member of the Academy of Artillery Sciences (1947-1953), Major General of the Engineer Corps (1942).
Ivan Terentyevich Kleymyonov (Иван Терентьевич Клеймёнов; Staraya Surava, Tambov Governorate), last name also spelled Kleymenov; April 11, 1899 - January 10, 1938, was a Soviet scientist and one of the founders of Soviet rocketry.
JATO (acronym for jet-assisted take-off), is a type of assisted take-off for helping overloaded aircraft into the air by providing additional thrust in the form of small rockets.
Jim Ottaviani is the author of several comic books about the history of science.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Lieutenant-General Kerim Aliyevich Kerimov (Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Керим Алиевич Керимов; November 14, 1917–March 29, 2003) was a Soviet engineer of Azerbaijani ethnicity, who is regarded as one of many scientists and founders in the Soviet Union's space program, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program.
Kevin Cannon is an American cartoonist and illustrator.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kirill Yuryevich Lavrov (Кири́лл Ю́рьевич Лавро́в; 15 September 1925 – 27 April 2007) was a well-known Soviet and Russian film and theatre actor and director.
Kolyma (Колыма́) is a region located in the Russian Far East.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
Korolev is a large lunar impact crater of the walled plain or basin type, named for Soviet rocket engineer Sergey Korolyov.
Korolev is a crater in the Mare Boreum quadrangle of Mars, located at 73° north latitude and 195.5° west longitude.
Korolyov or Korolev (p) is an industrial city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, well known as the cradle of Soviet and Russian space exploration.
Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves at Red Square.
Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.
Laika is a graphic novel by Nick Abadzis that gives a fictionalized account of the life and death of the eponymous dog, the first living creature launched in orbital spaceflight.
Seliger (p) is a lake in Ostashkovsky District of Tver Oblast and, in the extreme northern part, in Demyansky District of Novgorod Oblast of Russia, in the northwest of the Valdai Hills, a part of the Volga basin.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
The Lavochkin La-7 (Лавочкин Ла-7) was a piston-engined Soviet fighter developed during World War II by the Lavochkin Design Bureau (OKB).
Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (p; tr,; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician, Marshal of the Soviet Union and state security administrator, chief of the Soviet security and secret police apparatus (NKVD) under Joseph Stalin during World War II, and promoted to deputy premier under Stalin from 1941.
The Lenin Prize (Ленинская премия, Leninskaya premiya) is one of the awards re-introduced in April 2018 in the Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, presented to individuals for accomplishments relating to science, literature, arts, architecture, and technology.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
Lubyanka (p) is the popular name for the headquarters of the FSB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Meshchansky District of Moscow, Russia.
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme.
Luna E-1A No.1 or E-1 No.5, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1959A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was lost in a launch failure in 1959.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maxime Allen "Max" Faget (pronounced fah-ZHAY; August 26, 1921 – October 10, 2004) was a Belizean-born American mechanical engineer.
The Medal "For Labour Valour" (Медаль «За трудовую доблесть») was a civilian labour award of the Soviet Union bestowed to especially deserving workers to recognise and honour dedicated and valorous labour or significant contributions in the fields of science, culture or the manufacturing industry.
The Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow" (Медаль «В память 800-летия Москвы») was a state commemorative medal of the Soviet Union established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on September 20, 1947 and bestowed to prominent Soviet citizens and veterans in commemoration of the 800th anniversary of the first Russian reference to Moscow, dating to 1147 when Yuri Dolgorukiy called upon the prince of the Novgorod-Severski to "come to me, brother, to Moscow".
Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater is an action-adventure stealth video game produced by Konami Computer Entertainment Japan for the PlayStation 2.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Filippov (Михаил Михайлович Филиппов; born 10 June 1992) is a Russian professional football player.
Mogilev (or Mahilyow; Магілёў,; Łacinka: Mahiloŭ; Могилёв,; מאָליעוו, Molyev) is a city in eastern Belarus, about from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh (Мстисла́в Все́володович Ке́лдыш; – 24 June 1978) was a Soviet scientist in the field of mathematics and mechanics, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1946), President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1961–1975), three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1956, 1961, 1971), fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1968).
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
The New Mexico Museum of Space History is a museum and planetarium complex in Alamogordo, New Mexico, dedicated to artifacts and displays related to space flight and the space age.
Nick Abadzis (born 1965) is a British writer and artist of comic books.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin who was head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, during the most active period of the Great Purge. Having presided over mass arrests and executions during the Great Purge, Yezhov eventually fell from Stalin's favour and power. He was arrested, confessed to a range of anti-Soviet activity, later claiming he was tortured into making these confessions, and was executed in 1940. By the beginning of World War II, his status within the Soviet Union had become that of enemy of the people.
Nížyn (Ні́жин,, Не́жин, Nezhin, Nieżyn) is a city located in Chernihiv Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine, along the Oster River, north-east of the nation's capital, Kiev.
The NK-33 and NK-43 are rocket engines designed and built in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
An obituary (obit for short) is a news article that reports the recent death of a person, typically along with an account of the person's life and information about the upcoming funeral.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
Operation Osoaviakhim was a Soviet operation which took place on 22 October 1946, with NKVD and Soviet army units forcibly (at gunpoint) recruiting more than 2,200 German specialists - a total of more than 6,000 people including family members - from the Soviet occupation zone of post-World War II Germany for employment in the Soviet Union.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
The Order of Lenin (Orden Lenina), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930.
The Order of the Badge of Honour (Орден «Знак Почёта») was a civilian award of the Soviet Union.
The Petlyakov Pe-2 (Петляков Пе-2) was a Soviet light bomber used during World War II.
Pioneer 3 was a spin stabilized spacecraft launched at 05:45:12 UTC on 6 December 1958 by the U.S. Army Ballistic Missile Agency in conjunction with the NASA, using a Juno II rocket.
Pluton (at 1980ss – Pluton-M) is a system of deep space communications and planetary radar in Crimea.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polkovnik (lit) is a military rank in Slavic countries and countries in the former Soviet Union mostly which corresponds to a colonel in English-speaking states, and oberst in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Public Service Broadcasting are a London-based pseudonymous musical group consisting of J. Willgoose, Esq.
The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner, Soviet code name SA11, GRAU index 8A11) was a short-range ballistic missile manufactured in the Soviet Union based on the German V-2 rocket.
R-2 The R-2 Short-range ballistic missile (NATO reporting name SS-2 Sibling, GRAU index 8Zh38) was developed based on the R-1 design.
The R-5 Pobeda (Побе́да, "Victory") was a theatre ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Rehabilitation (реабилитация, transliterated in English as reabilitatsiya or academically rendered as reabilitacija) was a term used in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states.
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.
Robert Ludvigovich Bartini (Роберт Людвигович Бартин; 14 May 1897 – 6 December 1974) was an Italian-born Soviet aircraft designer and scientist, involved in the development of numerous successful and experimental aircraft projects.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rona Munro (born 7 September 1959) is a Scottish writer.
The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russian state archive for scientific-technical documentation (RGANTD) created by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 9 June 1995, on the basis of the Russian research center for space documentation (RNITSKD)in Moscow and the Russian state scientific and technical archives (RGNF) in Samara.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Sergei Nikitich Khrushchev (Серге́й Ники́тич Хрущёв, born July 2, 1935) is the son of former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
The Experimental Design Bureau (Opytnoe konstruktorskoe bûro; ОКБ), commonly known as sharashka (шара́шка,; sometimes sharaga, sharazhka) was an informal name for secret research and development laboratories in the Soviet Gulag labor camp system.
Simferopol (p; Сімферополь,; Aqmescit, Акъмесджит) is a city on the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is the capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation but, de jure, is the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
Space Race is a BBC docudrama series first shown in Britain on BBC2 between 14 September and 5 October 2005, chronicling the major events and characters in the American/Soviet space race up to the first landing of a man on the moon.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
Sputnik 3 (Спутник-3, Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur Cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM.
Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country is a 1991 American science fiction film released by Paramount Pictures.
Starfleet is a fictional organization in the Star Trek media franchise.
Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a Canadian-American military science fiction adventure television series and part of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's ''Stargate'' franchise.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Taming of the fire (Ukroshcheniye ognya) is a 1972 film, directed by Daniil Khrabrovitsky and starring Kirill Lavrov.
"The Chief Designer" is a science fiction novella published in 2001 by Andy Duncan.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Right Stuff is a 1983 American epic historical drama film.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
TsNIIMash (ЦНИИмаш) is a Russian rocket and spacecraft scientific center, dealing with all phases of development from conceptual design to flight test.
The Tupolev TB-3 (Тяжёлый Бомбардировщик, Tyazholy Bombardirovschik, Heavy Bomber, civilian designation ANT-6) was a heavy bomber aircraft which was deployed by the Soviet Air Force in the 1930s and during World War II.
The Tupolev Tu-2 (development names ANT-58 and 103; NATO reporting name Bat) was a twin-engine Soviet high-speed daylight and frontline (SDB and FB) bomber aircraft of World War II vintage.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Federation of Planets (UFP), usually referred to as the Federation, is a fictional interstellar federal republic in the Star Trek science fiction franchise, composed of numerous planetary sovereignties.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urania is an Italian science fiction magazine published by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore since 10 October 1952.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (a; born 6 March 1937) is a retired Russian cosmonaut, engineer, and politician.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (Василий Павлович Мишин) (January 18, 1917 – October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer, best remembered for the failures in the Soviet Space program that took place under his leadership.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
The Voskhod rocket (Восход, "ascent", "dawn") was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for launching Zenit reconnaissance satellites.
The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
Voskhod 2 (Sunrise-2) was a Soviet manned space mission in March 1965.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.
Vostok 5 (Восток-5, Orient 5 or East 5) was a joint mission of the Soviet space program together with Vostok 6; as with the previous pair of Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 the two Vostok spacecraft came close to one another in orbit and established a radio link.
Vostok 6 (Восток-6, Orient 6 or East 6) was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Alexander "Zander" Cannon (born November 1, 1972) is an American cartoonist, known for his work on books such as Top 10, Smax and Kaijumax.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
ZIS-110 was a limousine from ZIL introduced in 1946.
1855 Korolev, provisional designation, is a stony Flora asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 7 kilometers in diameter.
Chief Designer, Korolyov, Sergei Pavlovich, S. Korolyov, S. P. Korolev, Sergei Koroliov, Sergei Korolyov, Sergei Korolëv, Sergei P. Korolëv, Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, Sergei Pavlovich Korolov, Sergei Pavlovich Korolyev, Sergei Pavlovich Korolyov, Sergei Pavlovich Korolëv, Sergej Korolev, Sergej Koroljov, Sergey Korolev, Sergey Korolyov, Sergey P. Korolev, Sergey Pavlovich Korolev, Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Serhii Korol'ov, Serhii Koroliov, Serhiy Korolov, Serhiy Pavlovych Korolov, Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov, The Chief Designer, Королёв, С.П., Серге́й Па́влович Королёв, Сергі́й Па́влович Корольо́в.