76 relations: Acetylcholinesterase, Agonist, Alzheimer's disease, Amine, Amino acid, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Aspartic acid, Biosynthesis, Carboxylic acid, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical polarity, Cholinesterase, Chymotrypsin, Cysteine, Deprotonation, Diabetes mellitus, Enantiomer, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Essential amino acid, Eukaryote, Folate, Genetic code, Glutamic acid, Glycine, Glycine cleavage system, Glycolysis, Glycosylation, Hydroxy group, Insecticide, International Working Group on Neurotransmitter Related Disorders, Isoserine, Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, Kinase, Latin, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methyl acrylate, Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Nerve agent, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NMDA receptor, Organic Syntheses, Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid, Phosphorylation, Phosphoserine, Phosphoserine phosphatase, Phosphoserine transaminase, Proteinogenic amino acid, ..., Protonation, Purine, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyrimidine, Redox, Reductive amination, Sarcosine, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, Serine octamer cluster, Serine protease, Serine racemase, Side chain, Signal transduction, Silk, Sphingolipid, ST motif, ST staple, ST turn, Stereoisomerism, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Trypsin, Tryptophan, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Umami, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid, 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 22.214.171.124) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
In biochemistry, a cholinesterase or choline esterase is an esterase that lyses choline-based esters, several of which serve as neurotransmitters.
Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The glycine cleavage system (GCS) is also known as the glycine decarboxylase complex or GDC.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The International Working Group on Neurotransmitter Related Disorders is an international collaboration of researchers studying neurotransmitter disorders.
Isoserine is a non-proteinogenic α-hydroxy-β-amino acid, and an isomer of serine.
The Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering inherited metabolic disorders.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methyl acrylate is an organic compound, more accurately the methyl ester of acrylic acid.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Academic Press.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Organic Syntheses is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1921.
In enzymology, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is an enzyme that primarily catalyzes the chemical reactions Thus, in the first case, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-phospho-D-glycerate and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate, NADH, and H+; in the second case, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2-hydroxyglutarate and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, and H+.
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid is an intermediate in the synthesis of serine.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Phosphoserine (abbreviated as SEP or J) is an ester of serine and phosphoric acid.
In enzymology, a phosphoserine phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are O-phospho-L-serine, O-phospho-D-serine, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are L-serine, D-serine, and phosphate.
Phosphoserine transaminase (PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with systematic name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reductive amination (also known as reductive alkylation) is a form of amination that involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine.
Sarcosine, also known as N-methylglycine, is an intermediate and byproduct in glycine synthesis and degradation.
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) (Vitamin B6) dependent enzyme which plays an important role in cellular one-carbon pathways by catalyzing the reversible, simultaneous conversions of L-serine to glycine and tetrahydrofolate (THF) to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (5,10-CH2-THF).
The Serine octamer cluster in physical chemistry is an unusually stable cluster consisting of eight serine molecules (Ser) implicated in the origin of homochirality.
Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site.
Serine racemase is an enzyme which generates D-serine from L-serine.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
The ST motif is a commonly occurring feature in proteins and polypeptides.
The ST staple is a common four- or five-amino acid residue motif in proteins and polypeptides with serine or threonine as the C-terminal residue.
The ST turn is a structural feature in proteins and polypeptides.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.
Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate (N5,N10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-CH2-THF) is the substrate used by the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) to generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, or levomefolic acid).