238 relations: Adenylyl cyclase, Adrenaline, Aggression, Agonist, Aldehyde, Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Amine, Amine oxide, Amino acid, Aminorex, Ammonia, Anadenanthera, Anadenanthera peregrina, Antidepressant, Antiemetic, Antipsychotic, Anxiogenic, Anxiolytic, Appetite, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, Arthropod, Aspergillus niger, Banana, Beta cell, Betty Twarog, Bilateria, Biosynthesis, Blood plasma, Blood sugar level, Blood–brain barrier, Brainstem, Cabergoline, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cancer, Cardiac fibrosis, Caridoid escape reaction, Central nervous system, Cerebellum, Chemical synapse, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chemotherapy, Chlorphentermine, Circadian rhythm, Cleveland Clinic, Cocaine, Cooking banana, Cough medicine, Crayfish, Cuticle, Cytochrome P450, ..., Dauer larva, Debye, Decarboxylation, Deconica coprophila, Dendrite, Dextromethorphan, Dietary supplement, Dominance (ethology), Dominance hierarchy, Dopamine, Drosophila melanogaster, Drug, Drug overdose, Empathogen–entactogen, Endogeny (biology), Endothelium, Entamoeba histolytica, Enteric nervous system, Enterochromaffin cell, Enzyme, Ergotamine, Exocytosis, Fenfluramine, Fight-or-flight response, Fluoxetine, Food and Drug Administration, Fruit, Fungus, G protein–coupled receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Generalized anxiety disorder, Gestation, Gi alpha subunit, Gq alpha subunit, Granisetron, Growth factor, Gs alpha subunit, GTPase, Hallucinogen, Happiness, Hemostasis, Hepatic portal system, Hickory, Hippocampus, Hornet, Human body, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hypertensive emergency, IC50, Indolamines, Indole, Insulin, Insulin-like growth factor, Intracellular, Invertebrate, Ion channel, Irvine Page, Kiwifruit, Knockout mouse, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Lisuride, Lobster, Locus coeruleus, Lumen (anatomy), Lysergic acid diethylamide, Macaque, Major depressive disorder, Maurice M. Rapport, MDMA, Medulla oblongata, Mescaline, Metabolic pathway, Metabolite, Methylation, Methysergide, Metitepine, Mianserin, Midbrain, Migraine, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase A, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine transporter, Mood (psychology), Motivational salience, Muscle tone, Mushroom, N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, Nausea, Neoplasm, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Nitric oxide synthase, Norepinephrine, Octopamine (neurotransmitter), Ondansetron, Osteoblast, Osteocyte, Osteopenia, Panaeolus, Pancreas, Pergolide, Phospholipase C, Pineapple, Plant, Plasma membrane monoamine transporter, Platelet, Plum, Pons, Prefrontal cortex, Protein Data Bank, Protein isoform, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychedelic drug, Pyridoxal phosphate, Quorum sensing, Radiation therapy, Raphe nuclei, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Reticular formation, Retroperitoneal fibrosis, Reuptake, Scientific American, Scorpion, Second messenger system, Seed, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonergic, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Sertraline, Sleep, Social anxiety disorder, Spinal cord, Swarm behaviour, TGF beta signaling pathway, The New England Journal of Medicine, Tissue (biology), Tomato, TPH1, TPH2, Tricyclic antidepressant, Tropisetron, Tryptamine, Tryptophan, Tryptophan hydroxylase, Tyramine, University of Bristol, University of Washington, Urine, Urtica dioica, Valvular heart disease, Vasoconstriction, Vegetable, Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Vertebrate, Vittorio Erspamer, Vomiting, Walnut, Wasp, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1 receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT1E receptor, 5-HT1F receptor, 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT2C receptor agonist, 5-HT3 antagonist, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT4 receptor, 5-HT5A receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor, 5-HTTLPR, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-Hydroxytryptophan. Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of aldehydes.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An amine oxide, also known as amine-N-oxide and N-oxide, is a chemical compound that contains the functional group R3N+−O−, an N−O coordinate covalent bond with three additional hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon side chains attached to N. Sometimes it is written as R3N→O or, wrongly, as R3N.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Aminorex (Menocil, Apiquel, aminoxaphen, aminoxafen, McN-742) is a weight loss (anorectic) stimulant drug.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anadenanthera is a genus of South American trees in the Legume family, Fabaceae.
Anadenanthera peregrina, also known as yopo, jopo, cohoba, parica or calcium tree, is a perennial tree of the genus Anadenanthera native to the Caribbean and South America.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
An anxiogenic or panicogenic substance is one that causes anxiety.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC or AAAD), also known as DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), tryptophan decarboxylase, and 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase, is a lyase enzyme.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Betty Mack Twarog (August 28, 1927 – February 6, 2013) was an American biochemist who was the first to find serotonin in mammalian brain.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and others), an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiac fibrosis may refer to an abnormal thickening of the heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts but more commonly refers to the excess deposition of extracellular matrix in the cardiac muscle.
The caridoid escape reaction, also known as lobstering or tail-flipping, refers to an innate escape mechanism in marine and freshwater crustaceans such as lobsters, krill, shrimp and crayfish.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a serotonergic appetite suppressant of the amphetamine family.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, that is owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Crayfish, also known as crawfish, crawdads, crawldads, freshwater lobsters, mountain lobsters, mudbugs or yabbies, are freshwater crustaceans resembling small lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the superfamilies Astacoidea and Parastacoidea.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Dauer (German "die dauer", "the enduring", from A.G. Fuchs (1937) Neue parasitische und halbparasitischa Nematoden bei Borkenkäfern und einige andere Nematoden) describes an alternative developmental stage of nematode worms, particularly rhabditids including Caenorhabditis elegans, whereby the larva goes into a type of stasis and can survive harsh conditions.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
Deconica coprophila, commonly known as the dung-loving Psilocybe, is a species of mushroom in the Strophariaceae family.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dominance in ethology is an "individual's preferential access to resources over another." Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to one or more other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals.
Dominance hierarchy is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of a social group interact, often aggressively, to create a ranking system.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Empathogens or entactogens are a class of psychoactive drugs that produce experiences of emotional communion, oneness, relatedness, emotional openness—that is, empathy or sympathy—as particularly observed and reported for experiences with 3,4- Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells (also known as Kulchitsky cells), discovered by Nikolai Kulchitsky of Karazin Kharkiv National University.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
Fenfluramine, formerly sold under the brand name Pondimin among others, is an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity and is now no longer marketed.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy.
A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
In psychology, happiness is a mental or emotional state of well-being which can be defined by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.
Hemostasis or haemostasis is a process which causes bleeding to stop, meaning to keep blood within a damaged blood vessel (the opposite of hemostasis is hemorrhage).
In human anatomy, the hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries.
Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus Carya (κάρυον, káryon, meaning "nut").
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hornets (insects in the genera Vespa and Provespa) are the largest of the eusocial wasps, and are similar in appearance to their close relatives yellowjackets.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a measure of the potency of a substance in inhibiting a specific biological or biochemical function.
Indolamines are a family of neurotransmitters that share a common molecular structure (namely, indolamine).
Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Irvine Heinly Page (January 7, 1901 – June 10, 1991) was born in Indianapolis, Indiana and was an American physiologist who played an important part in the field of hypertension for almost 60 years while working at the Cleveland Clinic as the first Chair of Research.
Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lisuride, sold under the brand names Dopergin, Proclacam, and Revanil, is an antiparkinson agent of the iso-ergoline class, chemically related to the dopaminergic ergoline Parkinson's drugs.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Maurice Rapport (23 September 1919 – 18 August 2011) was a biochemist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter serotonin.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Methysergide (1-methyl-D-lysergic acid butanolamide or UML-491) also known as methysergide maleate, is an ergot derived prescription drug used for the prophylaxis of difficult to treat migraine and cluster headaches.
Metitepine (developmental code names Ro 8-6837 (maleate), VUFB-6276 (mesylate)), also known as methiothepin, is a drug described as a "psychotropic agent" of the tricyclic group which was never marketed.
Mianserin, sold under the brand name Tolvon among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used in the treatment of depression in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase A, also known as MAO-A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAOA gene.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Motivational salience is a cognitive process and a form of attention that motivates, or propels, an individual's behavior towards or away from a particular object, perceived event, or outcome.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a tryptamine molecule which occurs in many plants and animals.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Octopamine is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine, and synthesized biologically by a homologous pathway.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Osteoblasts (from the Greek combining forms for "bone", ὀστέο-, osteo- and βλαστάνω, blastanō "germinate") are cells with a single nucleus that synthesize bone.
An osteocyte, a star-shaped type of bone cell, is the most commonly found cell in mature bone tissue, and can live as long as the organism itself.
Osteopenia is a condition in which bone mineral density is lower than normal.
Panaeolus is a genus of small, black-spored, saprotrophic agarics.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pergolide (trade names Permax, Prascend) is an ergoline-based dopamine receptor agonist used in some countries for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD).
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
The plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a low-affinity monoamine transporter protein which in humans is encoded by the SLC29A4 gene.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
In biology, quorum sensing is the ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
The raphe nuclei (ῥαφή "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract, and various other structures.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by entities, particularly animals, of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction.
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) is an isoenzyme of tryptophan hydroxylase which in humans is encoded by the TPH1 gene.
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is an isozyme of tryptophan hydroxylase found in vertebrates.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia.
Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
The University of Bristol (simply referred to as Bristol University and abbreviated as Bris. in post-nominal letters, or UoB) is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Urtica dioica, often called common nettle, stinging nettle (although not all plants of this species sting) or nettle leaf, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae.
Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the four valves of the heart (the aortic and bicuspid valves on the left side of heart and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of heart. These conditions occur largely as a consequence of aging,Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano. Lancet. 2006 Sep;368(9540):1005-11. but may also be the result of congenital (inborn) abnormalities or specific disease or physiologic processes including rheumatic heart disease and pregnancy. Anatomically, the valves are part of the dense connective tissue of the heart known as the cardiac skeleton and are responsible for the regulation of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. Valve failure or dysfunction can result in diminished heart functionality, though the particular consequences are dependent on the type and severity of valvular disease. Treatment of damaged valves may involve medication alone, but often involves surgical valve repair (valvuloplasty) or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve).
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vittorio Erspamer (30 July 1909 – 25 October 1999) was an Italian pharmacologist and chemist, known for the identification, synthesis and pharmacological studies of more than sixty new chemical compounds, most notably serotonin and octopamine.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The 5-HT1 receptors are a subfamily of the 5-HT serotonin receptors that bind to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT).
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 1E receptor (5-HT1E) is a highly expressed human G-protein coupled receptor that belongs to the 5-HT1 receptor family (Gi-coupled serotonin receptor).
5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1F, also known as HTR1F is a 5-HT1 receptor protein and also denotes the human gene encoding it.
The 5-HT2 receptors are a subfamily of 5-HT receptors that bind the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.
The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
Serotonin 5-HT2 receptors are stimulated by monoamine neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.
The 5-HT3 antagonists, informally known as "setrons", are a class of drugs that act as receptor antagonists at the 5-HT3 receptor, a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and in certain areas of the brain.
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR4 gene.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.
The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter.
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
5 hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, 5-HydroxyTryptamine, 5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-ht, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT, Enteramine, Hydroxyindolacetic acid, Seratonin, Seretonin, Seritonin, Serotonergic system, Serotonin agents, Serotonin and aging, Serotonin synthesis, Serotonine, Sertonin.