182 relations: Activated carbon, Active cooling, Adrenaline, Agonist, Akathisia, American Journal of Psychiatry, Amfepramone, Amphetamine, Anticholinergic, Antidepressant, Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, Antihypertensive drug, Antipsychotic, Antipyretic, Anxiety disorder, Atypical antipsychotic, Autonomic nervous system, Ayahuasca, Bennington College, Benzodiazepine, Blood pressure, Bromocriptine, Buprenorphine, Buspirone, Carcinoid syndrome, Central nervous system, Chlorphenamine, Chlorpromazine, Clinical trial, Clonus, Cocaine, Cognition, Coma, Confusion, Cyproheptadine, Delirium, Dextromethorphan, Dextropropoxyphene, Diarrhea, Dietary supplement, Differential diagnosis, Disease, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor, Drug overdose, Epileptic seizure, Esmolol, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Fentanyl, ..., Food and Drug Administration, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, General practitioner, Granisetron, Half-life, Hallucination, Hallucinogen, Headache, Heat stroke, Herb, Hydrocodone, Hypericum perforatum, Hyperkinesia, Hyperreflexia, Hypertension, Hyperthermia, Hypervigilance, Hypokinesia, Hypomania, Hypothalamus, In utero, Insomnia, Intensive care medicine, Intubation, Kidney failure, L-DOPA, Lactic acidosis, Libby Zion Law, Linezolid, Lisdexamfetamine, Lithium (medication), Lysergic acid diethylamide, Malignant hyperthermia, MDMA, Mechanism of action, Medical resident work hours, Medical restraint, Meningitis, Mental status examination, Metabolic acidosis, Metaxalone, Methamphetamine, Methylphenidate, Metoclopramide, Mirtazapine, Monoamine oxidase, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Mucous membrane, Muscle contraction, Myalgia, Mydriasis, Myoclonus, Nasogastric intubation, Nausea, Nefazodone, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neurological disorder, Neurotransmitter, New York (state), NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital, NMDA receptor, Norepinephrine, Nutmeg, Olanzapine, Ondansetron, Opioid, Oral rehydration therapy, Orientation (mental), Over-the-counter drug, Oxycodone, Panax ginseng, Pausinystalia johimbe, Peganum harmala, Pentazocine, Periaqueductal gray, Perspiration, Pethidine, Pharmacodynamics, Phenelzine, Phentermine, Phenylephrine, Physical examination, Poisoning, Postmarketing surveillance, Propranolol, Psychedelic drug, Psychiatry, Psychomotor agitation, Rhabdomyolysis, Risperidone, Ritonavir, Sedation, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sensitivity and specificity, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin receptor agonist, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Serotonin releasing agent, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Shivering, Shock (circulatory), Sibutramine, Sodium nitroprusside, Somatic nervous system, Stimulant, Stretch reflex, Substituted amphetamine, Suxamethonium chloride, Sympathomimetic drug, Tachycardia, The New England Journal of Medicine, The New York Times, Thermoregulation, Tramadol, Trazodone, Tremor, Tricyclic antidepressant, Triptan, Tryptophan, Tyramine, University of California, Los Angeles, Upper limb, Valproate, Vasoconstriction, Vecuronium bromide, Virus, 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-Hydroxytryptophan, 5-Methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine. Expand index (132 more) » « Shrink index
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
An active cooling system is one that involves the use of energy to cool something, as opposed to passive cooling that uses no energy.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.
The American Journal of Psychiatry is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of psychiatry and the official journal of the American Psychiatric Association.
Amfepramone is a stimulant drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone classes that is used as an appetite suppressant.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is a condition that can occur following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
Bennington College is a private, nonsectarian liberal arts college in Bennington, Vermont.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bromocriptine (originally marketed as Parlodel, subsequently under many names) is an ergoline derivative, is a dopamine agonist that is used in the treatment of pituitary tumors, Parkinson's disease (PD), hyperprolactinaemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Carcinoid syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising the signs and symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Esmolol (trade name Brevibloc) is a cardioselective beta1 receptor blocker with rapid onset, a very short duration of action, and no significant intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilising activity at therapeutic dosages.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
Granisetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hyperkinesia, also known as hyperkinesis, refers to an increase in muscular activity that can result in excessive abnormal movements, excessive normal movements, or a combination of both.
Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect activity.
Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.
Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream.
New York State Department of Health Code, Section 405, also known as the Libby Zion Law, is a regulation that limits the amount of resident physicians' work in New York State hospitals to roughly 80 hours per week.
Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-'''lys'''ine-'''dex'''tro'''amphetamine''') is a substituted amphetamine and an inactive prodrug of the central nervous system (CNS) stimulant dextroamphetamine that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
Medical resident work hours refers to the (often lengthy) shifts worked by medical interns and residents during their medical residency.
Medical restraints are physical restraints used during certain medical procedures to restrain patients with the minimum of discomfort and pain and to prevent them from injuring themselves or others.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.
Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.
Metaxalone (marketed by King Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Skelaxin) is a muscle relaxant used to relax muscles and relieve pain caused by strains, sprains, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
L-Monoamine oxidases (MAO) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of monoamines.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital is a nonprofit university hospital in New York City affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
Orientation is a function of the mind involving awareness of three dimensions: time, place and person.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Panax ginseng, the ginseng, also known as Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, or Korean ginseng, is a species of plant whose root is the original source of ginseng.
Pausinystalia johimbe, (Rubiaceae), common name Yohimbe, is a plant species native to western and central Africa (Nigeria, Cabinda, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea).
Peganum harmala, commonly called esfand, wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, harmel, or aspand (among other similar pronunciations and spellings), is a plant of the family Nitrariaceae.
Pentazocine, sold under the brand name Talwin among others, is a painkiller used to treat moderate to severe pain.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Phentermine (contracted from phenyl-tertiary-butylamine), also known as α,α-dimethylphenethylamine, is a psychostimulant drug of the substituted amphetamine chemical class, with pharmacology similar to amphetamine.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Poisoning is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely (poisoned) by a toxic substance or venom of an animal.
Postmarketing surveillance (PMS) (also post market surveillance) is the practice of monitoring the safety of a pharmaceutical drug or medical device after it has been released on the market and is an important part of the science of pharmacovigilance.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors.
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.
The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
The stretch reflex (myotatic reflex) is a muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Suxamethonium chloride, also known as suxamethonium or succinylcholine, is a medication used to cause short-term paralysis as part of general anesthesia.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vecuronium bromide, sold under the brand name Norcuron among others, is a medication used as part of general anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DiPT), sometimes called "Foxy", is a psychedelic tryptamine.
5-HT syndrome, Hyperserotonemia, Seratonin Syndrome, Seratonin syndrome, Serotonergic syndrome, Serotonin Syndrome, Serotonin storm, Serotonin syndrome crisis, Serotonin toxicity, Serotonin toxidrome.