153 relations: Aleksei Chaly, Alexander Suvorov, Anatoliy Zlenko, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Armenians, Asteroid, Augustus, Augustus (title), Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Azerbaijanis, Balaklava, Battle of Malakoff, Belarusians, Belgorod, Black Sea, Black Sea Fleet, Boris Yeltsin, Bosporan Kingdom, Building of the Supreme Council of Crimea, Catherine the Great, Chersonesus, China, Chornaya River (Crimea), Chornomornaftogaz, City with special status, Closed city, Commonwealth of Independent States, Congress of People's Deputies of Russia, Crimea, Crimean Federal District, Crimean Khanate, Crimean Mountains, Crimean Oblast, Crimean status referendum, 2014, Crimean Tatars, Crimean War, De facto, Dmitry Ovsyannikov, Dolphin, Economic sector, Etymology, Federal Assembly (Russia), Federal cities of Russia, Federal subjects of Russia, France, Franz Roubaud, Fyodor Ushakov, Golden Horde, Goths, Governor of Sevastopol (Russia), ..., Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Grigory Potemkin, Harbor, Heraclea Pontica, Heracles Peninsula, Hero City, History of Crimea, Holocene, Humid subtropical climate, Hydrography, Imperial Russian Navy, Interfax, International reactions to the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Jews, Joint resolution, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Karl-Gerät, Köppen climate classification, Kharkiv, Kharkiv Pact, Kiev, Kyiv Post, Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol, Lighthouse, List of Augustae, List of sovereign states, Marine biology, Maxim Gorky, Maxim Gorky Fortresses, Moldovans, Moscow, Moscow Time, Mount Sapun, Naval base, Naval museum complex Balaklava, Nikita Khrushchev, Oceanic climate, Ottoman Empire, Panorama, Party of Regions, Paul I of Russia, People's Deputy of Ukraine, Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Plastic, Population pyramid, Port, Port of Sevastopol, Poti, President of Russia, President of Ukraine, Railway gun, Red Army, Republic of Crimea, Ria, Russia, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty, Russians, Saint Petersburg, Sardinia, Schwerer Gustav, Scottish people, Seaside resort, Sebastopol, Victoria, Sebastos, Sevastopol Bay, Sevastopol City Council, Sevastopol International Airport, Sevastopol Shipyard, Sevastopol Zoo, Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55), Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42), Soviet Union, St. Vladimir's Cathedral, Sevastopol, State Duma, Supreme Soviet of Russia, Tamara Smirnova, Tatars, Tauri, The Economist, The New York Times, Theoderic the Great, Thomas MacKenzie (Russian admiral), Tourism, Ukraine, Ukrainian Census (2001), Ukrainian Navy, Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainians, Ukrainization, United Kingdom, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262, United Nations Security Council, Vehicle registration plate, Verkhovna Rada, Verkhovna Rada of Crimea, Volgograd, World War II, Yad Vashem, 2121 Sevastopol. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
Aleksei Mikhailovich Chaly (Алексей Михайлович Чалый; born 13 June 1961) is a businessman and formerly de facto mayor of Sevastopol.
Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, r Aleksandr Vasil‘evich Suvorov; or 1730 –) was a Russian military leader, considered a national hero.
Anatoly Maksimovich Zlenko (born June 2, 1938) is a Ukrainian diplomat.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети, Ҡырым Мухтар Җумхуриети) was an autonomous republic of Ukraine, encompassing most of Crimea, that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Balaklava (Балаклáва, Балаклáва, Balıqlava, Σύμβολον) is a former city on the Crimean Peninsula and part of the city of Sevastopol.
The Battle of Malakoff was a major battle during the Crimean War, fought between French-British forces against Russia on 8 September 1855 as a part of the Siege of Sevastopol.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
Belgorod (p) is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Seversky Donets River north of the border with Ukraine.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).
The building of the Supreme Council of Crimea houses the State Council, Crimea's parliament.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chorna, Chornaya or Chorhun River (Chorna), which translates from the Ukrainian and Russian as "Black River", is a small river in Crimea.
Chornomornaftogaz (also: Chernomorneftegaz, Чорноморнафтогаз, Черноморнефтегаз, lit. "Black Sea oil and gas") is an oil and gas company located along Krymgazseti in Simferopol, Crimea.
City with special status (місто зі спеціальним статусом) (formerly, "city of republican subordinance") refers to two of Ukraine's 27 administrative regions, which are the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol.
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR (Съезд народных депутатов РСФСР) and since 1991 Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation (Съезд народных депутатов Российской Федерации) was the supreme government institution in the Russian SFSR and in the Russian Federation from 16 May 1990 to 21 September 1993.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Federal District (Кры́мский федера́льный о́круг) was a federal district of Russia.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The Crimean Mountains (translit. Krymski hory; Крымские горы, translit. Krymskie gory; Qırım dağları) are a range of mountains running parallel to the south-eastern coast of Crimea, between about 8–13 kilometers (5–8 miles) from the sea.
The Crimean Oblast (Кримська область, Kryms'ka oblast'; Крымская область, Krymskaya oblast'; Qırım vilâyeti) was an oblast (province) of the former Russian SFSR (1945–1954) and Ukrainian SSR (1954–1991) within the Soviet Union.
A controversial referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by the local government of Sevastopol (both subdivisions of Ukraine).
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dmitry Vladimirovich Ovsyannikov (Russian: Дмитрий Владимирович Овсянников; born in 21 February 1977), is a Russian politician, and the Governor of Sevastopol as of 18 September 2017.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
One classical breakdown of economic activity distinguishes three sectors.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franz Alekseyevich Roubaud (Франц Алексеевич Рубо) was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings.
Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov (p; &ndash) was the most illustrious Russian naval commander and admiral of the 18th century.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Governor of the City of Sevastopol (In Russian: Губернатор города Севастополя; In Ukrainian: Губернатор міста Севастополя) is head of the executive branch of the political system in the city of Sevastopol.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
Prince Grigory Aleksandrovich Potemkin-Tavricheski (Григо́рий Алекса́ндрович Потёмкин-Таври́ческий; r Grigoriy Aleksandrovich Potyomkin-Tavricheskiy; A number of dates as late as 1742 have been found on record; the veracity of any one is unlikely to be proved. This is his "official" birth-date as given on his tombstone. –) was a Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favourite of Catherine the Great.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
__notoc__ Heraclea Pontica (Ἡράκλεια Ποντική Hērakleia Pontikē) was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus.
Heracles Peninsula (Гераклійський півострів, Гераклейский полуостров) is a triangular headland in Black Sea at the southwestern portion of Crimea.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris (Ταυρική), Taurica, and the Tauric Chersonese (Χερσόνησος Ταυρική, "Tauric Peninsula"), begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.
International reactions to the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation have almost always been condemnatory of Russia's decision to intervene, supportive of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, while also supportive of finding a quick end to the crisis.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires approval by the Senate and the House and is presented to the president for his approval or disapproval.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
"Karl-Gerät" (040/041) (German literally "Karl-device"), also known as Mörser Karl, was a World War II German self-propelled siege mortar (Mörser) designed and built by Rheinmetall.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
The Agreement between Ukraine and Russia on the Black Sea Fleet in Ukraine, widely referred to as the Kharkiv Pact (Харківський пакт) or Kharkiv Accords (Харьковские соглашения), was a treaty between Ukraine and Russia whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea was extended beyond 2017 until 2042, with an additional five-year renewal option in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.
The Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol (Законодательное собрание города Севастополя) is the unicameral legislature of Sevastopol since 2014, following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Augusta (plural Augustae; αὐγούστα) was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
Maxim Gorky I and Maxim Gorky II (Russian designation: Coast Batteries #30 and #35) were coastal batteries used by the Soviet Union in the Crimea during World War II in the Crimean Campaign.
Moldovans or Moldavians (in Moldovan/Romanian moldoveni; Moldovan Cyrillic: Молдовень) are the largest population group of the Republic of Moldova (75.1% of the population, as of 2014), and a significant minority in Ukraine and Russia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moscow Time (Моско́вское вре́мя) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg.
Mount Sapun or Sapun Ridge (Сапун-Гора, Сапун-гора, Sapun dağı, Сапун дагъы) is a 240 m high ridge to the southeast of Sevastopol, situated on the disputed Crimean peninsula.
A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or want to restock.
Naval museum complex Balaklava (Морський музейний комплекс "Балаклава", Russian: Музей холодной войны, "The Cold War Museum", designation K-825) is an underground submarine base in Balaklava, Crimea, (originally known as Object 825 GTS).
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model.
The Party of Regions (Партія регіонів, pronounced; Партия регионов) is a pro-Russia political party of Ukraine created in late 1997 that then grew to be the biggest party of Ukraine between 2006 and 2014.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
A People's Deputy of Ukraine (Ukrainian: народний депутат України, narodnyi deputat Ukrayiny) is a member of parliament, legislator elected by a popular vote to the Verkhovna Rada (the parliament of Ukraine).
Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny (Петро Конашевич-Сагайдачний; Piotr Konaszewicz-Sahajdaczny; born near 1582 in Kulchytsi, today Sambir Raion – April 20, 1622 in Kyiv) was a Ukrainian political and civic leader, Hetman of Ukrainian Zaporozhian Cossacks from 1616–1622, a brilliant military leader both on land and sea.
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A population pyramid, also called an "age-sex pyramid", is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
200px Sevastopol Marine Trade Port (SMTP) is a port in Sevastopol.
Poti (ფოთი; Mingrelian: ფუთი; Laz: ჶაში/Faşi or ფაში/Paşi) is a port city in Georgia, located on the eastern Black Sea coast in the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti in the west of the country.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of Ukraine (Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state.
A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Republic of Crimea (or; Республика Крым, Respublika Krym, Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym, Къырым Джумхуриети, Qirim Cumhuriyeti) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula.
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation — an agreement between Ukraine and the Russian Federation, signed in 1997, which fixed the principle of strategic partnership, the recognition of the inviolability of existing borders, respect for territorial integrity and mutual commitment not to use its territory to harm the security of each other.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Schwerer Gustav (English: Heavy Gustaf) was a German 80 cm (31.5 in.) railway gun.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
A seaside resort is a resort town or resort hotel, located on the coast.
Sebastopol is a southern suburb on the rural-urban fringe of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.
Sebastos (σεβαστός, "venerable one", plural σεβαστοί, sebastoi) was an honorific used by the ancient Greeks to render the Roman imperial title of Augustus.
Sevastopol Bay (Севастопольська бухта; Севастопольская бухта) is a city harbor that includes a series of smaller bays carved out its shores.
The Sevastopol City Council (Севастопольский городской совет, Севастопольська міська рада, Crimean Tatar: Aqyar şeer şurası) was the unicameral legislature of Sevastopol.
Sevastopol International Airport (Міжнародний аеропорт Севастополь "Бельбек", is a military airfield in Belbek, a village near Sevastopol in Crimea. There are plans to restore the airfield into an international airport by 2017.
Sevastopol Shipyard (Sevastopol Sea Wharf, Севастопольский морской завод) is a shipyard located in Sevastopol, Crimea, founded as a dockyard for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783.
Sevastopol zoo is the youngest of Crimean zoos.
The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from September 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War.
The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) or the Battle of Sevastopol (German: Schlacht um Sewastopol) was a military battle that took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (Верховный Совет РСФСР, Verkhovnıy Sovet RSFSR), later Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation (Верховный Совет Российской Федерации, Verkhovnıy Sovet Rossiyskoi Federatsii) was the supreme government institution of the Russian SFSR in 1938–1990; in 1990–1993 it was a permanent parliament, elected by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation). The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR was established as similar structure as the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1938, instead of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) as the highest organ of power of Russia. In the 1940s, the Supreme Soviet Presidium and the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR were located in the former mansion of counts Osterman (str Delegatskaya, 3), which was later in 1991 given to a museum. The sessions were held in Grand Kremlin Palace. In 1981 the Supreme Soviet was moved to a specially constructed building on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment, The House of Soviets. The Supreme Soviet was abolished in October 1993 (after the events of Russia's 1993 constitutional crisis) and replaced by the Federal Assembly of Russia (consists of the Federation Council of Russia and State Duma), whose powers are weaker than Supreme Council ones.
Tamara Mikhaylovna Smirnova (Тама́ра Миха́йловна Смирно́ва; 1935–2001) was a Soviet/Russian astronomer and a discoverer of minor planets and comets.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Tauri (Ταῦροι in Ancient Greek), also Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae (Pliny, H. N. 4.85) were a people settled on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
Rear Admiral Sir Thomas MacKenzie (spring 1740, Arkhangelsk –, Sevastopol), also known as Foma Fomich Mekenzi (Фома Фомич Мекензи - Son of Thomas), was a Scottish-Russian rear admiral who founded the city of Sevastopol in service of the Russian Empire in 1783.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The first Ukrainian census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on 5 December 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census in 1989 and was so far the only census held in independent Ukraine.
The Ukrainian Naval Forces (Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia (Українська радянська енциклопедія) was a multi-purpose Encyclopedia of Ukraine, issued in the USSR.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrainization (also spelled Ukrainisation or Ukrainianization) is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 was adopted on March 27, 2014 by the sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly in response to the Russian annexation of Crimea and entitled "Territorial integrity of Ukraine".
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
A vehicle registration plate, also known as a number plate (British English) or a license plate (American English), is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, Ukrainian abbreviation ВРУ; literally Supreme Council of Ukraine), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine.
Verhovna Rada of Crimea or the Supreme Council of Crimea, officially the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Verhovna Rada Avtonomnoï Respubliky Krym; Verkhovny Sovet Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyetiniñ Yuqarı Radası) was a Ukrainian legislative body of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea before the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yad Vashem (יָד וַשֵׁם; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.
2121 Sevastopol, provisional designation, is a stony Florian asteroid and synchronous binary system from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 10 kilometers in diameter.
Akhtiar, Aqyar, City of Sevastopol, Federal city of Sevastopol, History of Sevastopol, Misto Sevastopol' Municipality, Misto Sevastopol' Municipality, Ukraine, Sebastapol, Sebastopol, Sebastopol, Crimea, Sevastapol, Sevastopil, Sevastopol City, Sevastopol', Sevastopol, Russia, Sevastopol, Ukraine, Sevastopol’, Theoderichshafen, UN/LOCODE:UASVP, Севастополь.