401 relations: Abatis, Abenaki, Abrantes, Acadia, Action of 8 June 1755, Africa, Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Algonquin people, Allegheny River, American Revolution, American Revolutionary War, Americas, Amphibious warfare, András Hadik, Anglo-Austrian Alliance, Anglo-Prussian alliance (1756), Anglo-Prussian Convention, Annus Mirabilis of 1759, Army of observation, Army of the Holy Roman Empire, Asia, Assassin's Creed III, Assassin's Creed Rogue, Augustus III of Poland, Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Bevern, Austrian Netherlands, Étienne François, duc de Choiseul, Île d'Orléans, Louisiana, Île-d'Aix, Świdnica, Baltic Sea, Barry Lyndon, Battle of Beauport, Battle of Bushy Run, Battle of Carillon, Battle of Cartagena (1758), Battle of Chinsurah, Battle of Domstadtl, Battle of Fehrbellin (1758), Battle of Fort Beauséjour, Battle of Fort Frontenac, Battle of Fort Necessity, Battle of Fort Niagara, Battle of Fort Oswego (1756), Battle of Freiberg, Battle of Grünberg, Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf, Battle of Hastenbeck, Battle of Hochkirch, Battle of Jumonville Glen, ..., Battle of Kay, Battle of Kolín, Battle of Krefeld, Battle of Kunersdorf, Battle of Lagos, Battle of Lake George, Battle of Landeshut (1760), Battle of Langensalza (1761), Battle of Leuthen, Battle of Liegnitz (1760), Battle of Lobositz, Battle of Manila (1762), Battle of Maxen, Battle of Minden, Battle of Minorca (1756), Battle of Neuville, Battle of Plassey, Battle of Prague (1757), Battle of Quiberon Bay, Battle of Rossbach, Battle of Saint Cast, Battle of Sainte-Foy, Battle of Signal Hill, Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Battle of Ticonderoga (1759), Battle of Torgau, Battle of Tornow, Battle of Valencia de Alcántara, Battle of Villinghausen, Battle of Wandiwash, Battle of Warburg, Battle of Zorndorf, Battles of the Seven Years' War, Bautzen, Beauport, Quebec City, Bengal, Bengal Sultanate, Benjamin West, Blockade, Bohemia, Braddock Expedition, Brest, France, British America, British occupation of Manila, C. 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An abatis, abattis, or abbattis is a field fortification consisting of an obstacle formed (in the modern era) of the branches of trees laid in a row, with the sharpened tops directed outwards, towards the enemy.
The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, Alnôbak) are a Native American tribe and First Nation.
Abrantes is a municipality in the central Médio Tejo subregion of Portugal.
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
The Action of 8 June 1755 was a naval battle between France and Great Britain early in the French and Indian War.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Count Alexey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin (Алексе́й Петро́вич Бесту́жев-Рю́мин) (1 June 1693 – 21 April 1768), Chancellor of the Russian Empire, was one of the most influential and successful European diplomats of the 18th century.
The Algonquins are indigenous inhabitants of North America who speak the Algonquin language, a divergent dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is part of the Algonquian language family.
The Allegheny River is a principal tributary of the Ohio River; it is located in the Eastern United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Count András Hadik de Futak (Andreas Reichsgraf Hadik von Futak; futaki Hadik András gróf; Andrej Hadík; October 16, 1710 – March 12, 1790) was a Hungarian nobleman and Field MarshalDarrell Berg (editor): The Correspondence of Christian Gottfried Krause: A Music Lover in the Age Sensibility, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009 of the Habsburg Army.
The Anglo-Austrian Alliance connected the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Habsburg Monarchy during the first half of the 18th century.
The Anglo-Prussian Alliance was a military alliance created by the Westminster Convention between Great Britain and Prussia which lasted formally between 1756 and 1762 during the Seven Years' War.
The Anglo-Prussian Convention was agreed on 11 April 1758 between Great Britain and the Kingdom of Prussia formalising the alliance between them that had effectively existed since the Convention of Westminster in 1756.
The Annus Mirabilis of 1759 is a term used to describe a string of notable British victories over French-led opponents during the Seven Years' War.
An army of observation is a military body whose purpose is to monitor a given area or enemy body in preparation for possible hostilities.
The Army of the Holy Roman Empire (German Reichsarmee, Reichsheer or Reichsarmatur; Latin exercitus imperii) was created in 1422 and came to an end when the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in 1806 as the result of the Napoleonic Wars.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Assassin's Creed III is a 2012 action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Wii U, and Microsoft Windows.
Assassin's Creed Rogue is an action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Sofia and published by Ubisoft.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
August Wilhelm, Duke of Brunswick-Bevern (1715 in Braunschweig1781 in Stettin), Prussian soldier, son of Ernest Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was born in Braunschweig in 1715, and entered the Prussian army in 1731, becoming colonel of an infantry regiment in 1739.
The Austrian Netherlands (Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas Autrichiens; Österreichische Niederlande; Belgium Austriacum) was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797.
Étienne-François, Marquis de Stainville, 1er Duc de Choiseul (28 June 1719 – 8 May 1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman.
Île d'Orléans (French for "Isle of Orleans") was the historic name for the New Orleans area, in present-day Louisiana, U.S.A..
Île-d'Aix is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department off the west coast of France.
Świdnica (Schweidnitz; Svídnice) is a city in southwestern Poland in the region of Silesia.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Barry Lyndon is a 1975 British-American period drama film by Stanley Kubrick, based on the 1844 novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon by William Makepeace Thackeray.
The Battle of Beauport, also known as the Battle of Montmorency, fought on 31 July 1759, was an important confrontation between the British and French Armed Forces during the Seven Years' War (also known as the French and Indian War and the War of Conquest) of the French province of Canada.
The Battle of Bushy Run was fought on August 5–6, 1763, in western Pennsylvania, between a British column under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet and a combined force of Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo, and Huron warriors.
The Battle of Carillon, also known as the 1758 Battle of Ticonderoga,Chartrand (2000), p. 57 was fought on July 8, 1758, during the French and Indian War (which was part of the global Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Cartagena took place on 28 February 1758 off the Spanish port of Cartagena during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Chinsurah (also known as the Battle of Biderra) took place near Chinsurah, India on 25 November 1759 during the Seven Years' War between a force of British troops mainly of the British East India Company and a force of the Dutch East India Company which had been invited by the Nawab of Bengal Mir Jafar to help him eject the British and establish themselves as the leading commercial company in Bengal.
The Battle of Domstadtl, also spelled Domstadt, Czech Domašov, was a battle between Habsburg Monarchy and Kingdom of Prussia at a Moravian village Domašov nad Bystřicí during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War) on 30 June 1758, preceded by a minor clash at Guntramovice (Gundersdorf) on 28 June.
The Battle of Fehrbellin was a battle at Fehrbellin of the Seven Years' War between Swedish and Prussian forces fought on 28 September 1758.
The Battle of Fort Beauséjour was fought on the Isthmus of Chignecto and marked the end of Father Le Loutre's War and the opening of a British offensive in the Acadia/ Nova Scotia theatre of the Seven Years' War, which would eventually lead to the end of the French Empire in North America.
The Battle of Fort Frontenac took place on August 26–28, 1758 during the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War in North America) between France and Great Britain.
The Battle of Fort Necessity (also called the Battle of the Great Meadows) took place on July 3, 1754, in what is now the mountaintop hamlet of Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
The Battle of Fort Niagara was a siege late in the French and Indian War, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War won in spite of New France's military vulnerability.
The Battle of Freiberg was fought on 29 October 1762 and was the last great battle of the Third Silesian War (and of the wider Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Grünberg (21 March 1761) was fought between French and allied Prussian and Hanoverian troops in the Seven Years' War at village of Grünberg, near Stangenrod.
The Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf (30 August 1757) was a victory for the Russian force under Field Marshal Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin over a smaller Prussian force commanded by Field Marshal Hans von Lehwaldt, during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Hastenbeck (26 July 1757) was fought as part of the Invasion of Hanover during the Seven Years' War between the allied forces of Hanover, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) and Brunswick, and the French.
The Battle of Hochkirch took place on 14 October 1758 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754, near what is present-day Hopwood and Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
The Battle of Kay (Schlacht bei Kay), also referred to as the Battle of Sulechów, Battle of Züllichau, or Battle of Paltzig, was an engagement fought on 23 July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Kolín on 18 June 1757 saw 44,000 Austrians under Count von Daun defeat 32,000 Prussians under Frederick the Great during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Krefeld (sometimes referred to by its French name of Créfeld) was a battle fought on 23 June 1758 between a Prussian-Hanoverian army and a French army during the Seven Years' War.
The decisive Battle of Kunersdorf occurred on 12 August 1759 near Kunersdorf (Kunowice), immediately east of Frankfurt an der Oder (the second largest city in Prussia).
The naval Battle of Lagos between Britain and France took place over two days, on 18 and 19 August 1759, during the Seven Years' War off the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and is named after Lagos, Portugal.
The Battle of Lake George was fought on 8 September 1755, in the north of the Province of New York.
The Battle of Landeshut was an engagement fought on 23 June 1760 during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Langensalza (10 February 1761) was an engagement between French forces and allied Prussian and Hanoverian forces during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Leuthen was fought on 5 December 1757, at which Frederick the Great's Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Leopold Joseph von Daun.
The Battle of Liegnitz on 15 August 1760 saw Frederick the Great's Prussian Army defeat the Austrian army under Ernst von Laudon during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Lobositz or Lovosice also Lowositz on 1 October 1756 was the opening land battle of the Third Silesian War and the wider Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila Batalla de Manila) was fought during the Seven Years' War, from 24 September 1762 to 6 October 1762, between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain in and around Manila, the capital of the Philippines, a Spanish colony at that time.
The Battle of Maxen (20 November 1759) was a battle at Maxen, Saxony in present-day Germany during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War).
The Battle of Minden—or Tho(r)nhausen—was a decisive engagement during the Seven Years' War, fought on 1 August 1759.
The Battle of Minorca (20 May 1756) was a naval battle between French and British fleets.
The Battle of Neuville was a naval and land engagement that took place on 16 May 1760 during the French and Indian War on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River, near the village of Neuville in New France during the French siege of Quebec.
The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757.
In the Battle of Prague or Battle of Štěrboholy, fought on 6 May 1757 during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War), Frederick the Great's 67,000 Prussians forced 60,000 Austrians to retreat, but having lost 14,300 men, decided he was not strong enough to attack Prague.
The Battle of Quiberon Bay (known as Bataille des Cardinaux in French), was a decisive naval engagement fought on 20 November 1759 during the Seven Years' War between the Royal Navy and the French Navy.
The Battle of Rossbach took place on 5 November 1757 during the Third Silesian War (1756–1763, part of the Seven Years' War) near the village of Rossbach (Roßbach), in the Electorate of Saxony.
The Battle of Saint Cast was a military engagement during the Seven Years' War on the French coast between British naval and land expeditionary forces and French coastal defence forces.
The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States).
The Battle of Signal Hill was fought on September 15, 1762, and was the last battle of the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, or Première bataille de Québec in French), was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War in the United States).
The 1759 Battle of Ticonderoga was a minor confrontation at Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga) on July 26 and 27, 1759, during the French and Indian War.
In the Battle of Torgau on 3 November 1760, King Frederick the Great's Prussian army fought a larger Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun.
The Battle of Tornow was fought between the forces of Prussia and Sweden on 26 September 1758 during the Seven Years' War, near modern-day Fürstenberg/Havel (then called Tornow, in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz).
The Battle of Valencia de Alcántara took place in August 1762 when an Anglo Portuguese force led by John Burgoyne surprised and captured the town of Valencia de Alcántara from its Spanish defenders during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Villinghausen (or Vellinghausen) was a battle in the Seven Years' War fought on the 15th and 16 July 1761, between a large French army and a combined Prussian-Hanoverian-British force led by Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick.
The Battle of Wandiwash was a decisive battle in India during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Warburg was a battle fought on 31 July 1760 during the Seven Years' War.
The Battle of Zorndorf, fought on August 25, 1758 during the Seven Years' War, was fought between Russian troops commanded by Count William Fermor and a Prussian army commanded by King Frederick the Great. The battle was tactically inconclusive, with both armies holding their ground and claiming victory.Franz A.J. Szabo. The Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. Routledge. 2013. P. 167 The site of the battle was the Prussian village of Zorndorf (now Sarbinowo, Poland).
The Seven Years' War, 1754–1763, spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines.
Bautzen (Upper Sorbian: Budyšin; Lower Sorbian: Budyšyn, Budyšín, Budziszyn) is a hill-top town in eastern Saxony, Germany, and administrative centre of the eponymous district.
Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah (بنگاله Bangālah, বাঙ্গালা/বঙ্গালা) and Shahi Bangalah (شاهی بنگاله. Shāhī Bangālah, শাহী বাঙ্গলা)) was a Muslim state, established in Bengal during the 14th century, as part of the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent.
Benjamin West (October 10, 1738 – March 11, 1820) was an Anglo-American history painter around and after the time of the American War of Independence and the Seven Years' War.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Braddock expedition, also called Braddock's campaign or, more commonly, Braddock's Defeat, was a failed British military expedition which attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne (modern-day downtown Pittsburgh) in the summer of 1755 during the French and Indian War.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
British America refers to English Crown colony territories on the continent of North America and Bermuda, Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783.
The British occupation of Manila was an episode in Philippine colonial history when the British Empire occupied the Spanish colonial capital of Manila and the nearby principal port of Cavite for twenty months between 1762 and 1764.
Charles Ralph Boxer FBA (8 March 1904 at Sandown, Isle of Wight – 27 April 2000 at St. Albans, Hertfordshire) was a historian of Dutch and Portuguese maritime and colonial history.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cancale (Gallo: Cauncall) is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Candide, ou l'Optimisme, is a French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment.
Cape Breton Island (île du Cap-Breton—formerly Île Royale; Ceap Breatainn or Eilean Cheap Breatainn; Unama'kik; or simply Cape Breton, Cape is Latin for "headland" and Breton is Latin for "British") is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
The Captaincy General of the Philippines (Capitanía General de las Filipinas; Kapitaniyang Heneral ng Pilipinas) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire in Southeast Asia governed by a Governor-General.
The Capture of Senegal took place in 1758 during the Seven Years' War with France, as part of a concerted British strategy to weaken the French economy by damaging her international trade.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carl Heinrich von Wedel (also spelled Wedell) was a Prussian lieutenant general in the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), and the War of Bavarian Succession (1778–1779).
The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India.
The city of Castelo Branco is a municipality and former bishopric in Castelo Branco District, in Centro Region, Portugal.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
Chandannagar, formerly spelled as Chandernagore, is a city and a municipal corporation with former French colony located about north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India.
The Charente (Charanta) is a long river in southwestern France.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough, (22 November 1706 – 20 October 1758), styled as The Honourable Charles Spencer between 1706 and 1729 and as The Earl of Sunderland between 1729 and 1733, was a British soldier, nobleman, and politician from the Spencer family.
Charles de Rohan (16 July 17151 July 1787), duke of Rohan-Rohan, seigneur of Roberval, and marshal of France from 1758, was a military man, and a minister to the kings Louis XV and Louis XVI.
Chemnitz, known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt, is the third-largest city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Cherbourg-Octeville is a city and former commune situated at the northern end of the Cotentin peninsula in the northwestern French department of Manche.
The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Colonia del Sacramento (formerly the Portuguese Colónia do Sacramento) is a city in southwestern Uruguay, by the Río de la Plata, facing Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Colonial Brazil (Brasil Colonial) comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to a kingdom in union with Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.
In Chilean historiography, Colonial Chile (la colonia) is the period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.
Concepción (in full: Concepción de la Madre Santísima de la Luz, "Conception of the Blessed Mother of Light") is a Chilean city and commune belonging to the metropolitan area of Greater Concepción, it is one of the largest urban conurbations of Chile.
The Convention of Klosterzeven (or the Convention of Kloster-Zeven – German: Konvention von Kloster Zeven) was a 1757 convention signed on September 10 at Klosterzeven between France and the Electorate of Hanover during the Seven Years' War that led to Hanover's withdrawal from the war and partial occupation by French forces.
Cuddalore is a city which is the headquarters of the Cuddalore District in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Diana J. Gabaldon (born January 11, 1952) is an American author, known for the ''Outlander'' series of novels.
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.
Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Ducatus Curlandiæ et Semigalliæ, Księstwo Kurlandii i Semigalii, Herzogtum Kurland und Semgallen, Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste) was a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1561 to 1569 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and from 1569 to 1726 to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth by Sejm in 1726, On 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the Third Partition of Poland.
Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (12 January 1721, Wolfenbüttel – 3 July 1792, Vechelde), was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
Admiral Edward Boscawen, PC (19 August 1711 – 10 January 1761) was an Admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament for the borough of Truro, Cornwall.
Major General Edward Braddock (January 1695 – 13 July 1755) was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the 13 colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754–1763) which is also known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years' War (1756–1763).
Admiral of the Fleet Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, KB, PC (21 February 1705 – 17 October 1781) was a Royal Navy officer.
The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
The Electorate of Saxony (Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
Emden is an independent city and seaport in Lower Saxony in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems.
Baron Ernst Gideon von Laudon (German: Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon (originally Laudohn or Loudon) (13 February 1717 – 14 July 1790) was an Austrian generalisimo, one of the most successful opponents of the Prussian king Frederick the Great, allegedly lauded by Alexander Suvorov as his teacher. He served the position of military governorship of Habsburg Serbia from his capture of Belgrade in 1789 until his death, cooperating with the resistance fighters of Koča Anđelković.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European balance of power referred to European international relations before the First World War, which evolved into the present states of Europe.
Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie is an epic poem by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, written in English and published in 1847.
The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation and Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island— parts of an area also known as Acadia. The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War) and was part of the British military campaign against New France. The British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, and after 1758 transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region, approximately 11,500 Acadians were deported (a census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony, presumably having eluded capture). During the War of the Spanish Succession, the British captured Port Royal, the capital of the colony, in a siege. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which concluded the conflict, ceded the colony to Great Britain while allowing the Acadians to keep their lands. Over the next forty-five years, however, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. During the same period, some also participated in various military operations against the British, and maintained supply lines to the French fortresses of Louisbourg and Fort Beauséjour. As a result, the British sought to eliminate any future military threat posed by the Acadians and to permanently cut the supply lines they provided to Louisbourg by removing them from the area. Without making distinctions between the Acadians who had been neutral and those who had resisted the occupation of Acadia, the British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council ordered them to be expelled. In the first wave of the expulsion, Acadians were deported to other British colonies. During the second wave, they were deported to Britain and France, from where they migrated to Louisiana. Acadians fled initially to Francophone colonies such as Canada, the uncolonized northern part of Acadia, Isle Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) and Isle Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island). During the second wave of the expulsion, these Acadians were either imprisoned or deported. Throughout the expulsion, Acadians and the Wabanaki Confederacy continued a guerrilla war against the British in response to British aggression which had been continuous since 1744 (see King George's War and Father Le Loutre's War). Along with the British achieving their military goals of defeating Louisbourg and weakening the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias, the result of the Expulsion was the devastation of both a primarily civilian population and the economy of the region. Thousands of Acadians died in the expulsions, mainly from diseases and drowning when ships were lost. On July 11, 1764, the British government passed an order-in-council to permit Acadians to legally return to British territories, provided that they take an unqualified oath of allegiance. The American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow memorialized the historic event in his poem about the plight of the fictional character Evangeline, which was popular and made the expulsion well known. According to Acadian historian Maurice Basque, the story of Evangeline continues to influence historic accounts of the deportation, emphasising neutral Acadians and de-emphasising those who resisted the British Empire.
Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote, KB (1726 – 28 April 1783) was a British soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1780.
The First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795.
The Forbes Expedition was a British military expedition led by Brigadier-General John Forbes in 1758, during the latter stages of the French and Indian War.
Fort Duquesne (originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a fort established by the French in 1754, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers.
Fort William Henry was a British fort at the southern end of Lake George, in the province of New York.
The Fortress of Louisbourg (Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Site of Canada and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
François-Gaston de Lévis, Duc de Lévis (20 August 1719 – 20 November 1787), styled as the Chevalier de Lévis until 1785, was a French noble and a Marshal of France.
France was one of the leading participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763.
Francis I (Franz Stefan, François Étienne; 8 December 1708 – 18 August 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany, though his wife effectively executed the real powers of those positions.
Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy (English: Francis Maurice de Lacy, Russian: Boris Petrovich Lassi; 21 October 1725 – 24 November 1801), was the son of Count Peter von Lacy and was a famous Austrian field marshal.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick is a city in, and the county seat of, Frederick County in the U.S. state of Maryland.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
The term French Louisiana refers to two distinct regions.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Alcide was a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, launched in 1742.
The term France–Habsburg rivalry describes the rivalry between the House of Habsburg and the Kingdom of France.
Friedrich (after the German name of Frederick II of Prussia) is a strategic board game about the events of the Seven Years' War.
The Gambia River (formerly known as the River Gambra) is a major river in West Africa, running from the Fouta Djallon plateau in north Guinea westward through Senegal and the Gambia to the Atlantic Ocean at the city of Banjul.
Göttingen (Low German: Chöttingen) is a university city in Lower Saxony, Germany.
George Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville PC (26 January 1716 – 26 August 1785), styled The Honourable George Sackville until 1720, Lord George Sackville from 1720 to 1770 and Lord George Germain from 1770 to 1782, was a British soldier and politician who was Secretary of State for America in Lord North's cabinet during the American War of Independence.
George Augustus Howe, 3rd Viscount Howe (c. 1725 – 6 July 1758) was a career officer and a Brigadier General in the British Army.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
The Golden Cavalry of St George was the colloquial name of subsidies paid out by the British government to other European states in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars.
italic ("Gorée Island") is one of the 19 communes d'arrondissement (i.e. districts) of the city of Dakar, Senegal.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
The Grand Alliance is the name commonly used for the coalition formed on 20 December 1689 by England, the Dutch Republic and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.
A grand strategy wargame is a wargame that places focus on grand strategy: military strategy at the level of movement and use of an entire nation state or empire's resources.
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
The Gribeauval system (French: système Gribeauval) was an artillery system introduced by Lieutenant General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval during the 18th century.
Guaporé River (Rio Guaporé) is a river in western Brazil and northeastern Bolivia.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hans von Lehwald(t) (24 June 1685 – 16 November 1768), also known as Johann von Lehwald(t), was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall.
Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.
Ernst Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué (4 February 1698 – 3 May 1774) was a Prussian Lieutenant general and General der Infanterie and a confidante of King Frederick the Great.
Henry Pelham (25 September 1694 – 6 March 1754) was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.
The island of Cuba was inhabited by various Mesoamerican cultures prior to the arrival of the Spanish explorer Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The earliest settlers on Guadeloupe arrived around 300 AD and developed agriculture on the island.
This is a page on the history of the island of Martinique.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Hubert de Brienne, Comte de Conflans (1690, in Paris – 27 January 1777, in Paris) was a French naval commander.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
The Ile Saint-Jean Campaign was a series of military operations in fall 1758, during the Seven Years' War, to deport the Acadians who either lived on Ile Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The British expedition against Guadeloupe was a military action from January to May 1759, as part of the Seven Years' War.
The Invasion of Hanover took place in 1757 during the Seven Years' War when a French army under Louis Charles César Le Tellier, duc d'Estrées advanced into the Electorate of Hanover and neighbouring German states following the Battle of Hastenbeck.
The British expedition against Martinique was a military action that took place in January and February 1762.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
General James Abercrombie or Abercromby (1706 – 23 April 1781) was a British Army general and commander-in-chief of forces in North America during the French and Indian War, best known for the disastrous British losses in the 1758 Battle of Carillon.
James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century.
The Hon. James Francis Edward Keith (11 June 1696 – 14 October 1758) was a Scottish soldier and Prussian field marshal.
General James Murray (21 January 1721, Ballencrieff, East Lothian, Scotland – 18 June 1794, Battle, East Sussex) FRS was a British soldier, whose lengthy career included service as colonial administrator and governor of the Province of Quebec and later as Governor of Minorca from 1778 to 1782. His term in Quebec was notably successful, and marked with excellent relationships with the conquered French-Canadians, who were reassured of their traditional rights and customs.
James Wolfe (2 January 1727 – 13 September 1759) was a British Army officer, known for his training reforms and remembered chiefly for his victory in 1759 over the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec as a major general.
Jean Starobinski (born 17 November 1920 in Geneva, Switzerland) is a Swiss literary critic.
Jean-François de Sabran, comte de La Clue (known as "La Clue-Sabran") - (30 September 1696 - 4 October 1764) was a French naval officer best known for his command of the French fleet in the Mediterranean Sea during the Seven Years' War.
Admiral John Byng (baptised 29 October 1704 – 14 March 1757) was a Royal Navy officer who was notoriously court-martialled and shot dead by a firing squad.
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS (13 November 1718 – 30 April 1792) was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten.
General Sir John Mordaunt (1697 – 23 October 1780) was a British soldier and Whig politician, the son of Lieutenant-General Harry Mordaunt and Margaret Spencer.
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, (25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792) was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762–1763) under George III.
Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a state's armed forces into one unified command.
Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de Jumonville (8 September 1718 – May 28, 1754) was a French Canadian military officer.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
The Juan Fernández Islands (Archipiélago Juan Fernández) are a sparsely inhabited island group reliant on tourism and fishing in the South Pacific Ocean.
Karaikal (kāraikkāl) is a major port city of east coast of India and a municipality in Karaikal district in the Union Territory of Puducherry, India.
Kłodzko (Kladsko; Glatz; Glacio) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia.
King of Prussia (also referred to as KOP) is a census-designated place in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) is a city in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in north-western Poland with about 47,000 inhabitants.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Kunowice ((Kunersdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Słubice, within Słubice County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, near the Oder river and the German border. It lies approximately east of Słubice, south-west of Gorzów Wielkopolski, and north-west of Zielona Góra. In 2008 the village had a population of 700.
Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin (26 October 1684 – 6 May 1757) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall, one of the leading commanders under Frederick the Great.
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was directly subject to the Emperor.
Le Havre, historically called Newhaven in English, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France.
Legnica (archaic Polish: Lignica, Liegnitz, Lehnice, Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Count Leopold Joseph von Daun (Reichsgraf von und zu Daun; 24 September 17055 February 1766), later Prince of Thiano, was an Austrian field marshal of the Imperial Army in the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
The Lord John series is a sequence of historical mystery novels and shorter works written by Diana Gabaldon that center on Lord John Grey, a recurring secondary character in the author's ''Outlander'' series.
Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville (12 November 1729 – 31 August 1811) was a French admiral and explorer.
Louis François de Bourbon, or Louis François I, Prince of Conti (13 August 1717 – 2 August 1776), was a French nobleman, who was the Prince of Conti from 1727 to his death, following his father, Louis Armand II de Bourbon.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran (28 February 1712 – 14 September 1759) was a French soldier best known as the commander of the forces in North America during the Seven Years' War (whose North American theatre is called the French and Indian War in the United States).
The Louisbourg Expedition (1757) was a failed British attempt to capture the French Fortress of Louisbourg on Île Royale (now known as Cape Breton Island) during the Seven Years' War (known in the United States as the French and Indian War).
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district (Landkreis).
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Mato Grosso (– lit. "Thick Bushes") is one of the states of Brazil, the third-largest by area, located in the western part of the country.
Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf von Browne, Baron de Camus and Mountany (October 23, 1705 – June 26, 1757) was an Austrian military leader during the middle of the 18th century, and a scion of the Irish "Wild Geese".
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
Militarism is the belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values; examples of modern militarist states include the United States, Russia and Turkey.
Minna von Barnhelm or the Soldiers' Happiness (Minna von Barnhelm oder das Soldatenglück) is a lustspiel or comedy by the German author Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Monongahela River — often referred to locally as the Mon — is a U.S. Geological Survey.
The Montmorency Falls (Chutes Montmorency) is a large waterfall on the Montmorency River in Quebec, Canada.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
The Nawabs of Bengal (full title, the Nawab Nizam of Bengal and Orissa) were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa.
The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.
The New Age International University is a diploma mill with an address in Seborga, a small town in the region of Liguria in northwest Italy, Europe.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Newfoundland Colony was the name for an English and later British colony established in 1610 on the island of the same name off the Atlantic coast of Canada, in what is now the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Northern Circars (also spelt Sarkars) was a division of British India's Madras Presidency.
The Odawa (also Ottawa or Odaawaa), said to mean "traders", are an Indigenous American ethnic group who primarily inhabit land in the northern United States and southern Canada.
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory or Ohio Valley by the French) was a name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
Olomouc (locally Holomóc or Olomóc; Olmütz; Latin: Olomucium or Iuliomontium; Ołomuniec; Alamóc) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic.
The Outlander franchise is a series of novels, short fiction, and related works.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.
The Pacte de Famille (Family Compact; Pacto de Familia) is one of three separate, but similar alliances between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain.
Pax Britannica (Latin for "British Peace", modelled after Pax Romana) was the period of relative peace between the Great Powers during which the British Empire became the global hegemonic power and adopted the role of a global police force.
Pedro Antonio de Cevallos Cortés y Calderón, also spelled Ceballos (29 June 1715 – 26 December 1778), was a Spanish military Governor of Buenos Aires between 1757 and 1766, and the first Viceroy of the Río de la Plata in 1776.
Peter III (21 February 1728 –) (Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762.
The Petitcodiac River Campaign was a series of British military operations from June to November 1758, during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War), to deport the Acadians that either lived along the Petitcodiac River or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations, such as the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
See also Heights of Abraham (disambiguation). The Plains of Abraham (Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
A French invasion of Great Britain was planned to take place in 1759 during the Seven Years' War, but due to various factors (including naval defeats at the Battle of Lagos and the Battle of Quiberon Bay) was never launched.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The Pomeranian War was a theatre of the Seven Years' War.
Pontiac's War (also known as Pontiac's Conspiracy or Pontiac's Rebellion) was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country, and Ohio Country who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in the French and Indian War (1754–1763).
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (French: Charles Alexandre Emanuel de Lorraine; German: Karl Alexander von Lothringen und Bar; 12 December 1712 in Lunéville – 4 July 1780 in Tervuren) was a Lorraine-born Austrian general and soldier, field marshal of the Imperial Army, and governor of the Austrian Netherlands.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, (26 April 1721 – 31 October 1765), was the third and youngest son of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland and his wife, Caroline of Ansbach.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
Schaumburg-Lippe was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Count Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky (Пётр Алекса́ндрович Румя́нцев-Задунайский; –) was one of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century.
Count Pyotr Semyonovich Saltykov (Пётр Семёнович Салтыков) (11 December 1697/1698/1700 - 26 December 1772) was a Russian statesman and a military officer, promoted to the rank of Field marshal on 18 August 1759.
The Quebec Act of 1774 (Acte de Québec), (the Act) formally known as the British North America (Quebec) Act 1774, was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec.
The Raid on Cherbourg took place in August 1758 during the Seven Years' War when a British force was landed on the coast of France by the Royal Navy with the intention of attacking the town of Cherbourg as part of the British government's policy of "descents" on the French coasts.
Real-time strategy (RTS) is a subgenre of strategy video games where the game does not progress incrementally in turns.
A regular army is the official army of a state or country (the official armed forces), contrasting with irregular forces, such as volunteer irregular militias, private armies, mercenaries, etc.
A Reichskrieg ("Imperial War", pl. Reichskriege) was a war fought by the Holy Roman Empire as a whole against an opponent.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Admiral of the Fleet Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, (8 March 1726 – 5 August 1799) was a British naval officer.
Rio Grande do Sul (lit. Great Southern River) is a state located in the southern region of Brazil.
Rio Grande (lit. "Great River") is a municipality (município) and one of the oldest cities in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
The Rio Negro (br; Río Negro "Black River") is the largest left tributary of the Amazon River, the largest blackwater river in the world (accounting for about 14% of the water in the Amazon basin), and one of the world's ten largest rivers by average discharge.
Rise of Prussia is a grand strategy wargame developed by AGEOD and published by Paradox Interactive.
Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, (29 September 1725 – 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal.
Rochefort is a commune in southwestern France, a port on the Charente estuary.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Royal Prussia (Prusy Królewskie; Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils, Królewsczé Prësë) or Polish PrussiaAnton Friedrich Büsching, Patrick Murdoch.
The Rule of 1756 or Rule of the War of 1756 was a policy of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and later the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland that was promulgated during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763).
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was caused by the Ottoman Empire's war with Persia and continuing raids by the Crimean Tatars.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint Vincent is a volcanic island in the Caribbean.
Saint-Cast-le-Guildo (Gallo: Saent-Cast-le-Giledo) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France.
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Hundred Years' War (c. 1689 - c. 1815) is a periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 (or some say 1714) to 1815.
For a period of over twenty years, King Louis XV split his diplomacy into official and secret channels.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
The Siege of Almeida took place in August 1762 when a Spanish force besieged and captured the city of Almeida from its Portuguese defenders during the Seven Years' War.
The Siege of Cassel (March 1761) was a failed attempt by Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick to capture French-held Kassel, the capital of Hesse-Kassel.
The Siege of Cassel took place between October and November 1762, when an allied force of Hanoverian, Hessian and British troops under the command of the Duke of Brunswick besieged and captured the French-held town of Cassel.
The Siege of Fort St Philip (commonly known in Britain as the Fall of Minorca or Siege of Minorca) took place in 1756 during the Seven Years' War.
The Siege of Fort William Henry was conducted in August 1757 by French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm against the British-held Fort William Henry.
The Siege of Havana was a military action from March to August 1762, as part of the Seven Years' War.
During the Seven Years' War, the Prussian-held town of Kolberg in Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania (now Kołobrzeg) was besieged by Russian forces three times.
The Siege of Louisbourg was a pivotal operation of the Seven Years' War (known in the United States as the French and Indian War) in 1758 that ended the French colonial era in Atlantic Canada and led directly to the loss of Quebec in 1759 and the remainder of French North America the following year.
The Siege of Madras was a siege of Madras, British India, between December 1758 and February 1759 by French forces under the command of Lally during the Seven Years' War.
The Siege of Pirna (or Investment of Pirna) took place in 1756 as part of the Prussian invasion of Saxony during the Third Silesian War (part of the Seven Years' War). Following the occupation of the capital Dresden by Frederick the Great on 9 September the Saxon army had withdrawn south and taken up position at the fortress of Pirna under Frederick von Rutowski. The Saxons hoped to receive relief from the Austrian army which was across the border in neighbouring Bohemia under Marshal Browne. Following the Battle of Lobositz the Austrians withdrew, and tried to approach Pirna by a different route but they failed to make contact with the defenders. Despite a Saxon attempt to escape by crossing the River Elbe, it soon became apparent that their position was hopeless. On 14 October Rutowski concluded a capitulation with Frederick. In total 18,000 troops surrendered. They were swiftly and forcibly incorporated into the Prussian forces, an act which caused widespread protest even from Prussians. Many of them later deserted and fought with the Austrians against the Prussian forces - with whole regiments changing sides at the Battle of Prague.
The Siege of Prague was an unsuccessful attempt by a Prussian army led by Frederick the Great to capture the Austrian city of Prague during the Third Silesian War (Seven Years' War).
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah (مرزا محمد سراج الدولہ, মির্জা মুহম্মদ সিরাজউদ্দৌলা; 1733 – 2 July 1757) more commonly known as Siraj ud-Daulah, was the last independent Nawab of Bengal.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
The Spanish invasion of Portugal between 5 May and 24 November 1762 was a main military episode of the wider Seven Years' War, where Spain and France were heavily defeated by the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance (including broad popular resistance). It initially involved the forces of Spain and Portugal, before the French and British intervened in the conflict on the side of their respective allies. The war was also strongly marked by a national guerilla warfare in the mountainous country, cutting off supplies from Spain and a hostile peasantry that enforced a scorched earth policy as the invading armies approached, leaving the invaders starving and short of military supplies. During the first invasion, 22,000 Spaniards commanded by Nicolás de Carvajal, Marquis of Sarria, entered the Province of Alto Trás-os-Montes (northeast of Portugal) having Oporto as their ultimate goal. After occupying some fortresses, they were confronted with a national uprising. Taking advantage of the mountainous terrain, the guerrilla bands inflicted heavy losses on the invaders and practically cut off their communication lines with Spain, causing a shortage of essential supplies. Near starvation, the Spaniards tried to conquer Oporto quickly, but were defeated in the battle of the Douro and at Montalegre before retreating to Spain. After this failure, the Spanish commander was replaced by Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Count of Aranda. Meanwhile, 7,104 British troops landed in Lisbon, leading a massive reorganization of the Portuguese army under the Count of Lippe, the supreme allied commander-in-chief. During the second invasion of Portugal (Province of Beira), 42,000 Franco-Spaniards under Aranda took Almeida and several other strongholds, while the Anglo-Portuguese army stopped another Spanish invasion of Portugal by the province of Alentejo, attacking at Valencia de Alcántara (Spanish Extremadura), where a third Spanish corps was assembling for invasion. The allies managed to stop the invading army in the mountains east of Abrantes, where the slope of the heights facing the Franco-Spanish army was abrupt but very soft on the side of the allies, which facilitated the supply and movements of the allies but acted as a barrier for the Franco-Spaniards. The Anglo-Portuguese also prevented the invaders from crossing the river Tagus and defeated them at Vila Velha. The Franco-Spanish army (which had their supply lines from Spain cut off by the guerrillas) was virtually destroyed by a deadly scorched earth strategy: peasants abandoned all the villages around, taking with them or destroying the crops, food and all that could be used by the invaders, including the roads and houses. The Portuguese government also encouraged desertion among the invaders offering large sums to all deserters and defectors. The invaders had to choose between stay and starve or withdraw.The final outcome was the disintegration of the Franco-Spanish army, which was compelled to retreat to Castelo Branco (closer to the frontier) when a Portuguese force under Townshend made an encircling movement towards its rearguard. According to a British observer, the invaders suffered 30,000 losses (almost three-quarters of the original army), mainly caused by starvation, desertion and capture during the chase of the Franco-Spanish remnants by the Anglo-Portuguese army and peasantry. Finally the allied army took the Spanish headquarters, Castelo Branco, capturing a large number of Spaniards, wounded and sick – who Aranda had abandoned when he fled to Spain, after a second allied encircling movement. During the third invasion of Portugal, the Spaniards attacked Marvão and Ouguela but were defeated with casualties. The allied army left their winter quarters and chased the retreating Spaniards, taking some prisoners; and a Portuguese corps entered Spain taking more prisoners at Codicera. On 24 November, Aranda asked for a truce which was accepted and signed by Lippe on 1 December 1762.
Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, screenwriter, and producer.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin (Степан Фёдорович Апраксин; -), a relative of Fyodor M. Apraksin, commanded the Russian armies during the Seven Years' War.
Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Swedish Pomerania (Svenska Pommern; Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1630 to 1815, situated on what is now the Baltic coast of Germany and Poland.
The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West depicting the death of British General James Wolfe at the 1759 Battle of Quebec during the French and Indian War (which was the North American theater of the Seven Years' War).
The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (1826) is a historical novel by James Fenimore Cooper.
The Luck of Barry Lyndon is a picaresque novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, first published as a serial in Fraser's Magazine in 1844, about a member of the Irish gentry trying to become a member of the English aristocracy.
The Partisan in War is a pamphlet written by the German soldier Andreas Emmerich (born 1739; also known as Colonel Andrew Emmerick).
The Third Silesian War was a theatre of the Seven Years' War.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, baron de Tollendal (13 January 1702 – 9 May 1766) was a French general of Irish Jacobite ancestry.
Lieutenant General Thomas Bligh (1685–1775) was a British soldier, best known for his service during the Seven Years' War when he led a series of amphibious raids, known as "descents" on the French coastline.
Thomas Cumming was an American merchant of the 18th century who built up a large commercial empire in West Africa.
Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, (21 July 1693 – 17 November 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen, called Aix-la-Chapelle in French and then also in English, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Hamburg was signed on 22 May 1762 in the Free City of Hamburg between Sweden and Prussia during the Pomeranian War, a theater of the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Hubertusburg (Frieden von Hubertusburg) was signed on 15 February 1763 at Hubertusburg Castle by Prussia, Austria and Saxony to end the Third Silesian War.
The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.
The Treaty of Saint Petersburg was concluded on May 5, 1762, and ended the fighting in the Seven Years' War between Prussia and Russia.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on March 29, 1632.
The Treaty of Versailles, also known as the First Treaty of Versailles, was a diplomatic agreement between Austria and France.
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area.
The Fort System of Valdivia are a series of Spanish colonial fortifications at Corral Bay, Valdivia and Cruces River established to protect the city of Valdivia, in southern Chile.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Virreinato del Río de la Plata, also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
Prussia and its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, were involved in numerous conflicts during their existence as nation-states.
Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg (Wenzel Anton Fürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg, Václav Antonín z Kounic a Rietbergu; 2 February 1711 – 27 June 1794) was an Austrian and Czech diplomat and statesman in the Habsburg Monarchy.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Lieutenant General William Amherst (5 February 1732, in Sevenoaks, Kent – 13 May 1781) was a British military commander.
William Fermor (translit) was an Imperial Russian Army officer best known for leading his country’s army at the Battle of Zorndorf during the Seven Years’ War.
William Makepeace Thackeray (18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist and author.
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, (15 November 1708 – 11 May 1778) was a British statesman of the Whig group who led the government of Great Britain twice in the middle of the 18th century.
The Winter Palace (p, Zimnij dvorets) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Wyandot people or Wendat, also called the Huron Nation and Huron people, in most historic references are believed to have been the most populous confederacy of Iroquoian cultured indigenous peoples of North America.
Count Zakhar Grigoryevich Chernyshov or Tchernyshov (Захар Григорьевич Чернышёв; 1722 - 1784), best known for the 1760 raid on Berlin, rose to become Minister of War to the empress Catherine the Great of Russia.
The Zona Sur (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.
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