172 relations: Academy of Sciences Glacier, Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, Aerial photography, Airship Italia, Akhmatov Fjord, Alexander Kolchak, Andreas Peter Hovgaard, Anti-German sentiment, Archipelago, Arctic, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Arctic Cape, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, Arctic ice pack, Arctic lemming, Arctic Ocean, Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition, Arctic poppy, Arctic sea ice decline, Bedrock, Black guillemot, Black-legged kittiwake, Bolshevik Island, Boris Vilkitsky, Brant (goose), Bryum, Cape Baranov, Cape Berg, Cape Chelyuskin, Cape Neupokoyev, Cape October, Cape Unslicht, Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, Cerastium, Cetraria, Chukchi Peninsula, Cold War, Communism, Cornicularia, Desert, Dicranum, Earth, Eduard Toll, Eurasia, Federal subjects of Russia, Firnley Islands, Fjord, Franz Josef Land, Geologist, ..., Georgy Ushakov, German Communist Party, Glacier, Glacier morphology, Glacier terminus, Glaucous gull, Gray wolf, Great Northern Expedition, Great Patriotic War (term), Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Hugo Eckener, Icebreaker, Imperial Russian Navy, Island, Ivory gull, Julian calendar, Kara Sea, Karpinsky Glacier, Komsomol, Komsomolets Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Krenkel Bay, Laptev Sea, Lecidea, Lena River, Lichen, List of fjords of Russia, List of glaciers in Russia, List of islands by area, List of islands of Russia, List of polar explorers, List of research stations in the Arctic, List of sovereign states, Lists of highest points, Little auk, Loam, LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin, Maly Taymyr Island, Marat Fjord, Matusevich Fjord, Matvei Gedenschtrom, Metres above sea level, Mikoyan Bay, Moss, Nansen's Fram expedition, Nazi Germany, Neoproterozoic, New Siberian Islands, Nicholas II of Russia, Nikolay Urvantsev, Nord-Ost, Northeast Passage, Northern Sea Route, Novaya Zemlya, Ob River, Ocean, Ochrolechia, October Revolution, October Revolution Island, Okrug, Otto Schmidt, Paleozoic, Parmelia (fungus), Permafrost, Peter the Great, Pioneer Island (Nunavut), Pioneer Island (Russia), Pogonatum, Polar bear, Polar desert, Presidium, Purple sandpiper, Raion, Red Army Strait, Reindeer, Research station, Russia, Russian Hydrographic Service, Russian polar expedition of 1900–02, Russian Revolution, Saint Petersburg, Sand, Saxifraga, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Schmidt Island, Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov, Sergey Kamenev, Severnaya Zemlya, Shokalsky Strait, Siberia, Silurian, Snow bunting, Solnechny Bay, Soviet Union, Starokadomsky Island, Stoat, Taymyr (1909 icebreaker), Taymyr Autonomous Okrug, Taymyr Peninsula, Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District, Terrain, Thamnolia, The Two Captains, Thelodonti, Toll Bay, Tortula, Tundra, Umberto Nobile, UTC+07:00, Valerian Albanov, Vascular plant, Vaygach (1909 icebreaker), Vega Expedition, Veniamin Kaverin, Vilkitsky Strait, Vladimir Rusanov, Wrangel Island, Yakov Sannikov, Yenisei River, Yuny Strait, Zarya (polar ship), Zhuravlev Bay. Expand index (122 more) » « Shrink index
The Academy of Sciences Glacier (ледник Академии наук; Lednik Akademii Nauk), is a large ice cap on Komsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Federation.
Baron Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (18 November 1832, Helsinki, Finland12 August 1901, Dalbyö in Södermanland, Sweden) was a Finnish baron, geologist, mineralogist and Arctic explorer.
Aerial photography (or airborne imagery) is the taking of photographs from an aircraft or other flying object.
Airship Italia was a semi-rigid airship used by Italian engineer Umberto Nobile in his second series of flights around the North Pole.
Akhmatov Fjord, also known as Akhmatov Bay (Залив Ахматова, Zaliv Akhmatova), is a fjord in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak CB (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, – 7 February 1920) was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War.
Andreas Peter Hovgaard (1 November 1853 – 15 March 1910) was a Danish naval officer and Arctic explorer.
Anti-German sentiment (or Germanophobia) is defined as an opposition to or fear of Germany, its inhabitants, its culture and the German language.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, or AARI (Арктический и антарктический научно-исследовательский институт, abbreviated as ААНИИ) is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica.
The Arctic Cape (Мыс Арктический, Mys Arkticheskiy) is a headland in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
The Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus), or polar rabbit, is a species of hare which is highly adapted to living in the Arctic tundra, and other icy biomes.
The Arctic ice pack is the ice cover of the Arctic Ocean and its vicinity.
The Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) is a species of rodents in the family Cricetidae.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
The Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition (GESLO) (1910–1915) was a scientific expedition organized by Russia for the purpose of the development of the Northern Sea Route.
Arctic poppy is a common name which may refer to the following Papaver species.
Arctic sea ice decline is the sea ice loss observed in recent decades in the Arctic Ocean.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
The black guillemot or tystie (Cepphus grylle) is a medium-sized alcid.
The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae.
Bolshevik Island (о́стров Большеви́к) is an island in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian Arctic.
Boris Andreyevich Vilkitsky (Борис Андреевич Вилькицкий) (22 March (3 April N.S.) 1885 – 6 March 1961) was a Russian hydrographer and surveyor.
The brant, also known as the brent goose (Branta bernicla) is a species of goose of the genus Branta.
Bryum is a genus of mosses in the family Bryaceae.
Cape Baranov (Мыс Баранова; Mys Baranova) is a headland in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
Cape Berg (Мыс Берга, Mys Berga) is a headland in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
Cape Chelyuskin (мыс Челюскина) is the northernmost point of the Eurasian continent (and indeed of any continental mainland), and the northernmost point of mainland Russia.
Cape Neupokoyev (Мыс Неупокоева, Mys Neupokoyeva) is a headland in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
Cape October (Мыс Октябрьский; Mys Oktyabr’skiy) is a headland in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
Cape Unslicht (Мыс Песчаный, Mys Peschanyy) is a headland in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union (Центральный исполнительный комитет, СССР) was the highest governing body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, existed from 1922 until 1938, when it was replaced by the Supreme Soviet of first convocation.
Cerastium is a genus of annual, winter annual, or perennial plants belonging to the family Caryophyllaceae.
Cetraria is a genus of fruticose lichens that associate with green algae as photobionts.
The Chukchi Peninsula (or Chukotka Peninsula or Chukotski Peninsula) (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
Cornicularia is a genus of lichenised ascomycetes in the large family Parmeliaceae.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dicranum is a genus of mosses, also called wind-blown mosses or fork mosses.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Eduard Gustav von Toll was a Russian geologist and Arctic explorer.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
The Firnley Islands (острова Фирнлея; Ostrova Firnleya, Firnleyøyane) is a group of three small islands covered with tundra vegetation and with scattered stones on their shores.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
Georgy Alexeyevich Ushakov (Георгий Алексеевич Ушаков) (17 (30) January 1901 – 3 December 1963) was a Soviet explorer of the Arctic.
The German Communist Party (Deutsche Kommunistische Partei, DKP) is a minor communist party in Germany.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glacier morphology, or the form a glacier takes, is influenced by temperature, precipitation, topography, and other factors.
A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time.
The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) is a large gull, the second largest gull in the world which breeds in Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and winters south to shores of the Holarctic.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
The Great Northern Expedition (Великая Северная экспедиция) or Second Kamchatka expedition (Вторая Камчатская экспедиция) was one of the largest exploration enterprises in history, mapping most of the Arctic coast of Siberia and some parts of the North America coastline, greatly reducing "white areas" on maps.
The Great Patriotic War (translit) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for some Baltic States) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a small gull, the only species in the genus Pagophila.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.
Karpinsky Glacier or Karpinsky Ice Cap (Ледник Карпинского; Lednik Karpinskogo), also known as Mount Karpinsky, is a large ice cap on October Revolution Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Federation.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Komsomolets Island in Severnaya Zemlya Komsomolets Island (остров Комсомолец) is the northernmost island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic, and the third largest island in the group.
Krasnoyarsk Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk—the third-largest city in Siberia (after Novosibirsk and Omsk).
Krenkel Bay (Бухта Кренкеля, Bukhta Krenkelya), is a bay in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
The Laptev Sea (r; Лаптевтар байҕаллара) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Lecidea is a genus of crustose lichens with a carbon black ring or outer margin (exciple) around the fruiting body disc (apothecium), usually (or always) found growing on (saxicolous) or in (endolithic) rock.
The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
This is a list of the most important fjords of the Russian Federation.
This is a list of glaciers in Russia.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
This is a list of islands of Russia.
This list is for recognised pioneering explorers of the polar regions.
A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in the Arctic.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
A list of highest points typically contains the name, elevation, and location of the highest point in each of a set of geographical regions.
The little auk or dovekie (Alle alle) is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin (Deutsches Luftschiff Zeppelin #127; Registration: D-LZ 127) was a German-built and -operated, passenger-carrying, hydrogen-filled, rigid airship which operated commercially from 1928 to 1937.
Maly Taymyr Island (Малый Таймыр, or Little Taymyr Island) is an island in the Laptev Sea, Russian Arctic.
Marat Fjord (Фьорд Марата, Fiord Marata), is a fjord in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Matusevich Fjord (Фьорд Матусевича, Fiord Matusevicha), is a fjord in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Matvei Matveyevich Gedenschtrom or in Swedish, since he has a Swedish name: Mattias Mattiasson Hedenström/von Hedenström (Матвей Матвеевич Геденштром) (circa 1780 – 20 September 1845) was a Russian explorer of Northern Siberia, writer, and public servant.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Mikoyan Bay (Залив Микояна, Zaliv Mikoyana), is a bay in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
IneriBEROGU Brsiovbduo bbLUFIOtdB NIotjbio Nansen's Fram expedition was an 1893–1896 attempt by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen to reach the geographical North Pole by harnessing the natural east–west current of the Arctic Ocean.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
The New Siberian Islands (r; translit) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Urvantsev (Николай Николаевич Урванцев; – 20 February 1985) was a Soviet geologist and explorer.
Nord-Ost (Норд-Ост, means "North-East" in German) is a Russian musical theatre production that was composed by Aleksei Ivaschenko and Georgii Vasilyev, based on the novel The Two Captains by Veniamin Kaverin.
The Northeast Passage (abbreviated as NEP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the shipping route to the Pacific Ocean, along the Arctic Ocean coasts of Norway and Russia.
The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping route officially defined by Russian legislation as lying east of Novaya Zemlya and specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ochrolechia is a genus of lichen belonging to the suborder Lecanorineae.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
October Revolution Island (Russian: Остров Октябрьской Революции, Ostrov Oktyabrskoy Revolyutsii) is the largest island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic.
Okrug (окръг, okrǎg, о́круг; округ,; окру́га, okruha; акруга, Akruha; okręg; оқрҿс; йырвел, jyrvel) is an administrative division of some Slavic states.
Otto Yulyevich Schmidt (Отто Юльевич Шмидт; – September 7, 1956) was a Soviet scientist, mathematician, astronomer, geophysicist, statesman, academician, Hero of the USSR (27 June 1937), and member of the Communist Party.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Parmelia is a genus of medium to large foliose lichens.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pioneer Island is an island of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, in the territory of Nunavut.
Pioneer Island is part of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic.
Pogonatum is a genus of mosses — commonly called spike moss — which contains approximately 70 species that cover a cosmopolitan distribution.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
Polar deserts are the regions of the Earth that fall under an Ice cap climate (EF under the Köppen classification).
A presidium or praesidium is a council of executive officers in some political assemblies that collectively administers its business, either alongside an individual president or in place of one.
The purple sandpiper (Calidris maritima) is a small shorebird.
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast).
Red Army Strait (Пролив Красной Армии, Proliv Krasnoy Army) is a strait in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
A research station is a station that is built for the purpose of conducting scientific research.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Hydrographic Service, full current official name Department of Navigation and Oceanography of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Управление навигации и океанографии Министерства обороны Российской Федерации), is Russia's hydrographic office, with responsibility to facilitate navigation, performing hydrographic surveys and publishing nautical charts.
The Russian polar expedition of 1900–1902 was commissioned by the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences to study the Arctic Ocean north of New Siberian Islands and search for the legendary Sannikov Land.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Saxifraga is the largest genus in the family Saxifragaceae, containing about 440 species of holarctic perennial plants, known as saxifrages or rockfoils.
Saxifraga oppositifolia, the purple saxifrage or purple mountain saxifrage, is a species of edible plant that is very common all over the high Arctic and also some high mountainous areas further south, including northern Britain, the Alps and the Rocky Mountains.
Schmidt Island (Остров Шмидта) is part of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic and was named after Soviet scientist and first head of the Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, Otto Schmidt.
Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov (Серге́й Ива́нович Вави́лов (– January 25, 1951) was a Soviet physicist, the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences from July 1945 until his death. His elder brother Nikolai Vavilov was a famous Russian geneticist.
Sergey Sergeyevich Kamenev (Серге́й Серге́евич Ка́менев; April 4 (16), 1881 – August 25, 1936), was a Soviet military leader with the Komandarm 1st rank.
Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́ (Northern Land)) is a archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
Shokalsky Strait (Пролив Шокальского) is a strait in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
The snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) is a passerine bird in the family Calcariidae.
Solnechny Bay (Бухта Солнечная, Bukhta Solnechnaya), is a bay in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Starokadomsky Island (Остров Старокадомского; Ostrov Starokadomskogo) is an hourglass-shaped island in the Laptev Sea, Russian Arctic.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
The Taymyr was an icebreaking steamer of 1200 tons built for the Russian Imperial Navy at St. Petersburg in 1909.
Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Таймы́рский Долга́но-Не́нецкий автоно́мный о́круг, Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky avtonomny okrug), or Taymyria (Таймырия, Taymyriya), was a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Krasnoyarsk Krai), the northernmost in mainland Russia (and thus Asia).
The Taymyr Peninsula (italic) is a peninsula in the Far North of Russia, in the Siberian Federal District, that forms the northernmost part of the mainland of Eurasia.
Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District (Таймы́рский Долга́но-Не́нецкий райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #10-4765 and municipalLaw #2-54 district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface.
Thamnolia is a genus of lichenized fungi in the family Icmadophilaceae.
The Two Captains (Два Капитана) is a novel written by Soviet author Veniamin Kaverin between 1938 and 1944.
Thelodonti (from Greek: "feeble teeth")Maisey, John G., Craig Chesek, and David Miller.
Toll Bay, (Залив Толля) is a bay in the Kara Sea, Russia.
Tortula is a genus of mosses in the family Pottiaceae.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Umberto Nobile (21 January 1885 – 30 July 1978) was an Italian aviator, aeronautical engineer and Arctic explorer.
UTC+07:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +07:00.
Valerian Ivanovich Albanov (Валериа́н Ива́нович Альбанов) (1881 – 1919) was a Russian navigator, best known for being one of two survivors of the Brusilov Expedition of 1912, which killed 22.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Icebreaker Vaygach (Вайгач) was an icebreaking steamer of moderate size built for the Russian Imperial Navy at St. Petersburg in 1909.
The Vega (SS ''Vega'') Expedition of 1878–1880, under the leadership of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, was the first Arctic expedition to navigate through the Northeast Passage, the sea route between Europe and Asia through the Arctic Ocean, and the first voyage to circumnavigate Eurasia.
Veniamin Alexandrovich Kaverin (Вениамин Александрович Каверин; real name – Вениамин Абелевич Зильбер, or Veniamin Abelevich Zilber)(Pskov – May 2, 1989, Moscow) was a Soviet writer associated with the early 1920s movement of the Serapion Brothers.
Vilkitsky Strait (Пролив Вилькицкого) is a strait between the Taimyr Peninsula and Bolshevik Island in the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago.
Vladimir Alexandrovich Rusanov (Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Руса́нов;, Oryol – ca. 1913) was an experienced Russian geologist who specialized in the Arctic.
Wrangel Island (p) is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea.
Yakov Sannikov (1780, Ust-Yansk - no earlier than 1812) was a Russian merchant and explorer of the New Siberian Islands.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
Yuny Strait (Юный пролив) is a strait in Severnaya Zemlya, Russia.
Zarya (Заря, Sunrise) was a steam- and sail-powered brig used by the Russian Academy of Sciences for a polar exploration during 1900–1903.
Zhuravlev Bay (залив Журавлева, Zaliv Zhuravleva), is a bay in Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia.
Emperor Nicholas II Land, Krasnoflotskiye Islands, Lishny Island (Severnaya Zemlya), Nicholas II Land, North Land, Northern Land, Sedov Archipelago, Sergei Kamenev Islands, Severnaja Zemlja, Severnaya Zemlya Islands, Sredniy Island, Се́верная Земля́.