29 relations: Autosome, Cell nucleus, Chromosome, Color blindness, Dominance (genetics), Egg cell, Fisher's principle, Fragile X syndrome, Gene, Haemophilia, Haldane's rule, Homologous chromosome, Mammal, Ploidy, Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, Pseudoautosomal region, Queen Victoria, Sensory processing disorder, Sex linkage, Sexual reproduction, Sperm, X chromosome, X-inactivation, X0 sex-determination system, XX male syndrome, XY sex-determination system, Y chromosome, ZW sex-determination system.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Fisher's principle is an evolutionary model that explains why the sex ratio of most species that produce offspring through sexual reproduction is approximately 1:1 between males and females.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a mostly inherited genetic disorder that impairs the body's ability to make blood clots, a process needed to stop bleeding.
Haldane's rule is an observation about the early stage of speciation, formulated in 1922 by the British evolutionary biologist J.B.S. Haldane, that states that if in a species hybrid only one sex is inviable or sterile, that sex is more likely to be the heterogametic sex.
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (Alice Maud Mary; 25 April 1843 – 14 December 1878), Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, was the third child and second daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom, (Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore; later Princess Henry of Battenberg; 14 April 1857 – 26 October 1944) was the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.
The pseudoautosomal regions, PAR1, PAR2, are homologous sequences of nucleotides on the X and Y chromosomes.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Sensory processing disorder (SPD; also known as '''sensory integration dysfunction''') is a condition that exists when multisensory integration is not adequately processed in order to provide appropriate responses to the demands of the environment. The senses provide information from various modalities—vision, audition, tactile, olfactory, taste, proprioception, interoception and vestibular system—that humans need to function. Sensory processing disorder is characterized by significant problems in organizing sensation coming from the body and the environment and is manifested by difficulties in the performance in one or more of the main areas of life: productivity, leisure and play or activities of daily living. Different people experience a wide range of difficulties when processing input coming from a variety of senses, particularly tactile (e.g., finding fabrics itchy and hard to wear while others do not), vestibular (e.g., experiencing motion sickness while riding a car) and proprioceptive (having difficulty grading the force to hold a pen in order to write). Sensory integration was defined by occupational therapist Anna Jean Ayres in 1972 as "the neurological process that organizes sensation from one's own body and from the environment and makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment". Sensory processing disorder is gaining recognition, although it is still not recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Despite its proponents, it is still debated as to whether SPD is actually an independent disorder or the observed symptoms of various other, more well-established, disorders.
Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
The X0 sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring among.
XX male syndrome is a rare congenital condition where an individual with a female genotype has phenotypically male characteristics that can vary between cases.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
The ZW sex-determination system is a chromosomal system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceans such as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including Komodo dragons.