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Sexual dimorphism

Index Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. [1]

222 relations: Academic Press, Acta Psychologica Sinica, Ageing, Allele, American Arachnological Society, Amotz Zahavi, Amphibian, Andrena agilissima, Anglerfish, Animal Behaviour (journal), Anisogamy, Anthidium manicatum, Antibody, Aposematism, Arbor House, Argiope bruennichi, Argus (bird), Asterocampa celtis, Australian Journal of Zoology, Basal metabolic rate, Bat, Bateman's principle, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Biological Conservation (journal), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Bird of prey, Bird-of-paradise, Birth, Black myotis, Blue whale, Blue-footed booby, Bonobo, Boston, Bronchus, Brown anole, Calton, Staffordshire, Cannabis sativa, Cape sparrow, Casual sex, Catasetum, Cell culture, Cerebral Cortex (journal), Charles Darwin, Coagulation, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Cordelia Fine, Ctenophorus pictus, Dactyloidae, David Buss, Deborah Charlesworth, ..., Dicranum, Digital object identifier, Dioecy, DNA oxidation, Dragonet, Ecology (journal), Egg, Entomophily, Ethology, Euglossini, Eurasian blue tit, Evolutionary pressure, Expander graph, Fat, Female, Fish, Flower, Frog, Gametophyte, Gene, Genetics (journal), Geoff Parker, Gonad, Gonepteryx rhamni, Granulocyte, Great sparrow, Grey matter, Grouse, Guppy, Handicap principle, Harem (zoology), Harvard University Press, Heart, Hemoglobin, Hermaphrodite, Homo sapiens, Hormone, Human body weight, Human brain, Human Genetics (journal), Hummingbird, Hyperolius ocellatus, Immune system, INAH 3, Infection, Insect, Intersex, Journal of Biosciences, Journal of Fish Biology, Journal of Mammalogy, Journal of Ornithology, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Journal of Zoology, Kangaroo, Lamprologus callipterus, Lasioglossum hemichalceum, Lesueur's frog, Life history theory, List of related male and female reproductive organs, List of world records in Olympic weightlifting, Little, Brown and Company, Lizard, Lung volumes, Lymphocyte, Macrotera portalis, Male, Mammal, Mantis, Marine mammal, Mate choice, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, MIT Press, Muscle, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Nectar, Nephila pilipes, NeuroImage, NeuroReport, New Phytologist, Newt, Numeral prefix, Oikos (journal), Onthophagus taurus, Ophioblennius atlanticus, Orb-weaver spider, Orchidaceae, Osmia bicornis, Ovule, Owl, Oxford University Press, Pain (disambiguation), PCDH11X, Peafowl, Pedicel (botany), Pelvis, Pinniped, Pioneer plaque, Platelet, Ploidy, PLOS One, Plumage, Pollen, Pollination, Pollination syndrome, Pollinator, Pollinium, Polygynandry, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Red blood cell, Red-backed fairywren, Rhizocephala, Sacculina, Saxaul sparrow, Science (journal), Seasonal breeder, Secondary sex characteristic, Sequential hermaphroditism, Sex, Sex at Dawn, Sex differences in humans, Sex differences in intelligence, Sex differences in psychology, Sex segregation, Sex steroid, Sexual cannibalism, Sexual differentiation, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual dimorphism in dinosaurs, Sexual dimorphism in non-human primates, Sexual dimorphism measures, Sexual selection, Sexually dimorphic nucleus, Sexy son hypothesis, Snake, Sockeye salmon, Species, Sperm competition, Sphaerocarpos, Spider, Sporophyte, Spotted hyena, Statistical significance, Stem cell, Stress (biology), T. & A. D. Poyser, Taxonomy (biology), The American Naturalist, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, The Journal of Neuroscience, Thrombin, Trachea, Transcription (biology), Trends (journals), Turtle, Two-spotted goby, U.S. News & World Report, University of Massachusetts, Uterus, Vallisneria americana, Velociraptor, Vertebrate, Vertex cover, Vespula squamosa, Viperidae, Vitamin K, W. W. Norton & Company, White blood cell, Wound, Zeaxanthin. Expand index (172 more) »

Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Acta Psychologica Sinica

Acta Psychologica Sinica (also known as Xin Li Xue Bao) is a monthly peer-reviewed Chinese-language scientific journal of psychology.

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Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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American Arachnological Society

The American Arachnological Society (AAS) is a scientific organization founded in 1972 in order to promote the study of arachnids by seeking to achieve closer cooperation and understanding between amateur and professional arachnologists along with publication of the Journal of Arachnology. The society holds annual meetings around the United States and membership is open to all individuals who share the common objectives held by the society.

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Amotz Zahavi

Amotz Zahavi (אמוץ זהבי) (August 14, 1928 – May 12, 2017) was an Israeli evolutionary biologist, a Professor in the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University, and one of the founders of the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Andrena agilissima

Andrena agilissima is a species of mining bee.

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Anglerfish are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.

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Animal Behaviour (journal)

Animal Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 as The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, before obtaining its current title in 1958.

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Anisogamy (also called heterogamy) is the form of sexual reproduction that involves the union or fusion of two gametes, which differ in size and/or form. (The related adjectives are anisogamous and anisogamic). The smaller gamete is considered to be male (sperm cell), whereas the larger gamete is regarded as female (egg cell). There are several types of anisogamy. Both gametes may be flagellated and therefore motile. Alternatively, both of the gametes may be non-flagellated. The latter situation occurs in some algae and plants. In the red alga Polysiphonia, non-motile eggs are fertilized by non-motile sperm. In flowering plants, the gametes are non-motile cells within gametophytes. The form of anisogamy that occurs in animals, including humans, is oogamy, where a large, non-motile egg (ovum) is fertilized by a small, motile sperm (spermatozoon). The egg is optimized for longevity, whereas the small sperm is optimized for motility and speed. The size and resources of the egg cell allow for the production of pheromones, which attract the swimming sperm cells.

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Anthidium manicatum

Anthidium manicatum, commonly called the European wool carder bee, is a species of bee in the family Megachilidae, the leaf-cutter bees or mason bees.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.

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Arbor House

Arbor House was an independent publishing house founded by Donald Fine in 1969.

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Argiope bruennichi

Argiope bruennichi (wasp spider) is a species of orb-web spider distributed throughout central Europe, northern Europe, north Africa, parts of Asia, the Azores archipelago, as well as recent sightings in North American states such as North Carolina and Ohio.

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Argus (bird)

An argus is a member of either of two species of bird in the family Phasianidae that are closely related to pheasants and peafowl.

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Asterocampa celtis

Asterocampa celtis, the hackberry emperor, is a North American butterfly that belongs to the brushfooted butterfly family, Nymphalidae.

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Australian Journal of Zoology

The Australian Journal of Zoology is an international peer-reviewed scientific journal published by CSIRO Publishing.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.

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Bateman's principle

Bateman's principle, in evolutionary biology, is that in most species, variability in reproductive success (or reproductive variance) is greater in males than in females.

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Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering quantitative, empirical, and theoretical studies in the field of analysis of animal behavior at the levels of the individual, population, and community.

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Biological Conservation (journal)

Biological Conservation is a peer-reviewed journal of conservation biology.

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Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a direct descendant of the oldest biological journal in the world, the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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Bird of prey

A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.

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The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes.

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Birth is the act or process of bearing or bringing forth offspring.

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Black myotis

The black myotis (Myotis nigricans), is a vesper bat species from South and Central America.

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Blue whale

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.

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Blue-footed booby

The blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) is a marine bird native to subtropical and tropical regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

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The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.

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Brown anole

The brown anole (Anolis sagrei), also known as the Bahaman anole or De la Sagra's Anole, is a lizard native to Cuba and the Bahamas.

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Calton, Staffordshire

Calton is a village and a former parochial chapelry and civil parish in the Moorlands of Staffordshire, England.

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Cannabis sativa

Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.

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Cape sparrow

The Cape sparrow or mossie (Passer melanurus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae found in southern Africa.

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Casual sex

Casual sex is sexual activity that takes places outside a romantic relationship and implies an absence of commitment, emotional attachment, or familiarity between sexual partners.

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Catasetum, abbreviated as Ctsm in horticultural trade, is a genus of showy epiphytic Orchids, family Orchidaceae, subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Catasetinae, with 166 species, many of which are highly prized in horticulture.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.

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Cerebral Cortex (journal)

Cerebral Cortex is a scientific journal in the neuroscience area, focusing on the development, organization, plasticity, and function of the cerebral cortex, including the hippocampus.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology is a series of three journals published by Elsevier with coverage of three aspects of biochemistry and physiology.

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Cordelia Fine

Cordelia Fine is a Canadian-born British philosopher, psychologist and writer.

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Ctenophorus pictus

Ctenophorus pictus, commonly known as the painted dragon,Waite ER (Editor).

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Dactyloidae are a family of lizards commonly known as anoles and native to warmer parts of the Americas, ranging from southeastern United States to Paraguay.

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David Buss

David M. Buss (born April 14, 1953) is a professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, known for his evolutionary psychology theorizing and research on human sex differences in mate selection, with a focus on systems in which males are allowed violence against women in mating.

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Deborah Charlesworth

Deborah Charlesworth (née Maltby; born 1943) is a British evolutionary biologist.

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Dicranum is a genus of mosses, also called wind-blown mosses or fork mosses.

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Digital object identifier

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

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Dioecy (Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.

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DNA oxidation

DNA oxidation is the process of oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid.

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Dragonets are small, perciform, marine fish of the diverse family Callionymidae (from the Greek kallis, "beautiful" and onyma, "name") found mainly in the tropical waters of the western Indo-Pacific.

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Ecology (journal)

Ecology is a scientific journal that publishes research and synthesizes papers in the field of ecology.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.

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Entomophily or insect pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.

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Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.

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The tribe Euglossini, in the subfamily Apinae, commonly known as orchid bees or Euglossine bees, are the only group of corbiculate bees whose non-parasitic members do not all possess eusocial behavior.

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Eurasian blue tit

The Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) is a small passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae.

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Evolutionary pressure

Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.

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Expander graph

In combinatorics, an expander graph is a sparse graph that has strong connectivity properties, quantified using vertex, edge or spectral expansion as described below.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

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A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).

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A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetics (journal)

Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Geoff Parker

Professor Geoffrey Alan Parker FRS (born 24 May 1944) is a Derby professor of biology at the University of Liverpool and the 2008 recipient of the Darwin Medal.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Gonepteryx rhamni

Gonepteryx rhamni (known as the common brimstone) is a butterfly of the family Pieridae.

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Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.

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Great sparrow

The great sparrow, also known as the southern rufous sparrow or the rufous sparrow (Passer motitensis) is found in southern Africa in dry, wooded savannah and towns.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.

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The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species.

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Handicap principle

The handicap principle is a hypothesis originally proposed in 1975 by Israeli biologist Amotz Zahavi to explain how evolution may lead to "honest" or reliable signaling between animals which have an obvious motivation to bluff or deceive each other.

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Harem (zoology)

A harem is an animal group consisting of one or two males, a number of females, and their offspring.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human body weight

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Human Genetics (journal)

Human Genetics is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of human genetics, including legal and social issues.

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Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.

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Hyperolius ocellatus

Hyperolius ocellatus is a species of tropical West African frog in the family Hyperoliidae, that is split into the subspecies H. o. ocellatus and H. o. purpurescens.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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INAH-3 is the short form for the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, and is the sexually dimorphic nucleus of humans.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".

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Journal of Biosciences

The Journal of Biosciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru, India.

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Journal of Fish Biology

The Journal of Fish Biology covers all aspects of fish and fisheries biological research, both freshwater and marine.

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Journal of Mammalogy

The Journal of Mammalogy is the flagship publication of the American Society of Mammalogists.

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Journal of Ornithology

The Journal of Ornithology (formerly Journal für Ornithologie) is a scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft.

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Journal of Theoretical Biology

The Journal of Theoretical Biology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical biology, as well as mathematical and computational aspects of biology.

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Journal of Zoology

The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.

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The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").

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Lamprologus callipterus

Lamprologus callipterus is a species of cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it very actively moves about in search of crustacean and other invertebrates.

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Lasioglossum hemichalceum

Lasioglossum hemichalceum, otherwise known as L. erythrurum, is a sweat bee that is known to occupy certain regions of Australia.

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Lesueur's frog

Lesueur's frog (Litoria lesueurii) is a species of ground-dwelling tree frog native to south-eastern Australia, from Sydney, New South Wales, to eastern Victoria.

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Life history theory

Life history theory is an analytical frameworkVitzthum, V. (2008).

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List of related male and female reproductive organs

This list of related male and female reproductive organs shows how the male and female reproductive organs of the human reproductive system are related, sharing a common developmental path.

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List of world records in Olympic weightlifting

This is the list of world records in Olympic weightlifting.

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Little, Brown and Company

Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Lung volumes

Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Macrotera portalis

Macrotera portalis is a species of communal, ground nesting, partially bivoltine bees found in arid grasslands and desert regions.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Mantises are an order (Mantodea) of insects that contains over 2,400 species in about 430 genera in 15 families.

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Marine mammal

Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.

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Mate choice

Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.

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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in sports and exercise science.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Nature Reviews Neuroscience is a leading review journal with one of the highest impact factors covering neuroscience, in particular.

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Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.

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Nephila pilipes

Nephila pilipes (northern golden orb weaver or giant golden orb weaver), Arachne.org.au is a species of golden orb-web spider.

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NeuroImage is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on neuroimaging, including functional neuroimaging and functional human brain mapping.

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NeuroReport is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of neuroscience.

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New Phytologist

New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.

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A newt is a salamander in the subfamily Pleurodelinae, also called eft during its terrestrial juvenile phase.

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Numeral prefix

Numeral or number prefixes are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers.

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Oikos (journal)

Oikos is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of ecology.

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Onthophagus taurus

The taurus scarab (Onthophagus taurus) is a species of dung beetle in the genus Onthophagus.

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Ophioblennius atlanticus

Ophioblennius atlanticus, also known as the redlip blenny and the horseface blenny, is a species of combtooth blenny, family Blenniidae, found primarily in the western central Atlantic ocean.

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Orb-weaver spider

Orb-weaver spiders or araneids are members of the spider family Araneidae.

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The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

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Osmia bicornis

Osmia bicornis, synonym Osmia rufa, is a species of mason bee, and is known as the red mason bee due to its covering of dense gingery hair.

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In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.

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Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pain (disambiguation)

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.

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Protocadherin 11 X-linked, also known as PCDH11X, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PCDH11X gene.

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The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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Pedicel (botany)

A pedicel is a stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence.

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The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).

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Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Pioneer plaque

The Pioneer plaques are a pair of gold-anodized aluminium plaques which were placed on board the 1972 Pioneer 10 and 1973 Pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message, in case either Pioneer 10 or 11 is intercepted by extraterrestrial life.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.

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Plumage ("feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers.

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Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

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Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.

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Pollination syndrome

Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth.

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A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.

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A pollinium (plural pollinia) is a coherent mass of pollen grains in a plant that are the product of only one anther, but are transferred, during pollination, as a single unit.

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Polygynandry is a mating system in which both males and females have multiple mating partners during a breeding season.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Red-backed fairywren

The red-backed fairywren (Malurus melanocephalus), or red-backed wren, is a species of passerine bird in the Australasian wren family, Maluridae.

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Rhizocephala are derived barnacles that parasitise decapod crustaceans.

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Sacculina is a genus of barnacles that is a parasitic castrator of crabs.

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Saxaul sparrow

The saxaul sparrow (Passer ammodendri) is a passerine bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in parts of Central Asia.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Seasonal breeder

Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.

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Secondary sex characteristic

Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.

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Sequential hermaphroditism

Sequential hermaphroditism (called dichogamy in botany) is a type of hermaphroditism that occurs in many fish, gastropods, and plants.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

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Sex at Dawn

Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality is a book dealing with the evolution of monogamy in humans and human mating systems.

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Sex differences in humans

Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.

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Sex differences in intelligence

Differences in intelligence have long been a topic of debate among researchers and scholars.

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Sex differences in psychology

Sex differences in psychology are differences in the mental functions and behaviors of the sexes, and are due to a complex interplay of biological, developmental, and cultural factors.

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Sex segregation

Sex segregation is the physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex.

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Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.

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Sexual cannibalism

Sexual cannibalism is when a female cannibalizes her mate prior to, during, or after copulation.

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Sexual differentiation

Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Sexual dimorphism in dinosaurs

Sexual dimorphism in dinosaurs refers to the different physical characteristics of male and female dinosaurs of the same species.

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Sexual dimorphism in non-human primates

Sexual dimorphism describes the morphological, physiological, and behavioral differences between males and females of the same species.

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Sexual dimorphism measures

Although the subject of sexual dimorphism is not in itself controversial, the measures by which it is assessed differ widely.

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Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

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Sexually dimorphic nucleus

The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is an ovoid, densely packed cluster of large cells located in the medial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus which is believed to be related to sexual behavior in animals.

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Sexy son hypothesis

The sexy son hypothesis in evolutionary biology and sexual selection—proposed by Ronald Fisher in 1930—states that a female's ideal mate choice among potential mates is one whose genes will produce male offspring with the best chance of reproductive success.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Sockeye salmon

Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), also called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sperm competition

Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg during sexual reproduction.

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Sphaerocarpos is a genus of plants known as bottle liverworts.

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Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.

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Spotted hyena

The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Statistical significance

In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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T. & A. D. Poyser


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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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The American Naturalist

The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.

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The Journal of Comparative Neurology

The Journal of Comparative Neurology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that focuses on neuroscience and related fields, but specifically does not deal with clinical aspects of them.

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The Journal of Neuroscience

The Journal of Neuroscience is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Society for Neuroscience.

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Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.

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The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Trends (journals)

Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.

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Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Two-spotted goby

The two-spotted goby (Gobiusculus flavescens) is a species of goby native to marine and brackish waters of the eastern Atlantic Ocean where it can be found from the Faeroes and Norway to the northwestern coast of Spain.

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U.S. News & World Report

U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.

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University of Massachusetts

The University of Massachusetts is the five-campus public university system and the only public research system in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vallisneria americana

Vallisneria americana, commonly called wild celery, water-celery, tape grass, or eelgrass, is a plant in the family Hydrocharitaceae, the "tape-grasses".

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Velociraptor (meaning "swift seizer" in Latin) is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 75 to 71 million years ago during the later part of the Cretaceous Period.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vertex cover

In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, a vertex cover (sometimes node cover) of a graph is a set of vertices such that each edge of the graph is incident to at least one vertex of the set.

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Vespula squamosa

Vespula squamosa, the southern yellowjacket, is a social wasp.

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The Viperidae (vipers) is a family of venomous snakes found in most parts of the world, excluding Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Hawaii, various other isolated islands, and north of the Arctic Circle.

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Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).

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Zeaxanthin is one of the most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature.

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Brain gender, Dimorphic sexual behavior, Evolution of sexual dimorphism, Gender dimorphism, Male female differences, Sex difference, Sex differences, Sex differences in animals, Sex dimorphism, Sexual dichromatism, Sexual dichromism, Sexual dimorph, Sexual dimorphism in birds, Sexual dimorphism in fish, Sexual dimorphism in insects, Sexual dimorphism in mammals, Sexual dimorphisms, Sexual monomorphic, Sexual morph, Sexual polymorphism, Sexual size dimorphism, Sexual size dimorphism index, Sexual-size dimorphism, Sexually dichromatic, Sexually dichromic, Sexually dimorph, Sexually dimorphic, Sexually monomorphic, Size dimorphic, Size dimorphism.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_dimorphism

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