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Sexual objectification

Index Sexual objectification

Sexual objectification is the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire. [1]

146 relations: Aesthetics, Age of Enlightenment, Alexandre Guillaume Mouslier de Moissy, American Psychological Association, Anatomy, Anorexia nervosa, Anti-Flirt Club, Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, Antisexualism, Ariel Levy (journalist), Beefcake, Body image, Bulimia nervosa, Camille Paglia, Canadian Review of American Studies, Cheerleading, Christina Hoff Sommers, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, Clothed female, naked male, Commodity, Contemporary Political Theory, Continuum International Publishing Group, Culture, Health & Sexuality, Daily Mirror, Dehumanization, Depression (mood), Dignity, Disgust, Disordered eating, DMG Media, Eating disorder, Empowerment, Erotophobia, Exploitation of women in mass media, Fear, Female Chauvinist Pigs, Feminism, Feminist Theory (journal), Focus on the Family, Gender & Society, Gender inequality, Gender role, Genetics, Girl power, Girls Gone Wild (franchise), Grammatical person, Harold C. Lyon Jr., Himbo, Hormone, Human furniture, ..., Individualist feminism, International Communication Association, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Janet Anderson, John Stoltenberg, Journal of Communication, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Labiaplasty, Lafayette, Louisiana, Learned helplessness, Legends Football League, LGBT community, List of women's magazines, Major depressive disorder, Male gaze, Mario Perniola, Mass media, Mental health, Metro (British newspaper), Modesty, Multichannel News, Naomi Wolf, New York Daily News, NewBay Media, News UK, Nyotaimori, Object (philosophy), Objectification, Palgrave Macmillan, Patriarchy, Pennsylvania State University, Personality, Philosophy & Public Affairs, Physical attractiveness, Plastic surgery, Pornographication, Pornography, Power (social and political), Problematization, Prometheus Books, Prostitution, Prude, Psychology of Women Quarterly, Psychology Today, PsycINFO, Radical feminism, Rape culture, Raunch aesthetics, Reach plc, Respect, Robert Jensen, Role reversal, Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, SAGE Publications, Self-consciousness, Self-image, Self-objectification, Sex in advertising, Sex in film, Sex Roles (journal), Sex symbol, Sexual desire, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual ethics, Sexual Personae, Sexual repression, Sexual revolution, Sexuality in music videos, Sexualization, Sexualization, Media, and Society, Shame, Social class, Social conservatism, Social constructionism, Spectator Magazine, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stereotype, Striptease, Sut Jhally, Taylor & Francis, The Counseling Psychologist, The Daily Telegraph, The Sun (United Kingdom), The Village Voice, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, Virtual camera system, Ways of Seeing, Wealth, Wendy McElroy, Wendy Shalit, Wiley-Blackwell, WordPress, YouTube. Expand index (96 more) »


Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alexandre Guillaume Mouslier de Moissy

Alexandre Guillaume Mouslier de Moissy, was a French writer and dramaturge.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.

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Anti-Flirt Club

The Anti-Flirt Club was an American club active in Washington, D.C., during the early 1920s.

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Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America

The Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America, often referred to in North America as simply the Antiochian Archdiocese, is the jurisdiction of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in the United States and Canada.

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Antisexualism is opposition or hostility towards sexual behavior and sexuality.

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Ariel Levy (journalist)

Ariel Levy (born October 17, 1974) is an American staff writer at The New Yorker magazine and the author of the books The Rules do Not Apply and Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture.

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Beefcake is a performance or a form of glamour photography depicting a large and muscular male body.

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Body image

Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.

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Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.

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Camille Paglia

Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947) is an American academic and social critic.

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Canadian Review of American Studies

The Canadian Review of American Studies is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal concerning American Studies journal outside the United States.

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Cheerleading is an activity wherein the participants (referred to as "cheerleaders") cheer for their team as a form of encouragement.

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Christina Hoff Sommers

Christina Marie Hoff Sommers (born September 28, 1950) is an American author, philosopher specialising in ethics, and resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), a conservative think tank.

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Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution

Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution is a book by the historian Simon Schama, published in 1989, the bicentenary of the French Revolution.

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Clothed female, naked male

Clothed female, naked male (CFNM), or clothed male, naked female, is a genre of erotica based on the real or imagined interaction of one or more nude men and one or more clothed women.

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In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Contemporary Political Theory

Contemporary Political Theory is an academic journal covering political theory and philosophy published by Palgrave Macmillan.

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Continuum International Publishing Group

Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.

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Culture, Health & Sexuality

Culture, Health & Sexuality is a peer-reviewed, scholarly journal that publishes multi-disciplinary articles analyzing culture and health, health beliefs and systems, social structures and divisions, and the implications of these for sexual health, and individual, collective, and community wellbeing.

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Daily Mirror

The Daily Mirror is a British national daily tabloid newspaper founded in 1903.

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Dehumanization or an act thereof can describe a behavior or process that undermines individuality of and in others.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.

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Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.

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Disordered eating

Disordered eating describes a variety of abnormal eating behaviors that, by themselves, do not warrant diagnosis of an eating disorder.

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DMG Media

DMG Media, formerly Associated Newspapers, is a national newspaper and website publisher in the UK.

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Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.

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The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.

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Erotophobia is a term coined by a number of researchers in the late 1970s and early 1980s to describe one pole on a continuum of attitudes and beliefs about sexuality.

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Exploitation of women in mass media

The exploitation of women in mass media is the use or portrayal of women in the mass media (such as television, film and advertising) to increase the appeal of media or a product to the detriment of, or without regard to, the interests of the women portrayed, or women in general.

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Fear is a feeling induced by perceived danger or threat that occurs in certain types of organisms, which causes a change in metabolic and organ functions and ultimately a change in behavior, such as fleeing, hiding, or freezing from perceived traumatic events.

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Female Chauvinist Pigs

Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch CultureAriel Levy, Female Chauvinist Pigs: Women and the Rise of Raunch Culture, Free Press, 2005, (2005) is a book by Ariel Levy which critiques the highly sexualized American culture in which women are objectified, objectify one another, and are encouraged to objectify themselves.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Feminist Theory (journal)

Feminist Theory is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of women’s studies.

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Focus on the Family

Focus on the Family (FOTF or FotF) is an American Christian conservative organization founded in 1977 in Southern California by psychologist James Dobson, based in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

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Gender & Society

Gender & Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in the field of gender studies.

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Gender inequality

Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.

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Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Girl power

Girl power is a slogan that encourages and celebrates women's empowerment, independence, and confidence.

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Girls Gone Wild (franchise)

Girls Gone Wild (GGW) is an exhibitionist entertainment franchise created by Joe Francis in 1997, who occasionally appears as the host of the videos.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Harold C. Lyon Jr.

Harold C. Lyon Jr. (born April 26, 1935)"Harold C(lifford) Lyon, Jr." In Contemporary Authors Online.

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Himbo, a portmanteau of the words him and bimbo, is a slang term for an attractive but vacuous man.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human furniture

Human furniture is a form of bondage and sexual objectification in which a person's body is incorporated into a tray, foot stool, chair, table, cabinet or other pieces of furniture.

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Individualist feminism

Individualist feminism, sometimes also grouped with libertarian feminism, is feminist ideas which emphasize individualism.

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International Communication Association

The International Communication Association (ICA) is an academic association for scholars interested in the study, teaching and application of all aspects of human and mediated communication.

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International Journal of Cultural Studies

The International Journal of Cultural Studies is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering cultural studies.

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Janet Anderson

Janet Anderson (born 6 December 1949) is an English Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Rossendale and Darwen from 1992 until 2010, when she lost her seat.

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John Stoltenberg

John Stoltenberg (born 1944) is a U.S. radical feminist activist, scholar, author, and magazine editor.

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Journal of Communication

The Journal of Communication is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes articles and book reviews on a broad range of issues in communication theory and research.

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Journal of Counseling Psychology

The Journal of Counseling Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association.

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Journal of Sport & Social Issues

The Journal of Sport & Social Issues is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of sociology.

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Labiaplasty (also known as labioplasty, labia minora reduction, and labial reduction) is a plastic surgery procedure for altering the labia minora (inner labia) and the labia majora (outer labia), the folds of skin surrounding the human vulva.

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Lafayette, Louisiana

Lafayette is a city in and the parish seat of Lafayette Parish, Louisiana, located along the Vermilion River in the southwestern part of the state.

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Learned helplessness

Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an animal and occurs where the subject endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape or avoid.

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Legends Football League

The Legends Football League (LFL) is a women's 7-on-7 tackle American football league, with games played in the spring and summer at NBA, NFL, NHL and MLS arenas and stadiums.

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LGBT community

The LGBT community or GLBT community, also referred to as the gay community, is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movements.

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List of women's magazines

This is a list of women's magazines from around the world.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Male gaze

In feminist theory, the male gaze is the act of depicting women and the world, in the visual arts and literature, from a masculine, heterosexual perspective that presents and represents women as sexual objects for the pleasure of the male viewer.

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Mario Perniola

Mario Perniola (20 May 1941, Asti – 9 January 2018, Rome) was an Italian philosopher, professor of aesthetics and author.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Metro (British newspaper)

Metro is the United Kingdom's highest circulation newspaper, published in tabloid format by DMG Media.

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Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others.

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Multichannel News

Multichannel News is a magazine and website published by NewBay Media that covers multichannel television and communications providers, such as cable operators, satellite television firms and telephone companies, as well as emerging Internet video and communication services.

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Naomi Wolf

Naomi R. Wolf (born November 12, 1962) is a liberal progressive American author, journalist, feminist, and former political advisor to Al Gore and Bill Clinton.

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New York Daily News

The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.

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NewBay Media

NewBay Media, LLC is a magazine and website publisher founded in 2006 and headquartered in New York City.

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News UK

News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp.

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, often referred to as "body sushi", is the Japanese practice of serving sashimi or sushi from the naked body of a woman.

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Object (philosophy)

An object is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject.

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In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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Personality is defined as the set of habitual behaviors, cognitions and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors.

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Philosophy & Public Affairs

Philosophy & Public Affairs is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by John Wiley & Sons.

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Physical attractiveness

Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful.

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Plastic surgery

Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.

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Pornographication, sometimes referred to as raunch culture, denotes the intrusion of the style and contents of the sex industry into mainstream culture (music, television, Hollywood movies) and the sexualisation of Western culture.

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Pornography (often abbreviated porn) is the portrayal of sexual subject matter for the exclusive purpose of sexual arousal.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Problematization of a term, writing, opinion, ideology, identity, or person is to consider the concrete or existential elements of those involved as challenges (problems) that invite the people involved to transform those situations.

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Prometheus Books

Prometheus Books is a publishing company founded in August 1969 by the philosopher Paul Kurtz (who was also the founder of the Council for Secular Humanism, Center for Inquiry, and co-founder of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry).

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Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.

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A prude (Old French prude meaning honourable woman) is a person who is described as (or would describe themselves as) being concerned with decorum or propriety, significantly in excess of normal prevailing standards.

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Psychology of Women Quarterly

Psychology of Women Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the fields of psychology and women's studies.

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Psychology Today

Psychology Today is a magazine published every two months in the United States since 1967.

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PsycINFO is a database of abstracts of literature in the field of psychology.

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Radical feminism

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts.

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Rape culture

Rape culture is a sociological concept for a setting in which rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes about gender and sexuality.

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Raunch aesthetics

Raunch aesthetics is a term in feminist theory which describes the ways in which women in hip hop express their sexuality through performance of lyrics, choreography, and staging.

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Reach plc

Reach plc (formerly known as Trinity Mirror between 1999 and 2018) is a British newspaper, magazine and digital publisher.

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Respect is a positive feeling or action shown towards someone or something considered important, or held in high esteem or regard; it conveys a sense of admiration for good or valuable qualities; and it is also the process of honoring someone by exhibiting care, concern, or consideration for their needs or feelings.

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Robert Jensen

Robert William Jensen (born July 14, 1958) has been professor of journalism at the University of Texas at Austin since 1992.

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Role reversal

Role reversal is one of the psychodrama techniques that demonstrate a protagonist's intrapersonal conflicts deeply and explicitly on the stage.

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Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program

The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, also referred to as the McNair Scholars Program, is a United States Department of Education initiative with a goal of increasing "attainment of PhD degrees by students from underrepresented segments of society,” including first-generation low-income individuals and members from racial and ethnic groups historically underrepresented in graduate programs.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Self-consciousness is a heightened sense of self-awareness.

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Self-image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, etc.), but also items that have been learned by that person about themself, either from personal experiences or by internalizing the judgments of others.

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Self-objectification is when people view themselves as objects for use instead of as human beings.

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Sex in advertising

Sex in advertising is the use of sex appeal in advertising to help sell a particular product or service.

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Sex in film

Sex in film is the inclusion of a presentation in a film of sexuality.

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Sex Roles (journal)

Sex Roles is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer.

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Sex symbol

A sex symbol is a famous person or fictional character widely regarded to be very sexually attractive.

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Sexual desire

Sexual desire is a motivational state and an interest in “sexual objects or activities, or as a wish, or drive to seek out sexual objects or to engage in sexual activities”.

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Sexual dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.

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Sexual ethics

Sexual ethics or sex ethics (also called sexual morality) is the study of human sexuality and the expression of human sexual behavior.

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Sexual Personae

Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson is a 1990 work about sexual decadence in Western literature and the visual arts by scholar Camille Paglia, in which the author addresses major artists and writers such as Donatello, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Emily Brontë, and Oscar Wilde.

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Sexual repression

Sexual repression is a state in which a person is prevented from expressing their own sexuality.

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Sexual revolution

The sexual revolution, also known as a time of sexual liberation, was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the United States and subsequently, the wider world, from the 1960s to the 1980s.

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Sexuality in music videos

Sexuality in music videos has been evident since the 1980s.

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Sexualization (or sexualisation) is to make something sexual in character or quality, or to become aware of sexuality, especially in relation to men and women.

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Sexualization, Media, and Society

Sexualization, Media, and Society (SMS) is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary open-access academic journal, published by Sage, to provide a resource for diverse scholars and activists interested in critically examining the phenomenon of sexualized media as it affects individuals, relationships, communities, and societies.

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Shame is a painful, social emotion that can be seen as resulting "...from comparison of the self's action with the self's standards...". but which may equally stem from comparison of the self's state of being with the ideal social context's standard.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social conservatism

Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Spectator Magazine

Spectator Magazine was an American weekly newspaper published and distributed in San Francisco from 1978 until October 2005, and dubbed itself "California's original adult newsmagazine".

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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A striptease is an erotic or exotic dance in which the performer gradually undresses, either partly or completely, in a seductive and sexually suggestive manner.

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Sut Jhally

Sut Jhally (born 1955) is a professor of communication at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, whose work focuses on cultural studies, advertising, media, and consumption.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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The Counseling Psychologist

The Counseling Psychologist is a peer-reviewed academic journal that focuses on timely topics in such diverse areas as multiculturalism and cross-cultural competency, research methods, vocational psychology, assessment, international counseling and research, prevention and intervention, health, social justice, assessment, and training and supervision.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Sun (United Kingdom)

The Sun is a tabloid newspaper published in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

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The Village Voice

The Village Voice is an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly.

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Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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University of Toronto Press

The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.

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Virtual camera system

In 3D video games, a virtual camera system aims at controlling a camera or a set of cameras to display a view of a 3D virtual world.

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Ways of Seeing

Ways of Seeing is a 1972 television series of 30-minute films created chiefly by writer John Berger and producer Mike Dibb.

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Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.

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Wendy McElroy

Wendy McElroy (born 1951) is a Canadian individualist feminist and anarcho-capitalist writer.

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Wendy Shalit

Wendy Shalit (born 1975) is an American conservative writer and author who has written the books A Return to Modesty: Discovering the Lost Virtue, published by Free Press in 1999 and Girls Gone Mild: Young Rebels Reclaim Self-Respect and Find It's Not Bad to Be Good, published by Random House in 2007 and The Good Girl Revolution: Young Rebels with Self-Esteem and High Standards, published by Random House in 2008.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_objectification

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