105 relations: Alberico Gentili, Bacterial vaginosis, Behavioral addiction, Benzodiazepine, Birth control, Blackmail, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bullying, Cambodia, Carla Del Ponte, Case law, Central African Republic, Centres Against Sexual Assault, Child abuse, Child marriage, Chlamydia infection, Coercion, Colombia, Comfort women, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Corrective rape, Crimes against humanity, Custom (law), Customary international law, Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Domestic violence, Emergency department, Female genital mutilation, Feminist views on pornography, Feminization (sociology), First Geneva Convention, Forced abortion, Forced marriage, Geneva Conventions, Genocide, Genocide Convention, Gonorrhea, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hard law, Hepatitis B, HIV, Honor killing, Human anus, Human penis, Human rights, Human sexual activity, Human sexuality, Human trafficking, Iceberg, ..., International Criminal Court, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International human rights law, International humanitarian law, Intimate partner violence, Ivory Coast, Jean-Paul Akayesu, Liberia, Lieber Code, Louise Arbour, Maputo Protocol, Middle Ages, Murder, National Organization for Women, Navi Pillay, Non-governmental organization, Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Preventive healthcare, Prostitution, Reproduction, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Rwandan genocide, Sexual assault, Sexual desire, Sexual sadism disorder, Sexual violence in Finland, Sexual violence in Papua New Guinea, Sexual violence in South Africa, Sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sexually transmitted infection, Soft law, South Sudan, Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, Sudan, Suicide, Survey (human research), Syphilis, Syria, Transgender, Trichomoniasis, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1888, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, Violence, Virginity, Vulva, War crime, Wartime sexual violence, Women's History Review, World Health Organization, World War I. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
Alberico Gentili (January 14, 1552June 19, 1608) was an Italian lawyer, jurist, and a former standing advocate to the Spanish Embassy in London, who served as the Regius professor of civil law at the University of Oxford for 21 years.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.
Behavioral addiction is a form of addiction that involves a compulsion to engage in a rewarding non-drug-related behavior – sometimes called a natural reward – despite any negative consequences to the person's physical, mental, social or financial well-being.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate or aggressively dominate others.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947) is a former Chief Prosecutor of two United Nations international criminal law tribunals.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Centres Against Sexual Assault (CASA) are non-profit, government funded organisations in Victoria, Australia.
Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
Corrective rape is a hate crime in which one or more people are raped because of their perceived sexual orientation or gender identity.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women was adopted without vote by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Feminist views on pornography range from condemnation of all of it as a form of violence against women, to an embracing of some forms as a medium of feminist expression.
In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine.
The First Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field, held on 22 August 1864, is the first of four treaties of the Geneva Conventions.
A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Hard law refers to actual binding legal instruments and laws.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
The human anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is the external opening of the rectum.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jean-Paul Akayesu (born 1953) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican Democratic Movement (MDR) politician from Rwanda.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The Lieber Code of April 24, 1863, also known as Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, General Order № 100, or Lieber Instructions, was an instruction signed by US President Abraham Lincoln to the Union Forces of the United States during the American Civil War that dictated how soldiers should conduct themselves in wartime.
Louise Arbour, (born February 10, 1947) is a Canadian lawyer, prosecutor and jurist.
The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the Maputo Protocol, guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political equality with men, improved autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist organization founded in 1966.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
After a sexual assault or rape, victims are often subjected to scrutiny and, in some cases, mistreatment.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Sexual desire is a motivational state and an interest in “sexual objects or activities, or as a wish, or drive to seek out sexual objects or to engage in sexual activities”.
Sexual sadism disorder is the condition of experiencing sexual arousal in response to the extreme pain, suffering or humiliation of others.
The Nordic countries are often praised for their achievements on gender equality, yet Finland is European Union's second most violent country for women with 47 percent of Finnish women saying that they have experienced physical and/or sexual violence since the age of 15 in 2012.
Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often labelled as potentially the worst place in the world for gender violence.
The rate of sexual violence in South Africa is among the highest in the world.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the east of the country in particular, has been described as the "Rape Capital of the World," and the prevalence and intensity of all forms of sexual violence has been described as the worst in the world.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
The term "soft law" refers to quasi-legal instruments which do not have any legally binding force, or whose binding force is somewhat weaker than the binding force of traditional law, often contrasted with soft law by being referred to as "hard law".
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
On 4 March 1994 the Human Rights Council passed Resolution 1994/45 on the question of integrating the rights of women into the human rights mechanisms of the United Nations and the elimination of violence against women.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
In research of human subjects, a survey is a list of questions aimed at extracting specific data from a particular group of people.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Trichomoniasis (trich) is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1888 was unanimously adopted on 30 September 2009.
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, also known as VDPA, is a human rights declaration adopted by consensus at the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993 in Vienna, Austria.
Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
Women's History Review is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of women's history published by Routledge.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.