67 relations: Al-Assad family, Al-Nusra Front, Al-Qabu, Syria, Al-Qubeir, Alawites, Aleppo, Aleppo Governorate, Ancient Rome, Antiquities, Arab Organization for Human Rights, Ba'ath Party (Syrian-dominated faction), Baltagiya, Banias, Bashar al-Assad, Basij, Bassel al-Assad, Battle of Aleppo (2012–2016), Battle of Tremseh, BBC News, Beqaa Valley, Black market, Bloomberg Businessweek, Brian Stelter, C. J. Chivers, Counter-insurgency, Foreign Affairs, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Free Syrian Army, Google News, Hafez al-Assad, Homs, Houla, Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Latakia, Lebanon, Levantine Arabic, List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War, Maarzaf, Mercedes-Benz W140, Mercenary, Militia, National Defence Forces, NBC News, NBC News team kidnapping in Syria, Popular Committees (Syria), Richard Engel, Rif Dimashq clashes (November 2011–March 2012), Rif Dimashq offensive (August–October 2012), Rifaat al-Assad, ..., Rump state, Syria, Syrian Armed Forces, Syrian Civil War, Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Syrian opposition, Tartus, The Daily Beast, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, The New York Times, The Sunday Times, The Washington Post, United Nations Human Rights Council, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria, 4th Armoured Division (Syria). Expand index (17 more) » « Shrink index
The al-Assad family (عائِلَة الأَسَد) has ruled Syria since Hafez al-Assad became President of Syria in 1971 and established an authoritarian government under the control of the Ba'ath Party.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Al-Qabu (القبو, also spelled Kabu) is a town in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, northwest of Homs.
Al-Qubeir (Arabic: القبير; also referred to as Mazraat al-Qubeir, Qubair, Qubayr, al-Qubayr and al-Kubeir in various news reports) is a settlement in the Hama Governorate of Syria, near the larger village of Maarzaf.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antiquities are objects from antiquity, especially the civilizations of the Mediterranean: the Classical antiquity of Greece and Rome, Ancient Egypt and the other Ancient Near Eastern cultures.
The Arab Organization for Human Rights (المنظمة العربية لحقوق الإنسان) is a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) that works on human rights issues in the Arab World.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (meaning "resurrection" or "renaissance"; حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabī Al-Ishtirākī), also referred to as the pro-Syrian Ba'ath movement, is a neo-Ba'athist political party with branches across the Arab world.
Baltagiya or Baltajiya (البلطجية) in Arabic also Baltaga or Baltaja (البلطجة) is an Egyptian word that originally means "hatchet men", from (Baltacı), who were vigorous, disciplined and loyal servants to the Ottoman Empire, but it generally means "goons" or "thugs" or "gangs," who are often hired to attack regime targets.
Banias (بانياس الحولة; בניאס) is the Arabic and modern Hebrew name of an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god Pan.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad (بشار حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:;; born 11 September 1965) is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th and current President of Syria since 17 July 2000.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Bassel al-Assad (Arabic: باسل الأسد Bāssel al Assad; 23 March 1962 – 21 January 1994) was a Syrian engineer, colonel, and politician who was the eldest son of President of Syria Hafez al-Assad and the older brother of (later) President Bashar al-Assad.
The Battle of Aleppo (معركة حلب) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni groups, such as the Levant Front and the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front) against the government of Bashar al-Assad, supported by Hezbollah, Shia militias and Russia, and against the Kurdish People's Protection Units. The battle began on 19 July 2012 and was part of the ongoing Syrian Civil War. A stalemate that had been in place for four years finally ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the rebels' last supply line into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign that resulted in the recapture of all of Aleppo by December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. The large scale devastation of the battle and its importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles" or "Syria's Stalingrad". The battle was marked by widespread violence against civilians, alleged repeated targeting of hospitals and schools (mostly by pro-government Air Forces and to a lesser extent by the rebels), and indiscriminate aerial strikes and shelling against civilian areas. It was also marked by the inability of the international community to resolve the conflict peacefully. The UN special envoy to Syria proposed to end the battle by giving East Aleppo autonomy, but the idea was rejected by the Syrian government. Hundreds of thousands of residents were displaced by the fighting and efforts to provide aid to civilians or facilitate evacuation were routinely disrupted by continued combat and mistrust between the opposing sides. Various claims of war crimes emerged during the battle, including the use of chemical weapons by both Syrian government forces and rebel forces, the use barrel bombs by the Syrian Air Force, the dropping of cluster munitions on populated areas by Russian and Syrian forces, the carrying out of "double tap" airstrikes to target rescue workers responding to previous strikes, summary executions of civilians and captured soldiers by both sides, indiscriminate shelling and use of highly inaccurate improvised artillery by rebel forces. During the 2016 Syrian government offensive, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warned that "crimes of historic proportions" were being committed in Aleppo. Fighting also caused severe destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. An estimated 33,500 buildings have been either damaged or destroyed. After four years of fighting, the battle represents one of the longest sieges in modern warfare and one of the bloodiest battles of the Syrian Civil War, leaving an estimated 31,000 people dead, almost a tenth of the estimated overall war casualties at that time.
The Battle of Tremseh (معركة التريمسة) was a military confrontation between the Syrian Army and the Free Syrian Army in Tremseh, Syria, in the late hours of 12 July 2012 during the Syrian Civil War leading to the reported death of dozens of rebels, and an unknown number of civilians.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Brian Patrick Stelter (born September 3, 1985) is an American journalist who is the senior media correspondent for CNN and host of the CNN program Reliable Sources.
Christopher John Chivers (born 1964) is an American journalist and author best known for his work with The New York Times and Esquire magazine.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt General Newspaper), abbreviated FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
The Houla Region or Houla Plain (الحولة al-Ḥūlāh) is an area consisting of three villages in the Homs Governorate of central Syria, northwest of the city of Homs.
The Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic was set up by the United Nations Human Rights Council on 22 August 2011 to investigate human rights violations during the Syrian Civil War.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
A number of armed groups have involved themselves in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.
Ma'arzaf (معرزاف) is a village in northern Syria, administratively part of the Hama Governorate, located northwest of Hama.
The Mercedes-Benz W140 is a series of flagship vehicles that were manufactured by the German automotive company Mercedes-Benz from 1991 to 1998.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
The National Defence Forces (NDF) (قوات الدفاع الوطني Quwāt ad-Difāʿ al-Watanī) is a pro-government militia, formed after summer 2012 and organized by the Syrian government during the Syrian Civil War as a part-time volunteer reserve component of the Syrian Armed Forces.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
The NBC News Team kidnapping in Syria took place in late 2012 inmidst the Syrian Civil War, when US journalist Richard Engel, chief foreign correspondent of NBC News, with his six-member reporting crew were abducted by armed militants.
The Popular Committees (also called Lijan militias; اللجان الشعبية al-Lijan al-Sha'biyah, meaning "people's committees") were militias that emerged in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.
Richard Engel (born September 16, 1973) is an American journalist and author who is NBC News' chief foreign correspondent.
The Rif Dimashq clashes were a series of unrests and armed clashes in and around Damascus, the capital of Syria, from November 2011 till a stalemate in March 2012.
The Rif Dimashq offensive (August–October 2012) (اشتباكات ريف دمشق) was a Syrian Army offensive in the Rif Dimashq Governorate during August–October 2012, as part of the Syrian Civil War.
Rifaat Ali al-Assad (رفعت علي الأسد; born 22 August 1937) is the younger brother of the former President of Syria, Hafez Assad and Jamil Assad, and the uncle of the incumbent President Bashar al-Assad.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Arab Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة العربية السورية, Forces armées syriennes) are the military forces of the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian opposition (المعارضة السورية) is an umbrella term for the political structure represented by the Syrian National Coalition and associated anti-government Syrian groups with certain territorial control in the form of a proto-state as an alternative Syrian government, claiming to be the legitimate Syrian Arab Republic and also sometimes known just as the Republic of Syria.
Tartus (طرطوس / ALA-LC: Ṭarṭūs; also transliterated Tartous) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of Syria.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sunday Times is the largest-selling British national newspaper in the "quality press" market category.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United Nations Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) is a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Syria, set up in 2012 as a result of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2043 in response to the Syrian Civil War.
The 4th Armoured Division (الفرقة الرابعة Al-Firqa ar-Rābiʿah) is an elite formation of the Syrian Army whose primary purpose is to defend the Syrian government from internal and external threats.