80 relations: Algorithm, Alpha compositing, Bloom (shader effect), Bokeh, Brightness, Bump mapping, Cardinal point (optics), Cel shading, Cg (programming language), Chroma key, Color, Colorfulness, Compute kernel, Computer graphics, Computer program, Computer-generated imagery, Contrast (vision), Cube mapping, Curve, Darkness, Data parallelism, Dataflow, Defocus aberration, Digital image, Direct3D, Distortion (optics), Edge detection, Filmmaking, Filter (video), Fragment (computer graphics), Framebuffer, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, Geometric primitive, Glossary of computer graphics, Graphics pipeline, Graphics processing unit, High-Level Shading Language, Higher-order function, Hue, Light, List of common shading algorithms, MapReduce, Metal (API), Motion detection, Normal mapping, Nvidia, OpenGL, OpenGL ES, OpenGL Shading Language, Parallel computing, ..., Pipeline (computing), Pixar, Pixel, Posterization, Psychedelia, Rasterisation, Rendering (computer graphics), RenderMan Interface Specification, Shader, Shading, Shading language, Shadow, Shadow volume, Special effect, Specular highlight, Sprite (computer graphics), Standard Portable Intermediate Representation, Subdivision surface, Tessellation (computer graphics), Texture (visual arts), Texture mapping, Unified shader model, Variable (computer science), Vector processor, Vertex (computer graphics), Video game, Video post-processing, Volumetric lighting, Z-buffering, 3D modeling. Expand index (30 more) » « Shrink index
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In computer graphics, alpha compositing is the process of combining an image with a background to create the appearance of partial or full transparency.
Bloom (sometimes referred to as light bloom or glow) is a computer graphics effect used in video games, demos, and high dynamic range rendering (HDRR) to reproduce an imaging artifact of real-world cameras.
In photography, bokeh (— also sometimes pronounced as) is the aesthetic quality of the blur produced in the out-of-focus parts of an image produced by a lens.
Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.
Bump mapping is a technique in computer graphics for simulating bumps and wrinkles on the surface of an object.
In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system.
Cel shading or toon shading is a type of non-photorealistic rendering designed to make 3-D computer graphics appear to be flat by using less shading color instead of a shade gradient or tints and shades.
Cg (short for C for Graphics) is a high-level shading language developed by Nvidia in close collaboration with Microsoft for programming vertex and pixel shaders.
Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range).
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.
In computing, a compute kernel is a routine compiled for high throughput accelerators (such as GPUs, DSPs or FPGAs), separate from (but used by) a main program.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
In computer graphics, cube mapping is a method of environment mapping that uses the six faces of a cube as the map shape.
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.
Darkness, the polar opposite to brightness, is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light.
Data parallelism is parallelization across multiple processors in parallel computing environments.
Dataflow is a term used in computing which has various meanings depending on application and the context in which the term is used.
In optics, defocus is the aberration in which an image is simply out of focus.
A digital image is a numeric representation, normally binary, of a two-dimensional image.
Direct3D is a graphics application programming interface (API) for Microsoft Windows.
In geometric optics, distortion is a deviation from rectilinear projection; a projection in which straight lines in a scene remain straight in an image.
Edge detection includes a variety of mathematical methods that aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
A video filter is a software component that performs some operation on a multimedia stream.
In computer graphics, a fragment is the data necessary to generate a single pixel's worth of a drawing primitive in the frame buffer.
A framebuffer (frame buffer, or sometimes framestore) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).
The term geometric primitive, or prim, in computer graphics and CAD systems is used in various senses, with the common meaning of the simplest (i.e. 'atomic' or irreducible) geometric objects that the system can handle (draw, store).
This is a glossary of terms relating computer graphics.
In computer graphics, a computer graphics pipeline, rendering pipeline or simply graphics pipeline, is a conceptual model that describes what steps a graphics system needs to perform to render a 3D scene to a 2D screen.
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
The High-Level Shader Language or High-Level Shading Language (HLSL) is a proprietary shading language developed by Microsoft for the Direct3D 9 API to augment the shader assembly language, and went on to become the required shading language for the unified shader model of Direct3D 10 and higher.
In mathematics and computer science, a higher-order function (also functional, functional form or functor) is a function that does at least one of the following.
Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This article lists common shading algorithms used in computer graphics.
MapReduce is a programming model and an associated implementation for processing and generating big data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster.
Metal is a low-level, low-overhead hardware-accelerated 3D graphic and compute shader application programming interface (API) developed by Apple Inc., and which debuted in iOS 8.
Motion detection is the process of detecting a change in the position of an object relative to its surroundings or a change in the surroundings relative to an object.
In 3D computer graphics, normal mapping, or Dot3 bump mapping, is a technique used for faking the lighting of bumps and dents – an implementation of bump mapping.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL) is a cross-language, cross-platform application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics.
OpenGL for Embedded Systems (OpenGL ES or GLES) is a subset of the OpenGL computer graphics rendering application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D computer graphics such as those used by video games, typically hardware-accelerated using a graphics processing unit (GPU).
OpenGL Shading Language (abbreviated: GLSL), is a high-level shading language with a syntax based on the C programming language.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
In computing, a pipeline, also known as a data pipeline, is a set of data processing elements connected in series, where the output of one element is the input of the next one.
Pixar Animation Studios, commonly referred to as Pixar, is an American computer animation movie studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
Posterization or posterisation of an image entails conversion of a continuous gradation of tone to several regions of fewer tones, with abrupt changes from one tone to another.
Psychedelia is the subculture, originating in the 1960s, of people who often use psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline (found in peyote) and psilocybin (found in some mushrooms).
Rasterisation (or rasterization) is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer, or for storage in a bitmap file format.
Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.
The RenderMan Interface Specification, or RISpec in short, is an open API developed by Pixar Animation Studios to describe three-dimensional scenes and turn them into digital photorealistic images.
In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.
Shading refers to depicting depth perception in 3D models or illustrations by varying levels of darkness.
A shading language is a graphics programming language adapted to programming shader effects (characterizing surfaces, volumes, and objects).
A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.
Shadow volume is a technique used in 3D computer graphics to add shadows to a rendered scene.
Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.
A specular highlight is the bright spot of light that appears on shiny objects when illuminated (for example, see image at right).
In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.
Standard Portable Intermediate Representation (SPIR) is an intermediate language for parallel compute and graphics by Khronos Group, originally developed for use with OpenCL.
A subdivision surface, in the field of 3D computer graphics, is a method of representing a smooth surface via the specification of a coarser piecewise linear polygon mesh.
In computer graphics, tessellation is used to manage datasets of polygons (sometimes called vertex sets) presenting objects in a scene and divide them into suitable structures for rendering.
In the visual arts, texture is the perceived surface quality of a work of art.
Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model.
In the field of 3D computer graphics, the Unified Shader Model (known in Direct3D 10 as "Shader Model 4.0") refers to a form of shader hardware in a graphical processing unit (GPU) where all of the shader stages in the rendering pipeline (geometry, vertex, pixel, etc.) have the same capabilities.
In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.
In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
A vertex (plural vertices) in computer graphics is a data structure that describes certain attributes, like the position of a point in 2D or 3D space, at multiple points on a surface.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
The term post-processing (or postproc for short) is used in the video/film business for quality-improvement image processing (specifically digital image processing) methods used in video playback devices, (such as stand-alone DVD-Video players), and video players software and transcoding software.
Volumetric lighting is a technique used in 3D computer graphics to add lighting effects to a rendered scene.
In computer graphics, z-buffering, also known as depth buffering, is the management of image depth coordinates in 3D graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software.
In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software.
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