240 relations: Al-Balqa` Applied University, Alberta Taciuk process, Alexander Selligue, Ambre Energy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, American Shale Oil, Amman, Ammonia, Annulus (well), Anode, Aromaticity, Asphalt, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Biomass, Brazil, Brill Publishers, Bureau of Land Management, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Cathode, Ceramic, Char, Chemical industry, Chemical plant, Chemical reaction, Chevron Corporation, Chevron CRUSH, Chevron STB process, Chicago, China, China University of Petroleum, Coal gasification, Colorado, Colorado School of Mines, Combustibility and flammability, Combustion Resources, Condensation, Convection, Cracking (chemistry), CRC Press, Denver, Deseret News, Destructive distillation, Direct current, Dolomite, Economies of scale, Eesti Energia, ..., Electric arc, Electrode array, Endothermic process, Energy Policy Act of 2005, Energy returned on energy invested, Energy security, Enhanced oil recovery, Environmental impact statement, Environmental resource management, Environmentalism, Erosion, Estonia, Ex situ conservation, ExxonMobil, ExxonMobil Electrofrac, Fischer assay, Fluidized bed, Fluidized bed reactor, Fortune (magazine), Fossil fuel, France, Fredrik Ljungström, Fuel cell, Fuel oil, Fushun, Fushun Mining Group, Fushun process, Galoter process, Gas combustion retort process, Gas Technology Institute, Gasification, Geokinetics, Geological Society of London, Golden, Colorado, Government Accountability Office, Greenhouse gas, Greenpeace, Groundwater, Groundwater pollution, Gulf Publishing Company, Heating element, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hytort process, Illinois Institute of Technology, In situ, Independent Energy Partners, Industrial processes, Inorganic compound, Institute of Occupational Medicine, International Energy Agency, Ion, James Young (chemist), Jordan, Joule heating, KENTORT II, Kerogen, Kiviter process, Kumla Municipality, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Limestone, LLNL HRS process, LLNL RISE process, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lurgi–Ruhrgas process, Manchuria, Masawaih al-Mardini, McGraw-Hill Education, Mercury (element), Microwave, Middle East, Mineral, Modular design, Molecule, Morocco, Mountain West Energy, Narva Oil Plant, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academies Press, Natural Resources Defense Council, Natural rubber, Negev, Nevada–Texas–Utah retort, New Orleans, New Zealand, Nitrogen, Nuclear power, Occidental Petroleum, OECD, Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, Office of Technology Assessment, Oil & Gas Journal, Oil refinery, Oil reserves, Oil shale, Oil Shale (journal), Oil shale gas, Oil shale geology, Oil shale in China, Oil shale in Estonia, Oil shale in Jordan, Oil shale industry, Oil shale reserves, Oil well, Omnishale process, Paraho process, Paris, Particulates, Peat, PennWell, Petrobras, Petroleum, Petroleum coke, Petroleum industry, Petrosix, Piceance Basin, Picoline, Pitch (resin), Plasma (physics), Plasma torch, Plastic, Precursor (chemistry), Price of oil, Propane, Pumpherston retort, Pyridine, Pyrolysis, Queensland Energy Resources, Quinoline, Radical (chemistry), Radio wave, RAND Corporation, Raytheon, Red Leaf Resources, Redox, Reflux, Retort, Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Rotary kiln, Royal Dutch Shell, San Antonio, Schlumberger, Science (journal), Scotland, Shale oil, Shell in situ conversion process, Shell Spher process, Skin effect, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Solvent, South Africa, Spain, Speciality chemicals, Stuart Oil Shale Project, Sulfur, Supercritical fluid, Superheated steam, Superior multimineral process, Surface mining, Sweden, Switzerland, Syngas, Synthetic crude, Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program, Tallinn, Tallinn University of Technology, Texas, The Jordan Times, Thermal conduction, Thermal dissolution, Thermal efficiency, Tonne, TOSCO II process, Traditional mining, Transfer hydrogenation, Unconventional oil, Underground mining (soft rock), Union process, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Unocal Corporation, Upgrader, Viru Keemia Grupp, Waste heat, Wax, Wiley-Blackwell, World Energy Council, World War II, 2,6-Lutidine. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
Al-Balqa' Applied University (BAU) (Arabic جامعة البلقاء التطبيقية) is a government-supported university located in Salt, Jordan, was founded in 1997, a distinctive state university in the field of Bachelor and associate degree Applied Education, at the capacity of more than 21,000 student distributed into 10,000 at the bachelor's degree program and 11,000 at the associate degree program.
The Alberta Taciuk process (ATP; known also as the AOSTRA Taciuk process) is an above-ground dry thermal retorting technology for extracting oil from oil sands, oil shale and other organics-bearing materials, including oil contaminated soils, sludges and wastes.
Alexander François Selligue (1784-1845) was a French engineer.
Ambre Energy Limited is an Australian coal and oil shale company.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) is one of the world's largest professional geological societies with more than 35,000 members as of 2017.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is a professional organization for chemical engineers.
The American Shale Oil, LLC (AMSO), originally known as EGL Oil Shale, LLC, was a developer of in-situ shale oil extraction technology based in Rifle, Colorado.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The annulus of an oil well or water well is any void between any piping, tubing or casing and the piping, tubing, or casing immediately surrounding it.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Char is the solid material that remains after light gases (e.g. coal gas) and tar have been driven out or released from a carbonaceous material during the initial stage of combustion, which is known as carbonization, charring, devolatilization or pyrolysis.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
Chevron CRUSH is an experimental in situ shale oil extraction technology to convert kerogen in oil shale to shale oil.
The Chevron STB process (also known as Staged Turbulent Bed Retorting Process) is an above-ground shale oil extraction technology.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China University of Petroleum is a university in China.
Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapour (H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Colorado School of Mines, also referred to as "Mines", is a public teaching and research university in Golden, Colorado, devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Combustion Resources, Inc. is a consulting company based in Provo, Utah, United States.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Eesti Energia AS is a private limited energy company in Estonia with its headquarters in Tallinn.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
An electrode array is a configuration of electrodes used for measuring either an electric current or voltage.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is a bill passed by the United States Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
In physics, energy economics, and ecological energetics, energy returned on energy invested (EROEI or ERoEI); or energy return on investment (EROI), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy (the exergy) delivered from a particular energy resource to the amount of exergy used to obtain that energy resource.
Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.
Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.
An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment".
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation".
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.
ExxonMobil Electrofrac is an in situ shale oil extraction technology proposed by ExxonMobil for converting kerogen in oil shale to shale oil.
The Fischer assay is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale to be expected from a conventional shale oil extraction.
A fluidised bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid.
A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) is a type of reactor device that can be used to carry out a variety of multiphase chemical reactions.
Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fredrik Ljungström (16 June 1875 in Stockholm – 18 February 1964 in Stockholm) was a Swedish engineer, technical designer, and industrialist.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.
Fushun (formerly romanised as Fouchouen, using French spelling, also as Fuxi (撫西)) is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, China, about east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants (2010 census) and a total area of, of which is the city proper.
Fushun Mining Group(FMG) is a large state-owned coal and oil shale company located in Fushun, Liaoning Province, China.
The Fushun process is an above-ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
The Galoter process (also known as TSK, UTT, or SHC; its newest modifications are called Enefit and Petroter) is a shale oil extraction technology for a production of shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil.
The gas combustion retort process (also referred as gas-combustion retorting process) was an above-ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
The Gas Technology Institute is an American non-profit research and development organization which develops, demonstrates, and licenses new energy technologies for private and public clients, with a particular focus on the natural gas industry.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
Geokinetics Inc. provides seismic data services to the oil and gas industry.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Golden is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.
Gulf Publishing Company is an international publishing and events business dedicated to the hydrocarbon energy sector.
A heating element converts energy into heat through the process of resistive or Joule heating.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
The Hytort process is an above-ground shale oil extraction process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology.
Illinois Institute of Technology (Illinois Tech or IIT) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.
In situ (often not italicized in English) is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position".
Independent Energy Partners, Inc. (IEP) is an oil shale resources company based in Parker, Colorado, the United States.
Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical, physical, electrical or mechanical steps to aid in the manufacturing of an item or items, usually carried out on a very large scale.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
James Young (13 July 1811 – 13 May 1883) was a Scottish chemist best known for his method of distilling paraffin from coal and oil shales.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.
KENTORT II is an above-ground shale oil extraction process developed by the Center for Applied Energy Research of the University of Kentucky.
Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.
The Kiviter process is an above ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
Kumla Municipality (Kumla kommun) is a municipality in Örebro County in central Sweden.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
LLNL HRS (hot recycled solid) process is an above-ground shale oil extraction technology.
The LLNL RISE process was an experimental shale oil extraction technology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
The Lurgi–Ruhrgas process is an above-ground coal liquefaction and shale oil extraction technology.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Masawaih al-Mardini (Yahyā ibn Masawaih al-Mardini; known as Mesue the Younger) was a Syrian physician.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Modular design, or "modularity in design", is a design approach that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, that can be independently created and then used in different systems.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mountain West Energy, LLC is an American unconventional oil recovery technology research and development company based in Orem, Utah.
Narva Oil Plant (Narva Õlitehas), a subsidiary of Eesti Energia, is a producer of shale oil from oil shale.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
The Nevada–Texas–Utah retort process (also known as NTU, Dundas–Howes or Rexco process) was an above-ground shale oil extraction technology to produce shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Occidental Petroleum Corporation (often abbreviated Oxy in reference to its ticker symbol) is an American multinational petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company incorporated in Delaware and headquartered in Houston, Texas with operations in the United States, the Middle East, and Latin America.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The United States Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves is part of the US Department of Energy.
The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) was an office of the United States Congress from 1972 to 1995.
The Oil & Gas Journal is a leading petroleum industry weekly publication with a worldwide coverage.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
Oil Shale is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in petrology, especially concerning oil shale.
Oil shale gas (also: retort gas or retorting gas) is a synthetic non-condensable gas mixture (syngas) produced by oil shale thermal processing (pyrolysis).
Oil shale geology is a branch of geologic sciences which studies the formation and composition of oil shales–fine-grained sedimentary rocks containing significant amounts of kerogen, and belonging to the group of sapropel fuels.
Oil shale in China is an important source of unconventional oil.
Oil shale (põlevkivi) is a strategic energy resource that constitutes about 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Oil shale in Jordan represents a significant resource.
The oil shale industry is an industry of mining and processing of oil shale—a fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds), from which liquid hydrocarbons can be manufactured.
Oil shale reserves refers to oil shale resources that are economically recoverable under current economic conditions and technological abilities.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
Omnishale process (also known as the Petro Probe process) is an in situ shale oil extraction technology to convert kerogen in oil shale to shale oil.
The Paraho process is an above ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
PennWell Corporation is a family-owned, diversified business-to-business ded-tree press publisher founded in 1910 and based in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. — Petrobras, more commonly known as simply Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Petrosix is the world’s largest surface oil shale pyrolysis retort with an diameter vertical shaft kiln, operational since 1992.
The Piceance Basin is a geologic structural basin in northwestern Colorado, in the United States.
Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93.13 g mol−1.
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
A plasma torch (also known as a plasma arc, plasma gun, or plasma cutter, plasmatron) is a device for generating a directed flow of plasma.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
The Pumpherston retort (also known as the Bryson retort) was a type of oil-shale retort used in Scotland at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Queensland Energy Resources Limited (QERL) is an Australian oil shale mining and shale oil extraction company with the headquarters in Brisbane.
Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
The Raytheon Company is a major U.S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics.
Red Leaf Resources, Inc, is an oil-shale company based in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company was an American shale oil extraction technology research and development company.
A rotary kiln is a pyroprocessing device used to raise materials to a high temperature (calcination) in a continuous process.
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
Schlumberger Limited is the world's largest oilfield services company.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Shale oil is an unconventional oil produced from oil shale rock fragments by pyrolysis, hydrogenation, or thermal dissolution.
The Shell's in situ conversion process (Shell ICP) is an in situ shale oil extraction technology to convert kerogen in oil shale to shale oil.
The Shell Spher process (Shell Pellet Heat Exchange Retorting) is an above ground fluidization bed retorting technology for shale oil extraction.
Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.
The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit professional organization whose mission is to collect, disseminate, and exchange technical knowledge concerning the exploration, development and production of oil and gas resources and related technologies for the public benefit and to provide opportunities for professionals to enhance their technical and professional competence.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Speciality chemicals (also called specialties or effect chemicals) are particular chemical products which provide a wide variety of effects on which many other industry sectors rely.
The Stuart Oil Shale Project is an oil shale development project in Yarwun near Gladstone, Queensland, Australia.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.
Superheated steam is a steam at a temperature higher than its vaporization (boiling) point at the absolute pressure where the temperature is measured.
The Superior multimineral process (also known as the McDowell–Wellman process or circular grate process) is an above ground shale oil extraction technology designed for production of shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Synthetic crude is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production.
The Synthetic Liquid Fuels Program was a program run by the United States Bureau of Mines to create the technology to produce synthetic fuel from coal and oil shale.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
Established in 1918, Tallinn University of Technology (TTÜ; Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, abbreviated TTÜ) is the only technical university in Estonia.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Jordan Times is an English-language daily newspaper based in Amman, Jordan.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermal dissolution is a hydrogen-donor solvent refining process.
In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The TOSCO II process is an above ground retorting technology for shale oil extraction, which uses fine particles of oil shale that are heated in a rotating kiln.
Traditional mining, also known as old-school mining, is a mining method involving the use of simple manual tools, such as shovels, pickaxes, hammers, chisels and pans.
Transfer hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen (H2; dihydrogen in inorganic and organometallic chemistry) to a molecule from a source other than gaseous H2.
Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.
Underground soft rock mining is a group of underground mining techniques used to extract coal, oil shale, potash and other minerals or geological materials from sedimentary ("soft") rocks.
The Union process was an above ground shale oil extraction technology for production of shale oil, a type of synthetic crude oil.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Union Oil Company of California, dba Unocal is a company that was a major petroleum explorer and marketer in the late 19th century, through the 20th century, and into the early 21st century.
An upgrader is a facility that upgrades bitumen (extra heavy oil) into synthetic crude oil.
Viru Keemia Grupp (VKG) is an Estonian holding group of oil shale industry, power generation, and public utility companies.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
The World Energy Council is a global and inclusive forum for thought-leadership and tangible engagement with headquarters in London.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
2,6-Lutidine is a natural heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C5H3N.
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