346 relations: Adam Brand (explorer), Alaska Native religion, Alice Beck Kehoe, Allegory, Altaic mythologies, Altar, Altered state of consciousness, Amanita muscaria, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, American Anthropologist, American Indian boarding schools, American Museum of Natural History, Amulet, Animal sacrifice, Animism, Anito, Arabic, Archetype, Astral projection, Autosuggestion, Avvakum, Axis mundi, Ayahuasca, Aymara people, Éva Pócs, Śramaṇa, Babaylan, Beijing, Benandanti, Bladesmith, Bobohizan, Brujería, Buddhism, Bulgars, Buryats, Canadian Indian residential school system, Cannabis (drug), Carlo Ginzburg, Causality, Central Siberian Yupik language, Chaos magic, Cherokee Nation, Chile, China, Chinese theology, Christian mission, Chukchi people, Claude Lecouteux, Code, ..., Consciousness, Cultural appropriation, Culture, Curandero, Curse, Dagaaba people, Dance, David Charles Manners, Demographics of Siberia, Dialect continuum, Divination, Dogma, Dogon people, Douglas Sharon, Dream, Drum, Dukun, Echinopsis pachanoi, Ecology, Enets people, Entheogen, Environmental resource management, Eskimo, Ethnic religion, Ethnography, Ethnolinguistics, Ethnopoetics, Even language, Evenki language, Evocation, Familiar spirit, Fasting, Field research, First Nations, Flatland, Folk healer, Folk religion, Forbidden City, Fortune-telling, Fridtjof Nansen, Fuegians, Galilee, Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gondwana, Grammatical gender, Grave goods, Greenland, Guizhou, Gurung people, Healing, Hermeneutics, Hinduism, Hmong customs and culture, Hmong people, Hungarians, Hunter-gatherer, Hypertensive crisis, Icaro, Incantation, India, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of Siberia, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indonesia, Infertility, Inuit, Inuit throat singing, Ipomoea tricolor, Ippei Shimamura, Itako, Jan Fries, Japan, Jerome Rothenberg, Jhākri, Joseph Campbell, Journal of Material Culture, Judeo-Christian, Juha Janhunen, Juha Pentikäinen, Kadazan-Dusun, Kami, Khanate of Kazan, Khanty, Knowledge, Labrador Peninsula, Language shift, Laurasia, Lübeck, Leonard George, Lepcha people, Limbu people, List of federally recognized tribes, Locus classicus, Maban, Machi (shaman), Malay Peninsula, Maleficium (sorcery), Mali, Manchu language, Manchu people, Mapuche, Mediation, Medicine man, Mediumship, Mergini, Mescaline, Mestizo, Miao folk religion, Michael Harner, Michael Witzel, Michel Weber, Mircea Eliade, Modern Paganism, Mongols, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Mun (religion), Music semiology, Muti, Mysticism, Nanai language, Nanai people, Natufian culture, Natural sounds, Negidal language, Nenets people, Neolithic, Neoshamanism, Nepal, Netsilik Inuit, Neuroanthropology, Neuroscience of religion, New Age, Nganasan people, Nguni people, Nicolaes Witsen, Noble savage, North Asia, North Korea, Northeast China, Ob River, Occult, Okinawa Prefecture, Olkhon Island, Omen, Onomatopoeia, Oroch language, Orok language, Oroqen people, Otherworld, Pachamama, Paganism, Palace of Earthly Tranquility, Paleolithic, Pannonian Basin, Papua New Guinea, Peruvian Amazonia, Peyote, Phaedrus (dialogue), Philippines, Phytogeography, Piaroa people, Piers Vitebsky, Plane (esotericism), Plastic shaman, Plato, Poison, Prehistoric medicine, Prehistory of the Levant, Prophet, Proto-Uralic language, Psilocybin mushroom, Psychoactive drug, Psychopomp, Q'ero, Qing dynasty, Racism, Rai people, Rainmaking, Reincarnation, Religion, Religious ecstasy, Reuters, Richard Noll, Rite of passage, Ritual, Romani people, Ronald Hutton, Runes, Russia, Russian language, Ryukyu Islands, Sabah, Sacrifice, Saga, Salvia divinorum, Samoyedic languages, Samoyedic peoples, Sanskrit, Santo Daime, Sarawak, Scarcity, Scrying, Sedna (mythology), Seiðr, Selk'nam people, Selkup people, Semiotics, Serotonin, Shaitan, Shanty town, Sherpa people, Shinto, Shona people, Siberia, Siberian Yupik, Siege of Kazan, Sikkim, Singing, Sirenik Eskimo language, Sirenik Eskimos, Sisaala language, Sleight of hand, Soul, Soul dualism, Soulcatcher, Sound mimesis in various cultures, South Korea, Spirit, Spirit guide, Spirit possession, Spirit spouse, Spirit world (Spiritualism), Spirituality, Storytelling, Suffix, Sunuwar people, Supernatural, Sweat lodge, Symbol, Syncretism, Tabernanthe iboga, Taboo, Taiwan, Tamang people, Taoism, Tatars, Táltos, Tengrism, Thames & Hudson, The Secret History of the Mongols, Tierra del Fuego, Tlamatini, Tngri, Tobacco, Totem, Tradition, Traditional healers of South Africa, Trail of Tears, Trance, Tryptophan, Tucano people, Tundra, Tungusic languages, Tupilaq, Turkic peoples, Tuvans, Tyramine, Udege language, Ulch language, União do Vegetal, Upper Paleolithic, Ural Mountains, Urarina people, Völva, Ventriloquism, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Vigil, Vision (spirituality), Vision quest, Wai-wai people, Western esotericism, Western world, Witch doctor, Witch trials in the early modern period, Witchcraft, Witches' Sabbath, Wounded healer, Xiongnu, Yachay, Yaghan people, Yahoo! 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Adam Brand (born before 1692 - died 1746) was a German merchant and explorer.
Traditional Alaskan Native religion involves mediation between people and spirits, souls, and other immortal beings.
Alice Beck Kehoe (born 1934, New York City) is an anthropologist.
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor in which a character, place or event is used to deliver a broader message about real-world issues and occurrences.
Altaic mythologies include.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), published quarterly by Wiley.
Native American boarding schools, also known as Indian Residential Schools were established in the United States during the late 19th and mid 20th centuries with a primary objective of assimilating Native American children and youth into Euro-American culture, while at the same time providing a basic education in Euro-American subject matters.
The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal usually as part of a religious ritual or to appease or maintain favour with a deity.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anito, also spelled anitu, refers to ancestor spirits, nature spirits, and deities (diwata) in the indigenous animistic religions of precolonial Philippines.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.
Astral projection (or astral travel) is a term used in esotericism to describe a willful out-of-body experience (OBE) that assumes the existence of a soul or consciousness called an "astral body" that is separate from the physical body and capable of travelling outside it throughout the universe.
Autosuggestion is a psychological technique related to the placebo effect, developed by apothecary Émile Coué at the beginning of the 20th century.
Avvakum Petrov (Авва́кум Петро́в; November 20, 1620/21 – April 14, 1682) was a Russian protopope of the Kazan Cathedral on Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikon's reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth.
Ayahuasca, iowaska, or yagé, is an entheogenic brew made out of Banisteriopsis caapi vine and other ingredients.
The Aymara or Aimara (aymara) people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America; about 1 million live in Bolivia, Peru and Chile.
Éva Pócs (born 1936) is a Hungarian ethnographer and folklorist.
Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".
Babaylan is a Visayan term identifying an indigenous Filipino religious leader, who functions as a healer, a shaman, a seer and a community "miracle-worker" (or a combination of any of those).
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The benandanti ("Good Walkers") were members of an agrarian visionary tradition in the Friuli district of Northeastern Italy during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Bladesmithing is the art of making knives, swords, daggers and other blades using a forge, hammer, anvil, and other smithing tools.
A Bobohizan (Tangaa' Kadazan term) or Bobolian (Bundu Liwan Dusun term) is a high priestess, a ritual specialist and a spirit medium in Kadazan-Dusun pagan rites.
Brujería is the Spanish-language word for "witchcraft".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Carlo Ginzburg (born April 15, 1939 in Turin, Italy) is a noted Italian historian and proponent of the field of microhistory.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Central Siberian Yupik, (also known as Siberian Yupik, Bering Strait Yupik, Yuit, Yoit, "St. Lawrence Island Yupik", and in Russia "Chaplinski Yupik" or Yuk) is an endangered Yupik language spoken by the indigenous Siberian Yupik people along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the Russian Far East and in the villages of Savoonga and Gambell in St. Lawrence Island.
Chaos magic, also spelled chaos magick, is a contemporary magical practice.
The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Claude Lecouteux (born 8 February 1943) is a French historian who specialises in the study of Europe during the Middle Ages.
In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Cultural appropriation is a concept dealing with the adoption of the elements of a minority culture by members of the dominant culture.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
A curandero (f. curandera) or curandeiro (f. curandeira) is a traditional Native healer, shaman or Witch doctor found in Latin America, the United States and Southern Europe.
A curse (also called an imprecation, malediction, execration, malison, anathema, or commination) is any expressed wish that some form of adversity or misfortune will befall or attach to some other entity: one or more persons, a place, or an object.
The Dagaaba people (singular Dagao, and, in northern dialects, Dagara for both plural and singular, update as of 25 May 2003, retrieved 2009-02-12. in Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/. Retrieved 200902-12.) are an ethnic group located north of the convergence of Ghana, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire.
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.
David Charles Manners (born 1965) is a British writer, a representative for the charity Diversity Role Models, and the co-founder of Sarvashubhamkara, a charity that provides medical care, education and human contact to socially excluded individuals and communities on the Indian subcontinent, most of whom are affected by the stigma of leprosy.
Geographically, Siberia includes the Russian Urals, Siberian, and Far Eastern Federal Districts.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
The Dogon are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of Mali, in West Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara, in the Mopti region.
Douglas Sharon is an American cultural anthropologist (UCLA), ethnobotanist and shamanism scholar who has directed both the University of California/Berkeley’s Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology and the San Diego Museum of Man.
A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
A dukun is a Malay term for shaman.
Echinopsis pachanoi (syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) — known as San Pedro cactus — is a fast-growing columnar cactus native to the Andes Mountains at in altitude.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The Enets people (энцы, entsy; singular: энец, enets), or Yenetses, Entsy, Entsi, Yenisei, Yenisei-Samoyed, Yenisey Samoyeds or Yeniseian people are a traditionally nomadic people who live on the east bank, near the mouth, of the Yenisei River.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.
Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture and how different ethnic groups perceive the world.
Ethnopoetics is a method of recording text versions of oral poetry or narrative performances (i.e. verbal lore) that uses poetic lines, verses, and stanzas (instead of prose paragraphs) to capture the formal, poetic performance elements which would otherwise be lost in the written texts.
The Even language, also known as Lamut, Ewen, Eben, Orich, Ilqan (Эве́нский язы́к, earlier also Ламутский язы́к), is a Tungusic language spoken by the Evens in Siberia.
Evenki, formerly known as Tungus or Solon, is the largest member of the northern group of Tungusic languages, a group which also includes Even, Negidal, and (the more closely related) Oroqen language.
Evocation is the act of calling upon or summoning a spirit, demon, god or other supernatural agent, in the Western mystery tradition.
In European folklore and folk-belief of the Medieval and Early Modern periods, familiar spirits (sometimes referred to simply as "familiars" or "animal guides") were believed to be supernatural entities that would assist witches and cunning folk in their practice of magic.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions is a satirical novella by the English schoolmaster Edwin Abbott Abbott, first published in 1884 by Seeley & Co.
A folk healer is an unlicensed person who practices the art of healing using traditional practices, herbal remedies and even the power of suggestion.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.
*For the origami, see Paper fortune teller.
Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
Fuegians are one of the three tribes of indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff (March 6, 1912 – May 16, 1994) was an anthropologist and archaeologist known for his research and also in-depth fieldwork among many different Amerindian cultures such as in the Amazonian tropical rainforests (e.g. Desana Tucano), and also among dozens of other indigenous groups in Colombia in the Caribbean Coast (such as the Kogi of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta), as well as other living in the Pacific Coast, Llanos Orientales, and in the Andean and inter-Andean regions (Muisca) as well as in other areas of Colombia, and he also did research on campesino societies.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
The Gurung people, also called Tamu, are an ethnic group from different parts of Nepal.
Healing (literally meaning to make whole) is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased or damaged organism.
Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Hmong people are an ethnic group currently native to several countries, believed to have come from the Yangtze river basin area in southern China.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110—sometimes termed malignant or accelerated hypertension) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis, as blood pressure at this level confers a high risk of complications.
Icaro (ikaro) is a South American indigenous colloquialism for magic or alchemy, or any esoteric modality by which a practitioner attempts to channel their energy to manifest their will.
An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia numbers just above 40 million people.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Inuit throat singing, or katajjaq, is a form of musical performance uniquely found among the Inuit.
Ipomoea tricolor, the Mexican morning glory or just morning glory, is a species of flowering plant in the family Convolvulaceae, native to the New World tropics, and widely cultivated and naturalised elsewhere.
Ippei Shimamura (born 1969) is a Japanese anthropologist who is best known for his ethnographic work on shamanism and ethnic identity among Mongol Buryats, which has won multiple awards.
, also known as or, are blind women who train to become spiritual mediums in Japan.
Jan Fries is a German occultist and "freestyle" shaman.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jerome Rothenberg (born December 11, 1931) is an American poet, translator and anthologist, noted for his work in the fields of ethnopoetics and performance poetry.
Jhākri (झाक्री) is the Nepali word for shaman (Witch Doctors).
Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 30, 1987) was an American Professor of Literature at Sarah Lawrence College who worked in comparative mythology and comparative religion.
Journal of Material Culture is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the fields of Cultural Studies and Anthropology.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
Juha Janhunen (born 12 February 1952 in Pori) is a Finnish linguist whose wide interests include Uralic and Mongolic languages.
Juha Pentikäinen (born 1940) is a professor in the Department of Comparative Religion at the University of Helsinki.
Kadazan-Dusun (also written as Kadazandusun) is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous peoples of Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.
are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Khanty (in older literature: Ostyaks) are an indigenous people calling themselves Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a region historically known as "Yugra" in Russia, together with the Mansi.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
The Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Leonard George (born 1957) is a Canadian psychologist and schizophrenia researcher based in Vancouver, British Columbia, best known for his writing and lectures on varieties of anomalous phenomena, spirituality, psychology and history.
The Lepcha are also called the Rongkup meaning the children of God and the Rong, Mútuncí Róngkup Rumkup (Lepcha: ᰕᰫ་ᰊᰪᰰ་ᰆᰧᰶ ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰀᰪᰱ ᰛᰪᰮ་ᰀᰪᰱ; "beloved children of the Róng and of God"), and Rongpa (Sikkimese), are among the indigenous peoples of Sikkim and number between 30,000 and 50,000.
The Limbu (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ) (exonym) or Yakthung (endonym) are Kirati people indigenous and native to their homeland himalayas, hills, mountainous and plains regions of Limbuwan.
There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.
Also used in Wiki meta data.
Maban or Mabain is a material that is held to be magical in Australian Aboriginal mythology.
A machi is a traditional healer and religious leader in the Mapuche culture of Chile and Argentina.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Maleficium (plural: maleficia) as a Latin term, "An act of witchcraft performed with the intention of causing damage or injury; the resultant harm." It comes from the, "Early 17th century; earliest use found in George Abbot (1562–1633), archbishop of Canterbury.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.
A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas.
Mediumship is the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to purportedly mediate communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings.
The seaducks (Mergini) are a tribe of the duck subfamily of birds, the Anatinae.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Miao folk religion or Hmong folk religion is the common ethnic religion of Miao peoples, primarily consisting in the practice of ua dab (Hmongic: "worship of deities").
Michael James Harner (April 27, 1929 – February 3, 2018) was an anthropologist, educator and author.
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.
Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.
Mircea Eliade (– April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago.
Modern Paganism, also known as Contemporary Paganism and Neopaganism, is a collective term for new religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Mun or Munism (also called Bongthingism) is the traditional polytheistic, animist, shamanistic, and syncretic religion of the Lepcha people.
Music semiology (semiotics) is the study of signs as they pertain to music on a variety of levels.
Muti is a term for traditional medicine in Southern Africa as far north as Lake Tanganyika.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The Nanai language (also called Gold, Goldi, or Hezhen) is spoken by the Nanai people in Siberia, and to a much smaller extent in China's Heilongjiang province, where it is known as Hezhe.
The Nanai people are a Tungusic people of the Far East, who have traditionally lived along Heilongjiang (Amur), Songhuajiang (Sunggari) and Ussuri rivers on the Middle Amur Basin.
The Epipaleolithic Natufian culture existed from around 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Natural sounds are sounds produced by natural sources in their normal soundscape.
Negidal (also spelled Neghidal) is a language of the Tungusic family spoken in the Russian Far East, mostly in Khabarovskij Kraj, along the lower reaches of the Amur River.
The Nenets (ненэй ненэче, nenəj nenəče, ненцы, nentsy), also known as Samoyeds, are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to northern arctic Russia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neoshamanism refers to "new"' forms of shamanism, or methods of seeking visions or healing.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Netsilik Inuit (Netsilingmiut) live predominantly in the communities of Kugaaruk and Gjoa Haven of the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut and to a smaller extent in Taloyoak and the north Qikiqtaaluk Region.
Neuroanthropology is the study of the relationship between culture and the brain.
The neuroscience of religion, also known as neurotheology and as spiritual neuroscience, attempts to explain religious experience and behaviour in neuroscientific terms.
New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.
The Nganasans (Nganasan: ӈәнә”са(нә”) ŋənəhsa(nəh), ня(”) ńæh) are an indigenous Samoyedic people inhabiting the Taymyr Peninsula in north Siberia.
The Nguni people are a group of Bantu peoples who primarily speak Nguni languages and currently reside predominantly in Southern Africa.
Nicolaes Witsen (8 May 1641 – 10 August 1717; modern Dutch: Nicolaas Witsen) was a Dutch statesman who was mayor of Amsterdam thirteen times, between 1682 and 1706.
A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.
The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
Olkhon (Ольхо́н, also transliterated as Olchon) is the fourth-largest lake-bound island in the world.
An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
The Oroch language is spoken by the Oroch people in Siberia.
Orok is the Russian name for the language known by its speakers as Uilta, Ulta, or Ujlta.
The Oroqen people (Mongolian:; also spelt Orochen or Orochon) are an ethnic group in northern China.
The concept of an otherworld in historical Indo-European religion is reconstructed in comparative mythology.
Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Palace of Earthly Tranquility is the northernmost of the three main halls of the Inner Court of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
The Peruvian Amazonia (Amazonía del Perú) is the area of the Amazon rainforest included within the country of Peru, from east of the Andes to the borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia.
Lophophora williamsii or peyote is a small, spineless cactus with psychoactive alkaloids, particularly mescaline.
The Phaedrus (Phaidros), written by Plato, is a dialogue between Plato's protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
The Piaroa are an indigenous people of the middle Orinoco Basin in present-day Venezuela, living in an area equivalent to the size of Belgium, roughly circumscribed by the Parguaza (north), the Ventuari (south-east), the Manapiare (north-east) and the right bank of the Orinoco (west).
Piers Vitebsky is an anthropologist and is the Head of Social Science at the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England.
In esoteric cosmology, a plane is conceived as a subtle state, level, or region of reality, each plane corresponding to some type, kind, or category of being.
Plastic shaman, or plastic medicine people,Hagan, Helene E. Sonoma Free County Press. Accessed 31 Jan 2013.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Prehistoric medicine is any use of medicine from before the invention of writing and the documented history of medicine.
The prehistory of the Levant includes the various cultural changes that occurred, as revealed by archaeological evidence, prior to recorded traditions in the area of the Levant.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Proto-Uralic is the reconstructed language ancestral to the Uralic language family.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychopomps (from the Greek word ψυχοπομπός, psuchopompos, literally meaning the "guide of souls") are creatures, spirits, angels, or deities in many religions whose responsibility is to escort newly deceased souls from Earth to the afterlife.
Q'ero (spelled Q'iru in the official three-vowel Quechua orthography) is a Quechua-speaking community or ethnic group dwelling in the province of Paucartambo, in the Cusco Region of Peru.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
The Khambu or Rai are indigenous ethnolinguistic groups of Nepal, the Indian State of Sikkim and Darjeeling Hills.
Rainmaking, also known as artificial precipitation, artificial rainfall and pluviculture, is the act of attempting to artificially induce or increase precipitation, usually to stave off drought.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious ecstasy is a reported type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional (and sometimes physical) euphoria.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Noll (born 1959) is a clinical psychologist and historian of medicine.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Ronald Hutton (born 1953) is an English historian who specialises in the study of Early Modern Britain, British folklore, pre-Christian religion and contemporary Paganism.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
Salvia divinorum (also known as sage of the diviners, ska maría pastora, seer's sage, yerba de la pastora or simply salvia) is a plant species with transient psychoactive properties when its leaves are consumed by chewing, smoking or as a tea.
The Samoyedic or Samoyed languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by approximately 25,000 people altogether.
The Samoyedic people (also Samodeic people) Some ethnologists use the term 'Samodeic people' instead 'Samoyedic', see are the people that speak Samoyedic languages, which are part of the Uralic family.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Santo Daime is a syncretic religion founded in the 1930s in the Brazilian Amazonian state of Acre by Raimundo Irineu Serra, known as Mestre Irineu.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
Scarcity refers to the limited availability of a commodity, which may be in demand in the market.
Scrying (also known by various names such as "seeing" or "peeping") is the practice of looking into a suitable medium in the hope of detecting significant messages or visions.
Sedna (ᓴᓐᓇ, Sanna) is the goddess of the sea and marine animals in Inuit mythology, also known as the Mother of the Sea or Mistress of the Sea.
In Old Norse, seiðr (sometimes anglicized as seidhr, seidh, seidr, seithr, seith, or seid) was a type of sorcery practiced in Norse society during the Late Scandinavian Iron Age.
The Selk'nam, also known as the Onawo or Ona people, are an indigenous people in the Patagonian region of southern Argentina and Chile, including the Tierra del Fuego islands.
The Selkup (сельку́пы), until the 1930s called Ostyak-Samoyeds (остя́ко-самое́ды), are a Samoyedic ethnic group native to Northern Siberia.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
(شيطان, plural: شياطين) is a malevolent creature in Islamic theology and mythology.
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.
Sherpa is one of the major ethnic groups native to the most mountainous regions of Nepal, as well as certain areas of China, Bhutan, India, and the Himalayas.
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
The Shona are a group of Bantu ethnic group native to Zimbabwe and neighbouring countries.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits, are a Yupik Eskimo people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska.
The Siege of Kazan in 1552 was the final battle of the Russo-Kazan Wars and led to the fall of the Khanate of Kazan.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
Sirenik Yupik, Sireniki Yupik (also Old Sirenik or Vuteen), Sirenik, or Sirenikskiy is an extinct Eskimo–Aleut language.
Sirenik or Sireniki Eskimos are former speakers of a very peculiar Eskimo language in Siberia, before they underwent a language shift rendering it extinct.
Sisaala (Sissala) is a Gur language cluster spoken in Ghana near the town of Tumu and in the neighbouring republic of Burkina Faso.
Sleight of hand (also known as prestidigitation or legerdemain) refers to fine motor skills when used by performing artists in different art forms to entertain or manipulate.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of souls.
A Soulcatcher (Haboolm Ksinaalgat, 'keeper of breath') is an amulet (Aatxasxw) used by the shaman (Halayt) of the Pacific Northwest Coast of British Columbia and Alaska.
The imitation of natural sounds in various cultures is a diverse phenomenon and can fill in various functions.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
A spirit guide, in western spiritualism, is an entity that remains as a disincarnate spirit to act as a guide or protector to a living incarnated human being.
Spirit possession is a term for the belief that animas, aliens, demons, extraterrestrials, gods, or spirits can take control of a human body.
The spirit spouse is one of the most widespread elements of shamanism, distributed through all continents and at all cultural levels.
The spirit world, according to spiritualism, is the world or realm inhabited by spirits, both good or evil of various spiritual manifestations.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
The Sunuwar (Nepali: सुनुवार जाति Sunuwār Jāti) is an indigenous tribe from Nepal and some areas of India.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
A sweat lodge is a low profile hut, typically dome-shaped or oblong, and made with natural materials.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tabernanthe iboga or simply iboga is a perennial rainforest shrub and psychedelic, native to western Central Africa.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tamang (Devnagari: तामाङ; tāmāng) are the largest Tibeto-Burman ethnic group within Nepal and traditionally Buddhist by religion.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The táltos (also "tátos") is a figure in Hungarian mythology, a person with supernatural power similar to a shaman.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
Tlamatini (plural tlamatinime) is a Nahuatl language word meaning "someone who knows something", generally translated as "wise man".
In the pantheon of Mongolian shamanism, tngri (also tengri, tegri) constitute the highest class of divinities and are attested in sources going back to the 13th century.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
Traditional healers of South Africa are practitioners of traditional African medicine in Southern Africa.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The Tucano people (sometimes spelt Tukano) are a group of indigenous South Americans in the northwestern Amazon, along the Vaupés River and the surrounding area.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
In Greenlandic Inuit (Kalaallit) traditions, a tupilaq (tupilak, tupilait, or ᑐᐱᓚᒃ) was an avenging monster fabricated by a practitioner of witchcraft or shamanism by using various objects such as animal parts (bone, skin, hair, sinew, etc.) and even parts taken from the corpses of children.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Tuvans or Tuvinians (Тывалар, Tıvalar; Тува, Tuva) are an indigenous people of Siberia/Central Asia.
Tyramine (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
The Udege language (also Udihe language, Udekhe language, Udeghe language) is the language of the Udege people.
The Ulch language, or Olcha, is a Tungusic language spoken by the paleo-asian Ulch people in North East Asia.
The Beneficent Spiritist Center União do Vegetal (Centro Espírita Beneficente União do Vegetal; or UDV) is a religious society founded on July 22, 1961 by José Gabriel da Costa, known as Mestre Gabriel.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Urarina are an indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin (Loreto) who inhabit the valleys of the Chambira, Urituyacu, and Corrientes Rivers.
A vǫlva or völva (Old Norse and Icelandic, respectively; plural forms vǫlur and völvur, sometimes anglicized vala; also spákona or spækona) is a female shaman and seer in Norse religion and a recurring motif in Norse mythology.
Ventriloquism, or ventriloquy, is an act of stagecraft in which a person (a ventriloquist) changes his or her voice so that it appears that the voice is coming from elsewhere, usually a puppeteered "dummy".
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
A vigil, from the Latin vigilia meaning wakefulness (Greek: pannychis, παννυχίς or agrypnia ἀγρυπνία), is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance.
A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.
A vision quest is a rite of passage in some Native American cultures.
The Wai-wai (also written Waiwai or Wai Wai) are a Carib-speaking ethnic group of Guyana and northern Brazil.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A witch doctor was originally a type of healer who treated ailments believed to be caused by witchcraft.
The period of witch trials in Early Modern Europe were a widespread moral panic suggesting that malevolent Satanic witches were operating as an organized threat to Christendom during the 16th to 18th centuries.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The Witches' Sabbath is a meeting of those who practice witchcraft and other rites.
Wounded healer is a term created by psychologist Carl Jung.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yachay is a special type of phlegm generated by shamans and sorcerers of the Peruvian Amazon Basin which is believed to contain the essence of their power in the form of virotes, tsentsak, darts, arrows, or splinters of bone that are believed to be contained in the phlegm.
The Yaghan, also called Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana, or Tequenica, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Cone, who are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world.
Yahoo! News is a news website that originated as an internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo!.
Yakuts (Саха, Sakha) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in North East Asia.
Yatiri are medical practitioners and community healers among the Aymara of Bolivia, Chile and Peru, who use in their practice both symbols and materials such as coca leaves.
A zduhać (Cyrillic: здухаћ) and vetrovnjak (ветровњак) in Serbian tradition, and a dragon man in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian traditions, were men believed to have an inborn supernatural ability to protect their estate, village, or region against destructive weather conditions, such as storms, hail, or torrential rains.
The Zulu (amaZulu) are a Bantu ethnic group of Southern Africa and the largest ethnic group in South Africa, with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
Baksi, Baksı, Central Asian shamanism, Eurasian Shamanism, Medicine (shamanism), Native American shamans, North American witchcraft, Shaman, Shamaness, Shamanic, Shamanic magic, Shamanic religion, Shamanism among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Shamanism in Central Asia, Shamanist, Shamanistic, Shamanistic religion, Shamanka, Shamans, Shaministic, Sjaman, South American witchcraft, Witchcraft among the indigenous people of the Americas, Witchcraft among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, Witchcraft in Native American culture, Witchcraft in Native American mythology.