172 relations: Acacia concinna, Acid, Alkali, Allergen, Allergy, Almond, Aloe vera, Ammonium chloride, Ammonium lauryl sulfate, Andes, Animal testing, Antipruritic, Aroma compound, Bengalis, Benzoyl peroxide, Biodegradation, Birth defect, Brighton, California, Carbaryl, Carboxylic acid, Carcinogen, Cat, Cetyl alcohol, ChemistryViews, Chlorhexidine, Christie Brinkley, Citric acid, Coal tar, Coat (animal), Cocamidopropyl betaine, Coconut, Coconut oil, Contact dermatitis, Cottonseed, Dandruff, Deodorant, Dermatitis, Dermatophytosis, Detergent, Diol, Diphenhydramine, Dog, Dryopteris arguta, Dryopteris expansa, Emulsion, Endocrine disruptor, Environmentalism, Essential oil, Ethyl lactate, ..., Eucalyptus, Farrah Fawcett, Flea, Foam, Food and Drug Administration, Fungicide, Genetically modified organism, Gluten-free diet, Glycerol, Glycol distearate, Guru Nanak, Hair, Hair care, Hair conditioner, Hairdresser, Herb, Hibiscus, Higher alkanes, Hindi, Human eye, Human skin, Humectant, Husk, Hydrocortisone, Hypoallergenic, Imperative mood, India, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Infant, Insecticide, Iridescence, Irritation, Johnson's Baby, Ketoconazole, Lactic acid, Lanolin, Lecithin, Lemon, Maize, Malassezia furfur, Mange, Menthol, Miconazole, Mineral, Moisturizer, No poo, Oatmeal, Ohlone, Olive, Orange (fruit), Organic certification, Organic farming, Organic movement, Over-the-counter drug, Paraben, Parasitism, Patch test, Peanut, Pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, Pesticide, Pet, PH, Phyllanthus emblica, Polyquaternium, Polysorbate, Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 80, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Povidone-iodine, Preservative, Procter & Gamble, Propylene glycol, Pyrethrin, Pyrethroid, Quartz (publication), Quaternium-15, Quinoa, Rexall, Rice, Safflower, Sake Dean Mahomed, Salicylic acid, Sapindus, Sapindus mukorossi, Saponin, Scalp pruritus, Sebaceous gland, Selenium sulfide, Sesame, Sikh gurus, Sikhism, Silicone, Soap, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium lactate, Sodium laureth sulfate, Sodium lauroamphoacetate, Stearic acid, Stearyl alcohol, Straw, Surfactant, Surgery, Sweat gland, Tar, Tea tree oil, Toxicity, Triclosan, Ultraviolet, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Urea, Veterinary medicine, Veterinary physician, Vinegar, Viscosity, Washington, D.C., Water, Wheat allergy, Zinc pyrithione, 1,4-Dioxane. Expand index (122 more) » « Shrink index
Acacia concinna is a climbing shrub native to Asia, common in the warm plains of central and south India.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) is the common name for ammonium dodecyl sulfate (CH3(CH2)10CH2OSO3NH4).
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison ivy (urushiol-induced contact dermatitis) or stinging nettle.
An aroma compound, also known as an odorant, aroma, fragrance, or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a medication and industrial chemical.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) is a chemical in the carbamate family used chiefly as an insecticide.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cetyl alcohol, also known as hexadecan-1-ol and palmityl alcohol, is a fatty alcohol with the formula CH3(CH2)15OH.
ChemistryViews is a free online service published for chemists and other scientists by ChemPubSoc Europe, an organization of 16 European chemical societies.
Chlorhexidine is a disinfectant and antiseptic that is used for skin disinfection before surgery and to sterilize surgical instruments.
Christie Brinkley (born Christine Lee Hudson, February 2, 1954) is an American model, actress and businesswoman.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
Coat is the nature and quality of a mammal's pelage.
Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a mixture of closely related organic compounds derived from coconut oil and dimethylaminopropylamine.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
Coconut oil, or copra oil, is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of mature coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera).
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
Cottonseed is the seed of the cotton plant.
Dandruff is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp.
A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dryopteris arguta, with the common name coastal woodfern, is a species of wood fern.
Dryopteris expansa, the alpine buckler fern, northern buckler-fern or spreading wood fern, is a species of fern native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, south at high altitudes in mountains to Spain and Greece in southern Europe, to Japan in eastern Asia, and to central California in North America.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile (defined as "the tendency of a substance to vaporize") aroma compounds from plants.
Ethyl lactate, also known as lactic acid ethyl ester, is a monobasic ester formed from lactic acid and ethanol, commonly used as a solvent.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
Farrah Leni Fawcett (originally spelled Ferrah; February 2, 1947 – June 25, 2009) was an American actress, model, and artist.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Foam is a substance formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycol distearate is the diester of stearic acid and ethylene glycol.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Hair care is an overall term for hygiene and cosmetology involving the hair which grows from the human scalp, and to a lesser extent facial, pubic and other body hair.
Hair conditioner is a hair care product used to improve the feel, appearance and manageability of hair.
A hairdresser is a person whose occupation is to cut or style hair in order to change or maintain a person's image.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet.
Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.
Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage.
Johnson's Baby is an American brand of baby cosmetics and skin care products owned by Johnson & Johnson.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lanolin (from Latin ‘wool’, and ‘oil’), also called wool wax or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals.
Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malassezia furfur is a species of fungus that is naturally found on the skin surfaces of humans and is associated with seborrhoeic dermatitis.
Mange is a type of skin disease caused by parasitic mites.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
Miconazole, sold under the brand name Monistat among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat ring worm, pityriasis versicolor, and yeast infections of the skin or vagina.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.
"No poo" (or no shampoo) is a collective term for methods of washing hair without commercial shampoo.
Oatmeal is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been milled (ground), steel-cut, or rolled.
The Ohlone, named Costanoan by early Spanish colonists (the Spanish word costa means "coast"), are a Native American people of the Northern California coast.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
The organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of organic farming and other organic products.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Parabens are a class of widely used preservatives in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A patch test is a method used to determine whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of a patient's skin.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
Pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) is a nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of dodecanol (lauryl alcohol) to give a material with 5 repeat units of ethylene glycol.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
A pet or companion animal is an animal kept primarily for a person's company, protection, or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock, or laboratory animal.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phyllanthus emblica, also known as emblic, emblic myrobalan, myrobalan, Indian gooseberry, Malacca tree, or amla from Sanskrit amalaki is a deciduous tree of the family Phyllanthaceae.
Polyquaternium is the International Nomenclature for Cosmetic Ingredients designation for several polycationic polymers that are used in the personal care industry.
Polysorbates are a class of emulsifiers used in some pharmaceuticals and food preparation.
Polysorbate 20 (common commercial brand names include Scattics, Alkest TW 20 and Tween 20) is a polysorbate-type nonionic surfactant formed by the ethoxylation of sorbitan before the addition of lauric acid.
Polysorbate 80 is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier often used in foods and cosmetics.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer ''N''-vinylpyrrolidone.
Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), also known as iodopovidone, is an antiseptic used for skin disinfection before and after surgery.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by British American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
The pyrethrins are a class of organic compounds normally derived from Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium that have potent insecticidal activity by targeting the nervous systems of insects.
A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).
Quartz (qz.com) is a news website owned by Atlantic Media.
Quaternium-15 (systematic name: hexamethylenetetramine chloroallyl chloride) is a quaternary ammonium salt used as a surfactant and preservative in many cosmetics and industrial substances.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.
Rexall is a chain of American drugstores, and the name of their store-branded products.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant.
Sake Dean Mahomed was a Bengali Anglo-Indian traveller, surgeon and entrepreneur who was one of the most notable early non-European immigrants to the Western World.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Lychee family, Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Old World and New World.
Sapindus mukorossi is a species of tree in the Sapindaceae family.
Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.
Scalp pruritus is an itchiness of the scalp, particularly common in elderly persons.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Selenium sulfide can refer to either of the following.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), synonymously sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or sodium laurilsulfate, is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4 Na.
Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid, and has a mild saline taste.
Sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), an accepted contraction of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is an anionic detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc.). SLES is an inexpensive and very effective foaming agent.
Sodium lauroamphoacetate is zwitterionic surfactant of the amphoacetate class.
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid.
Stearyl alcohol (also known as octadecyl alcohol or 1-octadecanol) is an organic compound classified as a fatty alcohol with the formula CH3(CH2)16CH2OH.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil or ti tree oil, is an essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor and a colour that ranges from pale yellow to nearly colourless and clear.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Triclosan (sometimes abbreviated as TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in some consumer products, including toothpaste, soaps, detergents, toys, and surgical cleaning treatments.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease, disorder and injury in non-human animals.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wheat allergy is an allergy to wheat which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure.
Zinc pyrithione (or pyrithione zinc) is a coordination complex of zinc.
1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.