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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Index Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003. [1]

173 relations: Abdulla Aripov, Accession of Turkey to the European Union, Afghanistan, Almaty, Almazbek Atambayev, Armenia, Asia, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, Asia–Europe Meeting, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Astana, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bakhytzhan Sagintayev, Bangladesh, Beijing, Belarusian Telegraph Agency, Bishkek, Boris Yeltsin, BRIC, Brookings Institution, Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan, Central Asia, Chelyabinsk, China, China Daily, Closed-circuit television, Cold War, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Comecon, Commonwealth of Independent States, Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, Culture, Cyberwarfare, Dmitry Medvedev, Dushanbe, Economic Cooperation Organization, Economic development, Economy, Education, Egypt, Emomali Rahmon, Energy security, Environmental protection, Eurasia, Eurasian Economic Union, European Parliament, European Union, Extremism, Figurehead, ..., Finance, Folk dance, Free-trade area, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, Geography, Geopolitics, Hamid Golpira, Health care, HighBeam Research, Hu Jintao, Humanitarianism, Hydrocarbon, India, Information warfare, Interfax, International Monetary Fund, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jane's Information Group, Jiang Zemin, Karshi-Khanabad Air Base, Kazakhstan, Kibibyte, Kokhir Rasulzoda, Kyrgyzstan, Li Keqiang, Liberal democracy, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Maldives, Mamnoon Hussain, Mebibyte, Media (communication), Military alliance, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iraq), Mongolia, Moscow, Narendra Modi, NATO, Nepal, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Observer status, One-party state, Pakistan, Paramount leader, Peace Mission 2005, People's Daily, Persian Gulf, Politics, Power (social and political), Premier of the People's Republic of China, President of Kazakhstan, President of Kyrgyzstan, President of Pakistan, President of Russia, President of Tajikistan, President of the People's Republic of China, President of Uzbekistan, Press TV, Prime Minister of India, Purchasing power parity, Qatar, Qingdao, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Ram Nath Kovind, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Russia, Russian language, Saint Petersburg, Science, Security, Separatism, Sergei Ivanov, Sergey Lavrov, Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, Shanghai, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, Simplified Chinese characters, Sino-Russian relations since 1991, Sochi, Sooronbay Jeenbekov, Soviet Union, Sport, Sri Lanka, Standard Chinese, Succession of power in the People's Republic of China, Sustainability, Syria, Tajikistan, Tashkent, TASS, Technology, Tehran, Terrorism, The Express Tribune, The Heritage Foundation, Thomas Ambrosio, Three Evils, Tigran Sargsyan, Tourism, Turkey, Ufa, Ukraine, United Nations, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, University of California Press, Uzbekistan, Vladimir Putin, Voice of America, Warsaw Pact, Wen Jiabao, Working language, World population, Xi Jinping, Xinhua News Agency, Yekaterinburg, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Zhengzhou, 2012 SCO summit, 2014 SCO summit, 2017 SCO summit. Expand index (123 more) »

Abdulla Aripov

Abdulla Nigmatovich Aripov (Abdulla Nigʻmatovich Oripov, Абдулла Нигматович Арипов; born 24 May 1961 in Tashkent) is the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan, in office since 14 December 2016.

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Accession of Turkey to the European Union

Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Almaty

Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.

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Almazbek Atambayev

Almazbek Sharshenovich Atambayev (Almazbek Şarşenoviç (Şarşen uulu) Atambayev; born 17 September 1956) was the President of Kyrgyzstan from 1 December 2011 to 24 November 2017.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asia Cooperation Dialogue

The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) is an inter-governmental organization created on 18 June 2002 to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level and to help integrate separate regional organizations such as ASEAN, SAARC, the Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Eurasian Economic Union.

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Asia–Europe Meeting

The Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) is an Asian–European political dialogue forum to enhance relations and various forms of cooperation between its partners.

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.

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Astana

Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Bahrain

Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Bakhytzhan Sagintayev

Bakhytzhan Abdiruly Sagintayev (Бақытжан Әбдірұлы Сағынтаев, Baqytjan Ábdiruly Saǵyntaev, born 13 October 1963) is a Kazakh politician.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Belarusian Telegraph Agency

The Belarusian Telegraph Agency or BelTA (Беларускае Тэлеграфнае Агенцтва, Белорусское Телеграфное Агентство, БелТА) is the state-owned national news agency of the Republic of Belarus.

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Bishkek

Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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BRIC

In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.

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Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan (نگران وزیر اعظم) is the head of government in Pakistan following the dissolution of the National Assembly.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chelyabinsk

Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Daily

China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

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Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Collective Security Treaty Organization

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.

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Comecon

The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia

The Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) is an inter-governmental forum for enhancing cooperation towards promoting peace, security and stability in Asia.

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Culture

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Cyberwarfare

Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.

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Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.

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Dushanbe

Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.

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Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.

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Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

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Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Emomali Rahmon

Emomali Rahmon (Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon); (born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.

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Energy security

Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.

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Environmental protection

Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.

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European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Extremism

Extremism means, literally, "the quality or state of being extreme" or the "advocacy of extreme measures or views".

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Figurehead

In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.

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Finance

Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

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Folk dance

A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region.

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Free-trade area

A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of China

The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geopolitics

Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.

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Hamid Golpira

Hamid Golpira (Persian: حمید گل پیرا; January 16, 1960 – July 7, 2015) was an Iranian American journalist, author and human rights activist.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.

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Hu Jintao

---- Hu Jintao (born 21 December 1942) is a Chinese politician who was the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012.

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Humanitarianism

Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order to better humanity for moral, altruistic and logical reasons.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Information warfare

Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.

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Interfax

Interfax Ltd. (Интерфакс) is a privately-held independent major news agency in Russia (along with state-operated TASS and RIA Novosti) and information services company headquartered in Moscow.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jane's Information Group

Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.

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Jiang Zemin

Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.

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Karshi-Khanabad Air Base

Karshi-Khanabad, better known as K2, is an air base in southeastern Uzbekistan, just east of Karshi.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kibibyte

The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.

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Kokhir Rasulzoda

Kokhir Rasulzoda (Қоҳир Расулзода, Kohir Rasulzoda; Кохир Расулзада, born Abdukokhir Abdurasulovich Nazirov (Абдукохир Абдурасулович Назиров; born 8 March 1961) is the Prime Minister of Tajikistan from 23 November 2013. He is a member of the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan.

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Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Li Keqiang

Li Keqiang (Mandarin:; born 1 July 1955) is the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

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Maldives

The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.

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Mamnoon Hussain

Mamnoon Hussain (ممنون حسین; born 23 December 1940) is a Pakistani businessman and conservative politician who is the 12th President of Pakistan, in office since 2013.

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Mebibyte

The mebibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Media (communication)

Media are the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.

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Military alliance

A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security, when the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iraq)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Iraq is a cabinet ministry of Iraq, responsible for conducting foreign relations of the country.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Ábishuly Nazarbayev (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh statesman serving as President of Kazakhstan since the office was created on April 24, 1990.

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Observer status

Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities.

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One-party state

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paramount leader

In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.

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Peace Mission 2005

Peace Mission 2005 was the first ever joint military exercise between China and Russia.

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People's Daily

The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Politics

Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Premier of the People's Republic of China

The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (constitutionally synonymous with the "Central People's Government" since 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.

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President of Kazakhstan

The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respy'bli'kasynyn' Prezi'denti, Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті) is the head of state, commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Republic of Kazakhstan.

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President of Kyrgyzstan

The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic.

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President of Pakistan

The President of Pakistan (صدر مملکت پاکستان —), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and a figurehead who represents the "unity of the Republic." in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

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President of Tajikistan

The President of Tajikistan is the head of state and the highest position within the Government of Tajikistan.

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President of the People's Republic of China

The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.

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President of Uzbekistan

The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasining Prezidenti, Ўзбекистон Республикасининг Президенти) is the head of state and executive authority in Uzbekistan.

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Press TV

Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).

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Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Qingdao

Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.

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Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".

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Ram Nath Kovind

Ram Nath Kovind (born 1 October 1945) is the 14th and current President of India, in office since 25 July 2017.

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Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Security

Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) from external forces.

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Separatism

A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.

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Sergei Ivanov

Sergei Borisovich Ivanov (p; born 31 January 1953) is a Russian senior official and politician who is the Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation on the Issues of Environmental Activities, Environment and Transport since 12 August 2016.

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Sergey Lavrov

Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в,; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat and politician; he is currently the Foreign Minister of Russia, in office since 2004.

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Shahid Khaqan Abbasi

Shahid Khaqan Abbasi (شاہد خاقان عباسی; born 27 December 1958) is a Pakistani politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Pakistan from August 2017 to May 2018.

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Shanghai

Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shavkat Mirziyoyev

Shavkat Miromonovich Mirziyoyev (Uzbek Cyrillic and Шавкат Миромонович Мирзиёев; born 24 July 1957) is an Uzbek politician who has been President of Uzbekistan since 2016.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Sino-Russian relations since 1991

China–Russia relations, also known as Sino-Russian relations, refers to international relations between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation.

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Sochi

Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.

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Sooronbay Jeenbekov

Sooronbay Sharipovich Jeenbekov (Сооронбай Шарипович (Шарип уулу) Жээнбеков, Sooronbay Şaripoviç (Şarip uulu) Jéénbekov; or Sooronbay Zheenbekov; born 16 November 1958) is a Kyrgyz politician, and the President of Kyrgyzstan.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sport

Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Succession of power in the People's Republic of China

The succession of power in the People's Republic of China (PRC) takes place in the context of a single party system.

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Sustainability

Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tajikistan

Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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Tashkent

Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.

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TASS

Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.

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Technology

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Tehran

Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Terrorism

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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The Express Tribune

The Express Tribune is a major daily English-language newspaper based in Pakistan.

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The Heritage Foundation

The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.

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Thomas Ambrosio

Thomas Ambrosio (born May 31, 1971) is a professor of political science in the Criminal Justice and Political Science Department at North Dakota State University.

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Three Evils

The Three Evils are defined by the Chinese government as "terrorism, separatism and religious extremism".

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Tigran Sargsyan

Tigran Sowreni Sargsyan (Տիգրան Սուրենի Սարգսյան, born 29 January 1962) is an Armenian political figure who was Prime Minister of Armenia from 2008 to 2014.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Ufa

Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP or ESCAP), located in the United Nations Building in Rajadamnern Nok Avenue in Bangkok, Thailand, is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, under the administrative direction of the United Nations headquarters.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.

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Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.

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Working language

A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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Xi Jinping

Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.

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Xinhua News Agency

Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Yekaterinburg

Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.

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Zbigniew Brzezinski

Zbigniew Kazimierz "Zbig" Brzezinski (March 28, 1928 – May 26, 2017) was a Polish-American diplomat and political scientist.

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Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.

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2012 SCO summit

The 2012 SCO summit was the 12th annual summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

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2014 SCO summit

The 2014 SCO summit was the 13th annual summit of heads of state of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation held between 11-12 September in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

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2017 SCO summit

The 2017 SCO summit was the 17th annual summit of heads of state of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation held between 7 - 10 June in Astana, Kazakhstan.

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Redirects here:

Peace Mission 2007, Peace Mission 2009, Peace Mission 2010, Peace mission 2007, ShOS, Shanghai 5, Shanghai Co-operation Council (SCO), Shanghai Co-operation Organisation, Shanghai Co-operation Organization, Shanghai Cooperation Agreement, Shanghai Cooperation Association, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Shanghai Cooperative Organization, Shanghai Five, Shanghai Organization for Cooperation, Shanghai Pact, Shanghai cooperation, Shanghai cooperation organisation, Shanghai cooperation organization, Shankhayskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva, Shàng Hé Zǔzhī, Shànghǎi Hézuò Zǔzhī, Sjanghai Cooperation Organization, The Shanghai Five, ШОС, Шанхай Хэцзо Цзучжи, Шанхайская организация сотрудничества, Шанхэ Цзучжи, 上合组织, 上海合作組織, 上海合作组织.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Cooperation_Organisation

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