256 relations: 'Aql, A New Beginning, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, Abu Hanifa, Aceh, Afghanistan, Ahkam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Ghazali, Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya, Al-Nawawi's Forty Hadith, Al-Risala (Al-Shafi‘i), Al-Shafi‘i, Alternative dispute resolution, An-Nisa, 34, Analogy, Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Apostasy in Islam, Arab Law Quarterly, Arabic, Arabization, Assize of novel disseisin, Austin Dacey, Ẓāhirī, Ban on sharia law, Basij, BBC News, Bernard Lewis, Bild, Blasphemy, Bombay Stock Exchange, Boston Review, Brunei, Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, Cambridge University Press, Capital punishment, Child marriage, Christian theology, Circumstantial evidence, Civil law (legal system), Codification (law), Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (Gaza Strip), Common law, Constitutional Court of Turkey, Contract, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Corporation, Council on Foreign Relations, Cross-examination, ..., David Cameron, Debt, Decapitation, Defendant, Dhimmi, Diana West, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, Die Welt des Islams, Din (Arabic), Discovery (law), Divine law, Diya (Islam), Doctor (title), Early Muslim conquests, Egypt, Emory University, European Convention on Human Rights, European Court of Human Rights, European History Online, Evidence (law), Eye for an eye, Faqīh, Fard, Fatwa, Fiqh, Florida Journal of International Law, Forensic identification, Francis Robinson, Free Inquiry, Freedom of thought, Glossary of Islam, God in Islam, Government, Grand Imam of al-Azhar, Grand Mufti, Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Greenwood Publishing Group, Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, H. Patrick Glenn, Hadith, Halakha, Halal, Hamid bin Abdallah al-Ali, Hanafi, Hanbali, Haram, Hawala, Hegemony, Hisbah, Historical revisionism, Hudud, Human rights, Human Rights Watch, Ibadah, Ibadi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ignác Goldziher, Ijma, Ijtihad, Indonesia, Infidel, Inns of Court, Iran, Iraq, Islam, Islam and blasphemy, Islamic culture, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic religious police, Islamic republic, Islamic revival, Islamic Sharia Council, Islamism, Isma'ilism, Israel, Istihsan, Istishab, Istislah, Ja'fari jurisprudence, John Esposito, Joseph Schacht, Judeo-Christian, Jury, Kafir, Kano State, Law of agency, Law of the land, Law school, Legal person, Leibniz Institute of European History, Leiden University, Limited liability, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Ma'ruf, Madhhab, Madrasa, Magi, Magister degree, Mahr, Majus, Makruh, Malik ibn Anas, Maliki, Manumission, Marshall Hodgson, Master of Laws, Mauritania, Melbourne University Law Review, Michael Broyde, Michael Cook (historian), Mohammed al-Ghazali, More danico, Muamalat, Mubah, Mufti, Muhammad, Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, Musawah, Muslim Arbitration Tribunal, Mustahabb, Muwatta Imam Malik, Naskh (tafsir), Natana J. DeLong-Bas, Natural person, Newt Gingrich, Nick Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers, North Carolina Law Review, Octaware Technologies, Oneworld Publications, Ontario, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Orthodox Judaism, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Pew Research Center, Plaintiff, Police, Precedent, Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, Professor, Qadi, Qanun (law), Qatar, Qisas, Qiyas, Quebec, Quran, Rashid Rida, Rayani Air, Reliance of the Traveller, Religious law, Religious violence in Nigeria, Republican Party (United States), Right to property, Rough Guides, Rowan Williams, Rowman & Littlefield, Sahabah, Salafi movement, Saudi Arabia, Secularism, Shafi‘i, Sobhi Mahmassani, Social media, Sodomy, Sources of sharia, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Springer Publishing, Status (law), Stoning, Sudan, Sulaiman Al-Alwan, Sunnah, Syracuse University Press, Tabi‘un, Taqlid, Tazir, The Daily Caller, The New York Times, The Straits Times, The Twelve Imams, Theonomy, Thomas de Maizière, Timur Kuran, Topics in sharia law, Trust law, Twelver, Ulama, UNICEF, United Arab Emirates, United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Chicago, University of Georgia Press, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Virgin Books, Wahhabism, Waqf, Welfare Party, Western world, Women's rights, Yemen, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Zaidiyyah, Zina. Expand index (206 more) » « Shrink index
‘Aql (عقل, meaning "intellect"), is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind.
"A New Beginning" is the name of a speech delivered by United States President Barack Obama on 4 June 2009, from the Major Reception Hall at Cairo University in Egypt.
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im (Arabic: عبد الله أحمد النعيم) (born in 1946) is a Sudanese-born Islamic scholar who currently lives in the United States and teaches at Emory University.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahkam (أحكام "provisions", plural of (حُكْم)) is an Islamic term with several meanings.
Aḥmad bin Muḥammad bin Ḥanbal Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Shaybānī (احمد بن محمد بن حنبل ابو عبد الله الشيباني; 780–855 CE/164–241 AH), often referred to as Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal or Ibn Ḥanbal for short, or reverentially as Imam Aḥmad by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, ascetic, and hadith traditionist.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
(الجماعة الإسلامية, "the Islamic Group"; also transliterated El Gama'a El Islamiyya; also called "Islamic Groups" and transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, al Jamaat al Islamiya) is an Egyptian Sunni Islamist movement, and is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
Nawawi's Forty (sc. “Forty Hadith”, in Arabic: al-arbaʿīn al-nawawiyyah) is a compilation of forty hadiths by Imam al-Nawawi, most of which are from Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari.
The Risāla by ash-Shafi'i (d. 820), full title Kitab ar-Risāla fī Uṣūl al-Fiqh (كتاب الرسالة في أصول الفقه. "book of the communication on the foundations of comprehension (i.e. Islamic jurisprudence)") is a seminal text on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence The word risāla in Arabic means a "message" or "letter, communication".
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR; known in some countries, such as India, as external dispute resolution) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation.
In the Qur'an, verse 34 of Surah an-Nisa (abbreviated as 4:34) concerns the issue of marital relations in Islam.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Ann Elizabeth Mayer is an Associate Professor of Legal Studies in the Department of Legal Studies and Business Ethics at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
The Arab Law Quarterly is an English language quarterly devoted to Arab law.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
In English law, the Assize of novel disseisin ("recent dispossession") was an action to recover lands of which the plaintiff had been disseised, or dispossessed.
Austin Dacey (born April 19, 1972) is an American philosopher, writer, and human rights activist whose work concerns secularism, religion, freedom of expression, and freedom of conscience.
Ẓāhirī (ظاهري) madhhab or al-Ẓāhirīyyah (الظاهرية) is a school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence founded by Dawud al-Zahiri in the 9th century CE, characterised by reliance on the manifest (zahir) meaning of expressions in the Qur'an and hadith, as well as rejection of analogical deduction (qiyas).
A ban on sharia law is legislation which prohibits the application or implementation of Islamic law (sharia) in courts in any civil (non-religious) jurisdiction.
The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies.
The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is an Indian stock exchange located at Dalal Street, Mumbai (formerly Bombay).
Boston Review is a quarterly American political and literary magazine.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation adopted in Cairo, Egypt, on 5 August 1990, (Conference of Foreign Ministers, 9–14 Muharram 1411H in the Islamic calendar) which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and affirms Islamic sharia as its sole source.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.
Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice is a group in the Gaza Strip responsible for enforcing traditional Muslim codes of behavior (Sharia law).
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Constitutional Court of Turkey (Anayasa Mahkemesi, sometimes abbreviated as AYM) is the highest legal body for constitutional review in Turkey.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
In law, cross-examination is the interrogation of a witness called by one's opponent.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
Diana West (born November 8, 1961, Hollywood, California) is a nationally syndicated conservative American columnist and author.
The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic is an Arabic-English dictionary compiled by Hans Wehr and edited by J Milton Cowan.
Die Welt des Islams or the International Journal for the Study of Modern Islam is an academic journal on Islam and the Muslim world published by Brill.
Din (Dīn, also anglicized as Deen) is an Arabic word that roughly means "creed" or "religion".
Discovery, in the law of the United States and other countries, is a pre-trial procedure in a lawsuit in which each party, through the law of civil procedure, can obtain evidence from the other party or parties by means of discovery devices such as a request for answers to interrogatories, request for production of documents, request for admissions and depositions.
Divine law is any law that is understood as deriving from a transcendent source, such as the will of God or gods, in contrast to man-made law.
Diya (دية; plural diyāt, ديات) in Islamic law, is the financial compensation paid to the victim or heirs of a victim in the cases of murder, bodily harm or property damage.
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emory University is a private research university in the Druid Hills neighborhood of the city of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
(فرض) or (فريضة) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty commanded by Allah (God).
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The Florida Journal of International Law is a law review established in 1984 devoted to timely discussion of international legal issues.
Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident.
Francis Christopher Rowland Robinson CBE, DL (born 23 November 1944 in Barnet) is a British historian and academic who specialises in the history of South Asia and Islam.
Free Inquiry is a bi-monthly journal of secular humanist opinion and commentary published by the Council for Secular Humanism, which is a program of the Center for Inquiry.
Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Arabic: الإمام الأكبر), also known as Grand Sheikh of al-Azhar (Arabic: شيخ الأزهر الشريف), currently Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a prestigious Sunni Islam title and a prominent official title in Egypt.
The Grand Mufti (مفتي عام, "general expounder" or كبير المفتين, "the great of expounders") is the highest official of religious law in a Sunni or Ibadi Muslim country.
The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia is the most senior and most influential Muslim religious and legal authority in Saudi Arabia.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist, also called the Governance of the Jurist (ولایت فقیه, Vilayat-e Faqih; ولاية الفقيه, Wilayat al-Faqih), is a post-Age-of-Occultation theory in Shia Islam which holds that Islam gives a faqīh (Islamic jurist) custodianship over people.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
Hamid bin Abdallah al-Ali (born 1960) has been described as "an influential Salafi cleric" based in Kuwait, whom the U.S. Treasury Department has described as "an Al Qaeda facilitator and fundraiser." However, following the release of Sayyed Imam Al-Sharif's anti-terrorist manifesto Rationalizing Jihad in Egypt and the World, he is reported to have "declared on a Web site that he welcomed the rejection of violence as a means of fostering change in the Arab world".
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Haram (حَرَام) is an Arabic term meaning "forbidden".
Hawala or hewala (حِوالة, meaning transfer or sometimes trust), also known as hundi or—in Somali, xawala or xawilaad—is a popular and informal value transfer system based not on the movement of cash, or on telegraph or computer network wire transfers between banks, but instead on the performance and honour of a huge network of money brokers (known as "hawaladars").
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Hisbah (حسبة ḥisbah) is an Islamic doctrine which means "accountability".
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
Hudud (Arabic: حدود Ḥudūd, also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural of hadd, حد) is an Arabic word meaning "borders, boundaries, limits".
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Ibadah (عبادة., ‘ibādah, also spelled ibada) is an Arabic word meaning service or servitude.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
Taqī ad-Dīn Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: تقي الدين أحمد ابن تيمية, January 22, 1263 - September 26, 1328), known as Ibn Taymiyyah for short, was a controversial medieval Sunni Muslim theologian, jurisconsult, logician, and reformer.
Ignác (Yitzhaq Yehuda) Goldziher (22 June 1850 – 13 November 1921), often credited as Ignaz Goldziher, was a Hungarian scholar of Islam.
Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infidel (literally "unfaithful") is a term used in certain religions for those accused of unbelief in the central tenets of their own religion, for members of another religion, or for the irreligious.
The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Blasphemy in Islam is impious utterance or action concerning God, Muhammad or anything considered sacred in Islam.
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.
Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.
The Islamic religious police (مطوع muṭawwiʿ, plural مطوعون muṭawwiʿūn – derived from classical Arabic: mutaṭawwiʿa/muṭṭawwiʿa) is the official vice squad of some Islamic states, who on behalf of the state, enforces Sharia law in respect to religious behavior (morality), or the precepts of Wahhabism.
An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
Islamic revival (تجديد, lit. "regeneration, renewal"; also الصحوة الإسلامية, "Islamic awakening") refers to a revival of the Islamic religion.
The Islamic Sharia Council (ISC) is a British organisation that provides legal rulings and advice to Muslims in accordance with its interpretation of Islamic Sharia based on the four Sunni schools of thought.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
(Arabic) is an Arabic term for juristic discretion.
Istishab (استصحاب italic) is an Islamic term used in the jurisprudence to denote the principle of the presumption of continuity.
Istislah (Arabic استصلاح "to deem proper") is a method employed by Muslim jurists to solve problems that find no clear answer in sacred religious texts.
Jaʿfari jurisprudence, (Persian: فقه جعفری) Jaʿfari school of thought, Jaʿfarite School, or Jaʿfari Fiqh is the school of jurisprudence of most Shia Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam.
John Louis Esposito (born May 19, 1940) is University Professor, Professor of Religion & International Affairs and Islamic Studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He was also the Founding Director of the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding at Georgetown.
Joseph Franz Schacht (15 March 1902 – 1 August 1969) was a British-German professor of Arabic and Islam at Columbia University in New York.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
Kafir (كافر; plural كَافِرُونَ, كفّار or كَفَرَة; feminine كافرة) is an Arabic term (from the root K-F-R "to cover") meaning "unbeliever", or "disbeliever".
Kano State is a state located in Northern Nigeria.
The law of agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a set of contractual, quasi-contractual and non-contractual fiduciary relationships that involve a person, called the agent, that is authorized to act on behalf of another (called the principal) to create legal relations with a third party.
The phrase law of the land is a legal term, equivalent to the Latin lex terrae, or legem terrae in the accusative case.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
Limited liability is where a person's financial liability is limited to a fixed sum, most commonly the value of a person's investment in a company or partnership.
The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales is the head of the judiciary and President of the Courts of England and Wales.
Miftahul Ma'ruf (معروف) is an Islamic term meaning that which is commonly known or acknowledged.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
In Islam, a mahr (in مهر; مهريه; Mehir also transliterated mehr, meher, mehrieh or mahriyeh) is a mandatory payment, in the form of money or possessions paid by the groom, or by groom's father, to the bride at the time of marriage, that legally becomes her property.
Majūs (Arabic: مجوس, Persian: مگوش, plural of majūsī) was originally a term meaning Zoroastrians (and specifically, Zoroastrian priests).
In Islamic terminology, something which is makruh (Arabic: مكروه, transliterated: makrooh or makrūh) is a disliked or offensive act (literally "detestable" or "abominable").
Mālik b. Anas b. Mālik b. Abī ʿĀmir b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. G̲h̲aymān b. K̲h̲ut̲h̲ayn b. ʿAmr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Aṣbaḥī, often referred to as Mālik ibn Anas (Arabic: مالك بن أنس‎; 711–795 CE / 93–179 AH) for short, or reverently as Imam Mālik by Sunni Muslims, was an Arab Muslim jurist, theologian, and hadith traditionist.
The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.
Manumission, or affranchisement, is the act of an owner freeing his or her slaves.
Marshall Goodwin Simms Hodgson (April 11, 1922 – June 10, 1968), was an Islamic studies academic and a world historian at the University of Chicago.
The Master of Laws (M.L. or LL.M.; Latin Magister Legum or Legum Magister) is a postgraduate academic degree, pursued by those either holding an undergraduate academic law degree, a professional law degree, or an undergraduate degree in a related subject.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Melbourne University Law Review is a triannual law journal published by a student group at Melbourne Law School covering all areas of law.
Michael J. Broyde (born May 1964) is a professor of law and the academic director of the Law and Religion Program at Emory University.
Michael Allan Cook FBA (born in 1940) is a British historian and scholar of Islamic history.
Sheikh Mohammed al-Ghazali al-Saqqa (1917–1996) (الشيخ محمد الغزالي السقا), was an Islamic cleric and scholar whose writings "have influenced generations of Egyptians".
The phrase more danico is a Medieval Latin legal expression which may be translated as "in the Danish manner", i.e. under Medieval Scandinavian customary law".
Muamalat (also muʿāmalāt, معاملات., literally "transactions"TBE, "CHAPTER A1, INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC MUAMALAT", 2012: p.6 or "dealings") is a part of Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh.
Mubah (Arabic: مباح) is an Arabic word meaning "permitted", which has technical uses in Islamic law.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy (محمد سيد طنطاوي; 28 October 1928 – 10 March 2010), also referred to as Tantawi, was an influential Islamic scholar in Egypt.
Musawah ('equality'; in Arabic: مساواة) is a global movement for equality and justice in the Muslim family, led by feminists "seeking to reclaim Islam and the Koran for themselves".
The Muslim Arbitration Tribunal is a form of alternative dispute resolution which operates under the Arbitration Act 1996 which is available in England.
Mustahabb is an Islamic term referring to recommended, favoured or virtuous actions.
The Muwaṭṭaʾ (الموطأ) of Imam Malik is the earliest written collection of hadith comprising the subjects of Islamic law, compiled and edited by the Imam, Malik ibn Anas.
Naskh (نسخ) is an Arabic word usually translated as "abrogation"; It is a term used in Islamic legal exegesis for seemingly contradictory material within, or between, the two primary sources of Islamic law: the Quran and the Sunna.
Natana J. DeLong-Bas is an American scholar and the author of a number of books on Islam, as well as "numerous book chapters and encyclopedia articles" on the subject of "Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism, Islamic thought and history, Islam and politics, and contemporary jihadism".
In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.
Newton Leroy Gingrich (né McPherson; born June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author, born in Pennsylvania, later representing Georgia in Congress, and ultimately serving as 50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999.
Nicholas Addison Phillips, Baron Phillips of Worth Matravers (called Nick; born 21 January 1938) is a British lawyer and former senior English judge.
The North Carolina Law Review is the law journal of the University of North Carolina School of Law.
Octaware Technologies is a software development company based in Mumbai, India.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence otherwise known as Uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) is the study and critical analysis of the origins, sources, and principles upon which Islamic jurisprudence is based.
Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
Qanun is an Arabic word (قانون, qānūn; قانون, kānūn, derived from κανών kanōn, which is also the root for the modern English word "canon").
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Qiṣāṣ (قصاص) is an Islamic term meaning "retaliation in kind" or "revenge",Mohamed S. El-Awa (1993), Punishment In Islamic Law, American Trust Publications, "eye for an eye", "nemesis" or retributive justice.
In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās (قياس) is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Muhammad Rashid Rida (محمد رشيد رضا; transliteration, Muḥammad Rashīd Riḍā; Ottoman Syria, 23 September 1865 or 18 October 1865 –Egypt, 22 August 1935) was an early Islamic reformer, whose ideas would later influence 20th-century Islamist thinkers in developing a political philosophy of an "Islamic state".
Rayani Air Sdn.
Umdat as-Salik wa 'Uddat an-Nasik (Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper, also commonly known by its shorter title Reliance of the Traveller) is a classical manual of fiqh for the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence.
Religious law refers to ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions.
Religious violence in Nigeria refers to Christian-Muslim strife in modern Nigeria, which can be traced back to 1953.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications.
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth (born 14 June 1950) is a Welsh Anglican bishop, theologian and poet.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sobhi R. Mahmassani (صبحي محمصاني, January 29, 1909 – September 10, 1986) was a Lebanese legal scholar, practising lawyer, judge, and political figure helped to build the legal and civic foundations of the then-nascent country of Lebanon, and whose writings on Islamic jurisprudence remain authoritative works on this topic for legal scholars and researchers.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
Various sources of sharia are used by Islamic jurisprudence to elucidate the body of Islamic law.
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Legal status is the position held by something or someone with regard to law.
Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sulayman al-ʿAlwān or more fully Sulaimān ibn Nāṣir ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAlwān (سليمان بن ناصر بن عبد الله العلوان) is a Saudi Arabian Salafi Islamist Scholar and theoretician of militant jihad.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University.
The Tābi‘un (التابعون, also Tābi‘een التابعين, singular tābi التابع), "followers" or "successors", are the generation of Muslims who followed the Sahaba ("companions" of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), and thus received Muhammad's teachings second hand.
Taqlid or taqleed (Arabic تَقْليد taqlīd) is an Islamic terminology denoting the conformity of one person to the teaching of another.
In Islamic Law, tazir (or ta'zir, Arabic تعزير) refers to punishment for offenses at the discretion of the judge (Qadi) or ruler of the state.
The Daily Caller is a conservative American news and opinion website based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by political pundit Tucker Carlson and Neil Patel, former adviser to former Vice President Dick Cheney.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore currently owned by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.
Theonomy, from theos (god) and nomos (law), is a Christian form of government in which society is ruled by divine law.
Karl Ernst Thomas de Maizière (born 21 January 1954) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union serving as the Federal Minister of the Interior since 17 December 2013 as part of the third cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Timur Kuran is a Turkish American economist, Professor of Economics and Political Science, and Gorter Family Professor in Islamic Studies at Duke University.
This page lists the rulings and applications of the various topics in sharia law.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Georgia Press or UGA Press is a scholarly publishing house for the University System of Georgia.
The University of Pennsylvania Law Review is a law review focusing on legal issues, published by an organization of second and third year J.D. students at the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
Virgin Books is a United Kingdom book publisher 90% owned by the publishing group Random House, and 10% owned by Virgin Group, the company originally set up by Richard Branson as a record company.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
The Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) was an Islamist political party in Turkey.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yusuf al-Qaradawi (translit; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is an Egyptian Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zināʾ (زِنَاء) or zina (زِنًى or زِنًا) is an Islamic legal term referring to unlawful sexual intercourse.
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