315 relations: 'Aql, Abū Lahab, Abbasid Caliphate, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah, Abu Bakr, Abu Hanifa, Abu Hurairah, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Aceh, Adl, Aga Khan, Aga Khan IV, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahl al-Kisa, Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project, Akhbari, Al Abbas Mosque, Al-Amir bi-Ahkami'l-Lah, Al-Askari Shrine, Al-Baqi', Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, Al-Kadhimiya Mosque, Al-Masih ad-Dajjal, Al-Musta'li, Al-Sahlah Mosque, Al-Shahrastani, Al-Yamama, Alamut, Alavi Bohras, Alevism, Ali, Alid dynasties of northern Iran, Allamah, Amir al-Mu'minin, Angels in Islam, Ansariyan Publications, Anti-Shi'ism, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabs, Arba'een, Arwa al-Sulayhi, Ashura, Asr prayer, At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim, Ayatollah, Öljaitü, ..., Bada', Bahmani Sultanate, Bahrani people, Bairam Khan, Bangladesh, Banu Hashim, Banu Ukhaidhir, Barnaby Rogerson, Batin (Islam), Battle of Chaldiran, Battle of Karbala, Bay'ah, BBC News, Bektashi Order, Bid‘ah, Buyid dynasty, Caliphate, Central Intelligence Agency, Civil war, Columbia University, Concise History of Humanity, Da'i al-Mutlaq, Damascus, Dawah, Dawoodi Bohra, Deccan Plateau, Deylaman, Druze, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Iranica, Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, Event of Mubahala, Fadak, Farzana Hassan, Fasting in Islam, Fatimah, Fatimid Caliphate, Fiqh, First Fitna, Forbidding what is evil, Genghis Khan, Gharbzadegi, Ghazan, Gilan Province, God, Great Mosque of Kufa, Hadith, Hadith of the pen and paper, Hadith of the Quran and Sunnah, Hadith of the Twelve Successors, Hadith of the two weighty things, Hadith of warning, Hafizi, Hajj, Hamid Dabashi, Hanafi, Hasan ibn Ali, Hegira, House of Saud, Houthi takeover in Yemen, Houthis, Hulagu Khan, Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn Qutaybah, Idris I of Morocco, Idrisid dynasty, Ijtihad, Ikhwan, Ilkhanate, Imam, Imam Ali Mosque, Imam Husayn Shrine, Imam Reza shrine, Imamah (Ismaili doctrine), Imamah (Shia), Imamate, Imams of Yemen, Infallibility, Iran, Iranian peoples, Iraq, Isha prayer, Islam, Islam by country, Islam in Azerbaijan, Islam in Bahrain, Islam in Germany, Islam in India, Islam in Iran, Islam in Iraq, Islam in Oman, Islam in Qatar, Islam in Tanzania, Islam in the United Arab Emirates, Islam in the United Kingdom, Islam in the United States, Islam in Turkey, Islam in Yemen, Islamic Movement (Nigeria), Islamic schools and branches, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Isma'ilism, Ismah, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, Jihad, Jumada al-Thani, Jurisprudence, Kadhimiya, Kano State, Karbala, Khanate, Khoja, Khums, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kitab al-Kafi, Kufa, Last Judgment, Laylat al-Qadr, Lebanese people (Shia Muslims), Lebanon, Levant, Library of Congress, Library of Congress Country Studies, List of Dai of Dawoodi Bohra, List of Shia books, List of Shia Muslim scholars of Islam, List of Shia Muslims, Louis Massignon, Ma'ruf, Maghreb, Maghrib prayer, Mahdi, Malik, Marja', Mashhad, Mawla, Mawlid, Mecca, Medina, Messiah, Mid-Sha'ban, Middle East, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongols, Mourning of Muharram, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Muhammad in Islam, Muharram, Muslim, Muslim world, Musta'li, Mysticism, Nahj al-Balagha, Najaf, Najran, Nakhawila, Nass (Islam), National Geographic Society, Naubat Khan, Nizar (Nizari Imam), Nizari, Origin of Shia Islam, Ottoman Empire, Pew Research Center, Philip Sherrard, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qadi, Qarmatians, Qizilbash, Qom, Queen consort, Quran, Quraysh, Rabi' al-awwal, Rajab, Ramadan (calendar month), Rashidun Caliphate, Rassids, Rawd al-Qirtas, Richard Francis Burton, Ritual purity in Islam, Sa'dah, Saddam Hussein, Safar, Safavid dynasty, Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Salah, Samanid Empire, Samarra, Sana'a, Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Sayyid, Selim I, Seven pillars of Ismailism, Sha'ban, Shafi‘i, Shahada, Shahid, Shaykhism, Shia crescent, Shia Islam, Shia Islam in Afghanistan, Shia Islam in Iraq, Shia Islam in Kuwait, Shia Islam in Nigeria, Shia Islam in Pakistan, Shia Islam in Saudi Arabia, Shia Islam in Tajikistan, Shia–Sunni relations, Shura, Sokoto State, South Asia, Strategic Studies Institute, Succession to Muhammad, Sujud, Sulaymani, Sultan, Sunni Islam, Susa, Tabaristan, Tabarra, Tabuik, Tawalla, Tawhid, Tayyibi Isma'ilism, The event of Ghadir Khumm, The Times of India, The Twelve Imams, The verse of purification, The World Factbook, Theology of Twelvers, Twelver, Ulama, Umar, Umar at Fatimah's house, Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali, Ummah, United States Department of State, Upper Mesopotamia, Uqaylid dynasty, Uthman, Wadi-us-Salaam, Wahhabism, Wahy, Walayah, Wali, West Sumatra, Wudu, Ya'qubi, Yazid I, Zahir (Islam), Zaidiyyah, Zakat, Zayd ibn Ali, Zuhr prayer. Expand index (265 more) » « Shrink index
‘Aql (عقل, meaning "intellect"), is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind.
According to Islamic narrations and inline with Arabic history, Abū Lahab (أبو لهب) (c. 549 – 624) was Muhammad's paternal uncle.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi (‘Abdrabbuh Manṣūr Hādī; عبدربه منصور هادي Yemeni pronunciation:; born 1 September 1945) is a Yemeni politician and former Field Marshal of the Yemeni Armed Forces.
Khanzada Mirza Khan Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana (17 December 1556 – 1627) (Urdu), also known as Rahim was a poet who lived during the rule of Mughal emperor Akbar.
Abu Muḥammad ʿAlī / ʿAbd Allāh al-Mahdi Billah (873 – 4 March 934) (أبو محمد عبد الله المهدي بالله), was the founder of the Ismaili Fatimid Caliphate, the only major Shi'a caliphate in Islam, and established Fatimid rule throughout much of North Africa, Hejaz, Palestine and the Levant.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abū Ḥanīfa al-Nuʿmān b. Thābit b. Zūṭā b. Marzubān (أبو حنيفة نعمان بن ثابت بن زوطا بن مرزبان; c. 699 – 767 CE), known as Abū Ḥanīfa for short, or reverently as Imam Abū Ḥanīfa by Sunni Muslims, was an 8th-century Sunni Muslim theologian and jurist of Persian origin,Pakatchi, Ahmad and Umar, Suheyl, “Abū Ḥanīfa”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary.
Abū Hurayrah al-Dawsiyy al-Zahrāniyy (أبو هريرة الدوسي الزهراني‎; 603–681), often spelled Abu Hurairah, was one of the sahabah (companions) of Muhammad and, according to Sunni Islam, the most prolific narrator of hadith.
Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, fully Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir ibn ‘Abdillāh ibn al-Jarāḥ (أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح; 583–639 CE), was one of companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Aceh; (Acehnese: Acèh; Jawoë:; Dutch: Atjeh or Aceh) is a province of Indonesia.
Adl (عدل) is an Arabic word meaning 'justice', and is also one of the names of God in Islam.
Aga Khan (آقاخان; also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan) is a title used also as a name by the Imam of the Nizari Ismailis, whose current holder is the 49th Imam (1957–present), Prince Shah Karim Al Husseini Aga Khan IV (b. 1936).
Prince Shah Karim Al Hussaini, Aga Khan IV, (شاه كريم الحسيني، الآغاخان الرابع; شاه کریم حسینی، آقاخان چهارم; شاه کریم حسینی، آغاخان چهارم; Aga Khan is also transliterated as Aqa Khan and Agha Khan; born 13 December 1936) is the 49th and current Imam of Nizari Ismailism, a denomination of Isma'ilism within Shia Islam consisting of an estimated 10-15 million adherents (10—12% of the world's Shia Muslim population).
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Ahl al-Kisa' (Ahl al-Kisā'), or the People of the Cloak, refers to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; his daughter, Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.
The Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project (Ahlul Bayt DILP), established in 1996, is a non-profit Islamic organization that features work from a group of volunteers operating throughout the world.
The Akhbaris (اخباري) are Twelver Shia Muslims who reject the use of reasoning in deriving verdicts, and believe Quran and hadith (sayings of Prophet Muhammad and Twelve Shia Imams) as the only source of law.
The Al-‘Abbās Mosque or Masjid al-‘Abbās (مسجد الامام العباس) is the mausoleum of ‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī and historical building, located across from the Imām Husayn Mosque in Karbalā, Iraq.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr al-Āmir bi'Aḥkāmi’l-Lāh (منصور الآمر بأحكام الله‎; 31 December 1096 – 7 October 1130 (Tuesday 3 Dhu'l-Qadah 524 AH) was the tenth Fatimid Caliph (1101–1130) and the 20th Isma'ili Imam of the Musta'li sect of Shia Islam. Like his father al-Musta'li (1094–1101), al-Amir was controlled by the regent al-Afdal Shahanshah (1094–1121) and had little influence in political matters. However, after the assassination of al-Afdal in 1121 AD he managed to gain control of government. His reign was marred by the loss of Tyre to the Crusaders as well as by the continuation of the schism between the Nizari and the Mustaali. This conflict climaxed in the assassination of al-Amir on Tuesday, October 7, 1130 (3rd Dhu al-Qi'dah, 524 AH).
Al ‘Askarī Shrine or the ‘Askariyya Shrine (aas) is a Shī‘ah Muslim holy site in the Iraqi city of Sāmarrā from Baghdad.
Jannaṫ al-Baqī‘ (lit) is a cemetery in Medina, the Hijazi region of present-day Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hadi ila’l-Haqq Yahya (859 – August 19, 911) was a religious and political leader on the Arabian Peninsula.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
The Al-Kadhimiya Mosque (مَـسـجـد الـكَـاظـمـيّـة) is a shrine located in the Kādhimayn suburb of Baghdad, Iraq.
Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (المسيح الدجّال, "the false messiah, liar, the deceiver") is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology.
Abū'l-Qāsim Aḥmad al-Musta‘lī bil-Lāh (16 September 1094 – 12 December 1101, أبو القاسم أحمد المستعلي بالله) was the ninth Fatimid caliph, and believed by the Musta'li sect of Isma'ilism to be the nineteenth Imam.
The Al-Sahlah Mosque or Masjid al-Sahlah (مسجد السهلة) is one of the primary significant mosques in the city of Kufa, Iraq.
Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī (1086–1153 CE), also known as Muhammad al-Shahrastānī, was an influential Persian historian of religions, a historiographer, Islamic scholar, philosopher and theologian.
Al-Yamamah (al-Yamāmah) is an ancient historical region lying to the east of the plateau of Najd in modern-day Saudi Arabia, or sometimes more specifically, the now-extinct ancient village of Jaww Al-Yamamah, near Al-Kharj, after which the rest of the region was named.
The Alamut geographic region (الموت; Alamūt) is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz (Elburz) range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north.
The Alavi Bohras (علوي بھرۃ) are a Taiyebi Musta'alavi Isma'ili Shi'i Muslim community from Gujarat, India.
Alevism (Alevîlik or Anadolu Alevîliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (''bāṭenī'') teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams, and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Alid dynasties of northern Iran or Alâvids.
Allamah (علامه, Urdu and), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by scholars of Islamic fiqh, jurisprudence, and philosophy.
Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims.
In Islam, Angels (Arabic: ملاك; plural: ملاًئِكة mala'ikah) are celestial beings, created from a luminious origin by God to perform certain tasks he has given them.
Ansariyan Publications is a private publisher located at Qom,Islamic Republic of Iran.
Anti-Shi'ism is the prejudice, hatred of, discrimination or violence directed against Shia Muslims because of their religious beliefs, traditions and cultural heritage.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arba'een (lit), Chehlom (چهلم, چہلم, "the fortieth ") or Qırxı, İmamın Qırxı (امامین قیرخی, "the fortieth of Imam") is a Shia Muslim religious observance that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura.
Arwa bint Asma (أروى بنت أحمد بن محمد بن جعفر بن موسى الصليحي الإسماعيلية Arwa bint Asma Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar ibn Mūsá ṣ-Ṣulayḥī al-Ismā'īliyyah, c. 1048–1138, died 22nd Shaban, 532 AH) was the long-reigning ruler of Yemen, firstly as the co-ruler of her first two husbands and then as sole ruler, from 1067 until her death in 1138.
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
The Asr prayer (صلاة العصر, "afternoon prayer") is the afternoon daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims.
Al-Ṭayyib Abū'l-Qāṣim ibn al-Manṣūr (الطيب أبو القاسم بن المنصور) was, according to the Mustaali sect of Isma'ilism, the twenty-first Imam and the last Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit (Öljeitü Ilkhan, Өлзийт хаан), also known as Muhammad Khodabandeh (محمد خدابنده - اولجایتو, khodābandeh from Persian meaning the "slave of God" or "servant of God"; 1280 – December 16, 1316), was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler from 1304 to 1316 in Tabriz, Iran.
Badā' (meaning: "revealing after concealing", or "alteration in the divine will") is a Shia Islamic concept regarding God.
The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms.
The Baharna (بحراني ، بحارنة) are a Shia Muslim ethnoreligious group who mainly inhabit the historical region of Eastern Arabia.
Bairam Khan also Bayram Khan was an important military commander, later commander-in-chief of the Mughal army, a powerful statesman and regent at the court of the Mughal Emperors, Humayun and Akbar.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Banu 'l-Ukhaidhir (بنو الأخيضر) was a dynasty that ruled in Najd and al-Yamamah (central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century.
Barnaby Rogerson (born 17 May 1960) is a British author, television presenter and publisher.
Bāṭin (باطن) literally means "inner", "inward", "hidden", etc.
The Battle of Chaldiran (جنگ چالدران; Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Concise History of Humanity or Chronicles (المختصر في أخبار البشر Tarikhu 'al-Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al-Bashar, or تاريخ أبى الفداء Tarikh Abi al-Fida History of Abu al-Fida), is a history book written by Abu al-Fida Ismail Ibn Hamwi in 1315 and continued by the author to 1329.
The term Dā'ī al-Mutlaq or ad-Da'i ul-Mutlaq (الداعي المطلق or داعي المطلق) literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary" pl.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
The Dawoodi Bohras are a sect within the Ismā'īlī branch of Shia Islam.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
Deylaman (ديلمان, also Romanized as Deylamān, Dailimān, and Dil’man) is a city and capital of Deylaman District, in Siahkal County, Gilan Province, Iran.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
The Eastern Province (الشرقية) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia by area.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
Esoteric interpretation of the Quran, taʾwīl (تأويل), is the allegorical interpretation of the Quran or the quest for its hidden, inner meanings.
The Event of Mubahala was a meeting between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Christian delegation from Najran (present-day Yemen), in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja, 10 AH (October 631, October 631-2, October 632-3), where Muhammad invoked a curse attempting to reveal who was lying about their religious differences.
Fadak (فدك) was a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia.
Farzana Hassan, also known as Farzana Hassan Shahid, is a Pakistani-Canadian author, speaker, and human rights activist.
Fasting in Islam, known as Sawm (صَوْم) or Siyām (صِيَام), the Arabic words for fasting, also commonly known as Rūzeh or Rōzah (روزه) in some Muslim countries, is the practice of abstaining, usually from food and drink.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The First Fitna (فتنة مقتل عثمان fitnat maqtal ʿUthmān "strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman") was a civil war within the Rashidun Caliphate which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty.
Forbidding what is evil (النهي عن المنكر Nahy ani l-Munkar), is a part of Islam and means, for example, to oppose injustice.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Gharbzadegi (غربزدگی) is a pejorative Persian term variously translated as ‘Westernized’, ‘West-struck-ness’, ‘Westoxification’, ‘Westitis’, ‘Euromania’, or ‘Occidentosis’.
Mahmud Ghazan (1271– 11 May 1304) (sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304.
Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
The Great Mosque of Kufa, or Masjid al-Kūfa (مسجد الكوفة المعظم/الأعظم), or Masjid al-Mu'azam/al-A'azam located in Kūfa, Iraq, is one of the earliest mosques in the world.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hadith of the pen and paper is a hadith in Islam about an event when the Islamic prophet Muhammad expressed a wish to write something down but was refused and reportedly insulted by Umar.
Several hadith (oral tradition about the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) indicate the importance as sources of Islam not only the Quran (the revelation of God to Muhammad, infallible but containing compressed information), but also of the Sunnah of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (a detailed explanation of the everyday application of the principles established in the Qur'an that is based on ahadith).
The hadith of the twelve successors, or twelve caliphs (ḥadīth al-ithnā ‘ashar khalīfah) is an Islamic prophecy, attributed to Muhammad.
The Hadith al-Thaqalayn, also known as the Hadith of the two weighty things, refers to a saying (hadith) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Hadith of Warning or Yawm al-Inzar (یوْمُ الْاِنذار), also known as Invitation of the close families of Muhammad (دعوة ذو العشیرة - Da‘wat dhul-‘Ashīrah) is an event that took place in the fourth year of Islam.
The Hafizi was a branch of Mustaali Ismailism that believed the current ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate after the reign of Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, Al-Hafiz was also the Imam of the Time as well as his descendants.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Hamid Dabashi (حمید دباشی; born 1951) is an Iranian Professor of Iranian Studies and Comparative Literature at Columbia University in New York City.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
The Hegira (also called Hijrah, هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622.
The House of Saud (Āl Suʻūd) is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia.
The Houthi takeover in Yemen, also known as the September 21 Revolution (by supporters), or 2014–15 coup d'état (by opponents), was a gradual armed takeover by the Houthis and supporters of former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh that pushed the Yemeni government from power.
The Houthis (الحوثيون al-Ḥūthiyyūn), officially called Ansar Allah (أنصار الله "Supporters of God"), are members of an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Abū Muhammad Abd-Allāh ibn Muslim ibn Qutayba al-Dīnawarī al-Marwazī or simply Ibn Qutaybah (Ibn Qutaybah; 828 – 13 November 889 CE / 213 – 15 Rajab 276 AH) was a renowned Islamic scholar of Persian origin.
Idris I (إدريس الأول), also known as Idris ibn Abdillah, was the founder of the Idrisid dynasty in part of northern Morocco in alliance with the Berber tribe of Awraba.
The Idrisids (الأدارسة) were an Arab-Berber Zaydi-Shia dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
The Ikhwan (الإخوان, (The) Brethren), also Akhwan, was the first Saudi army made up of traditionally nomadic tribesmen which formed a significant military force of the ruler Ibn Saud and played an important role in establishing him as ruler of most of the Arabian Peninsula in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
The Imam 'Ali Holy Shrine (Ḥaram al-Imām ‘Alī), also known as the Mosque of 'Ali (Masjid ‘Alī), located in Najaf, Iraq, is the Holy site for Shia Muslims.
The Shrine of Imam Husayn (Maqām al-Imām al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī) is the mosque and burial site of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Imam of Islam, in the city of Karbala’, Iraq.
The Imam Reza shrine (حرم امام رضا) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites.
The doctrine of the Imamate in Isma'ilism differs from that of the Twelvers because the Isma'ilis had living Imams for centuries after the last Twelver Imam went into concealment.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
Imamate (إمامة imāmah) is a word derived from imam and meaning "leadership".
The Imams of Yemen and later the Kings of Yemen were religiously consecrated leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam.
Infallibility is the inability to be wrong.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Isha prayer (صلاة العشاء, "night prayer") is the night-time daily prayer recited by practicing Muslims.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Adherents of Islam constitute the world's second largest religious group.
Over 96.9% of the population of Azerbaijan is nominally Muslim.
Islam is the state religion in Bahrain.
Owing to labour migration in the 1960s and several waves of political refugees since the 1970s, Islam has become a visible religion in Germany.
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
The Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651) led to the end of the Sasanian Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia.
The history of Islam in Iraq goes back almost 1,400 years to the lifetime of Muhammad (died 632).
Virtually all Omanis are Muslims, of whom three quarters follow the Ibadi School of Abd-Allah ibn Ibadh.
Qatar is a Muslim-majority country with Islam as the state religion.
Islam is the religion of about 35% of the people of Tanzania.
Islam is the official religion of the United Arab Emirates.
Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with results from the United Kingdom Census 2011 giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population.
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism.
Islam in Turkey, The established presence of Islam in the region that now constitutes modern Turkey dates back to the latter half of the 11th century, when the Seljuks started expanding into eastern Anatolia.
Islam in Yemen dates back to about 630 when it was introduced into the region by Ali when Muhammad was still alive.
The Islamic Movement in Nigeria is a religious and political organization based in the northern region of Nigeria.
This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
‘Iṣmah or ‘Isma (عِصْمَة; literally, "protection") is the concept of incorruptible innocence, immunity from sin, or moral infallibility in Islamic theology, and which is especially prominent in Shia Islam.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (جلال آلاحمد; December 2, 1923 – September 9, 1969) was a prominent Iranian novelist, short-story writer, translator, philosopher, socio-political critic, sociologist as well as an anthropologist who was "one of the earliest and most prominent of contemporary Iranian ethnographers".
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jumada al-Thani (also transliterated,; also pronounced) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Al-Kāẓimiyyah (الكاظمية) or al-Kāẓimayn (الكاظمين) is a northern neighbourhood of the city of Baghdad, Iraq.
Kano State is a state located in Northern Nigeria.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
The Khojas (کوجا، خوجا، خواجا; ખોજા) are a group of diverse people who converted to Islam in India and Pakistan.
In Islamic tradition, khums (خمس, literally 'one fifth') refers to the historically required religious obligation of any Muslim army to pay one-fifth of the spoils of war, the money collected from non-believers after a military campaign; this tax was paid to the caliph or sultan, representing the state of Islam.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
The book Al-Kāfī (The Sufficient Book) is a Twelver Shīʿī ḥadīth collection compiled by Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb al-Kulaynī.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
(from لیلة القدر), variously rendered in English as the Night of Decree, Night of Power, Night of Value, Night of Destiny, or Night of Measures, is in Islamic belief the night when the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Lebanese people refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest Muslim denomination in the country tied with Sunni Muslims.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Al-Malika al-Sayyida (Hurratul-Malika) was instructed and prepared by Imām Mustansir and following Imāms for the second period of satr.
These books include discussions about Theology (Tawḥīd, Nubuwwah, Imamah, etc.) of Shi'a.
*Syed Salman Akbar Rizvi (1986-Present).
The following is a list of notable Shia Muslims.
Louis Massignon (25 July 1883 – 31 October 1962) was a Catholic scholar of Islam and a pioneer of Catholic-Muslim mutual understanding.
Miftahul Ma'ruf (معروف) is an Islamic term meaning that which is commonly known or acknowledged.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The Maghrib prayer (صلاة المغرب, '"West prayer"), prayed just after sunset, is the fourth of five obligatory daily prayers (salat) performed by practicing Muslims.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
Malik, Melik, Malka, Malek or Melekh (𐤌𐤋𐤊; ملك; מֶלֶךְ) is the Semitic term translating to "king", recorded in East Semitic and later Northwest Semitic (e.g. Aramaic, Canaanite, Hebrew) and Arabic.
In Shia Islam, marjaʿ (مرجع; plural: marājiʿ), also known as a marjaʿ taqlīd or marjaʿ dīnī (مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally meaning "source to imitate/follow" or "religious reference", is a title given to the highest level Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed clerics.
Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.
Mawlā (مَوْلًى), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of the Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
In Abrahamic religions, the messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people.
Bara'a Night (Laylat al-Bara’at) or Mid-Sha'ban (Niṣf Sha‘bān) is a holiday observed by various Muslim communities on the night between 14 and 15 Sha'ban.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Mourning of Muharram (or Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with both Shia and Sunni Islam.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī (محمد بن الحسن المهدي), also known as Imam Zaman (امام زمان), is believed by Twelver Shī‘a Muslims to be the Mahdī, an eschatological redeemer of Islam and ultimate savior of humankind and the final Imām of the Twelve Imams who will emerge with Isa (Jesus Christ) in order to fulfill their mission of bringing peace and justice to the world.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Ḥasan al-Muthannā ibn al-Ḥasan al-Mujtaba ibn 'Ali ibn Abi Talib or Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya (محمد بن عبد الله بن الحسن بن الحسن بن علي الملقَّب النفس الزكية, "The Pure Soul") was a descendant of Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Kulayni al-Razi (Persian: شیخ ابوجعفر محمّد بن یعقوب بن اسحاق رازی; c. 250 AH/864 CE - 329 AH/941 CE).
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
The Musta‘lī (مستعلي) are a sect of Isma'ilism named for their acceptance of al-Musta'li as the legitimate nineteenth Fatimid caliph and legitimate successor to his father, al-Mustansir Billah.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The Nahj al-Balagha (نهج البلاغة,; "The Peak of Eloquence") is the most famous collection of sermons, letters, tafsirs and narrations attributed to Ali, cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad.
Najaf (اَلـنَّـجَـف; BGN: An-Najaf) or An Najaf Al Ashraf (النّجف الأشرف) is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km (100 mi) south of Baghdad.
Najran (نجران), is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen.
The Nakhawila (النخاولة) are a community of indigenous Hijazi Twelver Shias, typically of low social class, who have traditionally resided in and around the city of Medina in Saudi Arabia, numbering around 32,000—although no official or certain figures are available.
Nass (نصّ.) is an Arabic word meaning "a known, or clear, legal injunction".
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Naubat Khan (नौबात खान also known as Ali Khan Karori) was a prominent Indian classical music composer, musician and instrumentalist.
Abū Manṣūr Nizār al-Muṣṭafá li-Dīn’il-Lāh (1047-1097, أبومنصور نزار المصطفى لدين الله) was the founder (and an Imām) of the Nizāri branch of Ismā‘ilī Shia Islam.
The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).
The origin of Shia Islam was Shia response to the question of religious leadership; which became manifest as early as the death of Muhammad.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Philip Owen Arnould Sherrard (23 September 1922 – 30 May 1995) was a British author, translator and philosopher.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Qizilbash or Kizilbash, (Kızılbaş - Red Head, sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, قزلباش) is the label given to a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Rabīʿ al-ʾawwal (ربيع الأوّل) is the third month in the Islamic calendar.
Rajab (رجب) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar.
Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان) or Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and the month in which the Quran was revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Imams of Yemen and later the Kings of Yemen were religiously consecrated leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam.
Rawḍ al-Qirṭās (روض القرطاس) is a history of Morocco written in Arabic in the 1326 C.E. It includes many details about the wider Moroccan empire in Iberian Peninsula and Algeria.
Sir Richard Francis Burton (19 March 1821 – 20 October 1890) was a British explorer, geographer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer, and diplomat.
Purity (طهارة, Tahara(h)) is an essential aspect of Islam.
Sa'dah (صعدة) is the capital city of Saada Governorate in north-western Yemen at an elevation of about 1,800 meters.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Safar (صفر) is a word that means “empty.” This corresponds to a time where people’s houses were empty.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Sāmarrāʾ (سَامَرَّاء) is a city in Iraq.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
The Ismā'īlī Shi'a (the Nizari, Druze, and Mustaali) have more pillars than those of the Sunni.
Sha'ban (sha‘bān) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Shaykhism (الشيخية) is an Islamic religious movement founded by Shaykh Ahmad in early 19th century Qajar Iran.
The Shia Crescent (or Shiite Crescent) is the notionally crescent-shaped region of the Middle East where the majority population is Shia or where there is a strong Shia minority in the population.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shia Islam in Afghanistan is practiced by a minority of the population; estimates vary from 7% to 15% or 20%.
More than two thirds of the population of Iraq 70% are Shia Muslims.
Shia Islam in Kuwait constitutes 30%-40% of Kuwait's Muslim population.
Though the majority of the Nigerian Muslim population is Sunni, there is a significant Shia minority, particularly in the northern states of Kano and Sokoto.
The Shia population in Pakistan is estimated as being between 5-20% of the country's total population.
The government does not conduct census on religion and ethnicity but some sources estimated the percentage of Shiites in Saudi Arabia to 5%Nasr, Shia Revival, (2006) p. 236 and others to 10% of approximately 20 million natives of Saudi Arabia.
Shi'a Islam is practiced by only a small percentage of the population of Tajikistan; a 2009 U.S. State Department report puts the proportion at 3% of the country, compared to 95% for Sunni Islam.
Sunni Islam and Shia Islam are the two major denominations of Islam.
Shura (شورى shūrā) is an Arabic word for "consultation".
Sokoto, usually referred to as Sokoto State to distinguish it from the city of Sokoto, is located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to the confluence of the Sokoto River and the Rima River.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the U.S. Army's institute for strategic and national security research and analysis.
The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that divided the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Muslim history.
Sujūd (سُجود), or sajdah (سجدة), is an Arabic word meaning prostration to God (Arabic: الله Allah) in the direction of the Kaaba at Mecca which is usually done during the daily prayers (salat).
Sulaymani Bohras (Sulaymanis) are a Musta‘lī Ismaili community that predominantly reside in Saudi Arabia (Najran), Yemen, Pakistan and India.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
Tabaristan (from Middle Persian:, Tapurstān), also known as Tapuria (land of Tapurs), was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran.
Tabarra (تبرأ) is a doctrine that refers to the obligation of disassociation with those who oppose God and those who caused harm to and were the enemies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or his family.
A Tabuik is the local manifestation of the Remembrance of Muharram among the Minangkabau people in the coastal regions of West Sumatra, Indonesia, particularly in the city of Pariaman.
Tawallá "Loving the Ahl al-Bayt" (تولّى), is a part of the Twelver Shī‘ah Islām Aspects of the Religion and is derived from a Qur'anic verse.
Tawhid (توحيد, meaning "oneness " also romanized as tawheed, touheed, or tevhid) is the indivisible oneness concept of monotheism in Islam.
ayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, the other being Hafizi Isma'ilism.
The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) is an event that took place in March 632.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.
The verse of purification (Arabic:آیه تطهیر) is verse (Ayah) in the Qur'an.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theology of Twelver Shias contains five principles of the Shia religion known as Uṣūl ad-Dīn (أصول الدين عند الشيعة).
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Umar at Fatimah's house refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers.
The Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali was performed in state-controlled mosques in Syria for a period of approximately 65 years from c.657 to c.717 CE.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
The 'Uqailids or 'Uqaylid dynasty was a Shi'a Arab dynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syria and Iraq in the late tenth and eleventh centuries.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Wadi-us-Salaam (lit) is an Islamic cemetery, located in the Shia holy city of Najaf, Iraq.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Waḥy (وحي,; also spelled wahi) is the Arabic word for revelation or inspiration.
Welayah means "guardianship".
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
West Sumatra (Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar, Jawi:, Minangkabau: Sumatera Baraik) is a province of Indonesia.
Wuḍūʾ (الوضوء) is the Islamic procedure for washing parts of the body, a type of ritual purification.
Ahmad ibn Abu Ya'qub ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb Ibn Wadih al-Ya'qubi (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (اليعقوبي), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Ẓāhir (ظاهر) is an Arabic term in some tafsir (interpretations of the Quran) for what is external and manifest.
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Zakat (زكاة., "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal زكاة المال, "zakat on wealth", or Zakah) is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax, which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
The Zuhr prayer (صلاة الظهر,, "noon prayer"; also transliterated Duhr, Dhuhr or Duhur) is the prayer after midday (but before the time for the Asr prayer.) It has been said that the name Dhuhr was given to this prayer because it falls halfway between two daily prayers, those being Fajr (or Fajer) which denotes the beginning of dawn and Isha, the first instant of complete darkness.
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