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Shigella

Index Shigella

Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. [1]

53 relations: Apocholate citrate agar, Arp2/3 complex, Bacteria, Chromosome, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Endospore, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Enterotoxin, Epileptic seizure, Epithelium, Escherichia, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Facultative anaerobic organism, Fecal–oral route, Fever, Flatulence, Gammaproteobacteria, Gastroenteritis, Genus, Gram-negative bacteria, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Invasion, Kiyoshi Shiga, Large intestine, Lysis, Microfold cell, Micrograph, Nausea, Pathology, Phylogenetics, Plasmid, Primate, Proteobacteria, Reactive arthritis, Serotype, Shiga toxin, Shiga-like toxin, Shigatoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigellosis, Small intestine, Subgenus, Traveler's diarrhea, Type three secretion system, ..., Vacuole, Vomiting, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein. Expand index (3 more) »

Apocholate citrate agar

Apocholate Citrate Agar or ACA is a selective environment used to isolate Shigella and Salmonella bacteria.

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Arp2/3 complex

Arp2/3 complex is a seven-subunit protein complex that plays a major role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dysentery

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Endospore

An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.

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Enterobacteriaceae

The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea.

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Enterotoxin

An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Escherichia

Escherichia is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Escherichia coli O157:H7

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.

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Facultative anaerobic organism

The title of this article should be "Facultative Aerobic Organism," as "facultative anaerobe" is a misnomer.

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Fecal–oral route

The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.

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Fever

Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Flatulence

Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".

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Gammaproteobacteria

Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria.

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Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.

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Genus

A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).

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Invasion

An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.

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Kiyoshi Shiga

was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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Lysis

Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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Microfold cell

Microfold cells (or M cells) are found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine, and in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Micrograph

A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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Nausea

Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Pathology

Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Plasmid

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Proteobacteria

Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.

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Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity).

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Serotype

A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.

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Shiga toxin

Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages.

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Shiga-like toxin

Shiga-like toxin, also known as verotoxin and verocytotoxin, is a toxin generated by some strains of Escherichia coli (but see below).

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Shigatoxigenic and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin).

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Shigella boydii

Shigella boydii is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Shigella.

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Shigella dysenteriae

Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella.

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Shigella flexneri

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans.

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Shigella sonnei

Shigella sonnei is a species of Shigella.

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Shigellosis

Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella.

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Small intestine

The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

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Subgenus

In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.

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Traveler's diarrhea

Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection.

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Type three secretion system

Type three secretion system (often written Type III secretion system and abbreviated TTSS or T3SS, also called Injectisome) is a protein appendage found in several Gram-negative bacteria.

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Vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Vomiting

Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein

The Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shigella

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