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Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
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Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.
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Abu Bakr, also known as Abubakari I or Manding Bory, was the fifth Mansa (Emperor) of the Mali Empire, reigning from 1275 to 1285.
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Abu Bakr II (fl. 14th century), also spelled Abubakri and known as Mansa Qu, may have been the ninth mansa of the Mali Empire.
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Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
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Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.
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An Aframax ship is an oil tanker smaller than 120,000 metric tonnes and with a breadth not greater than 32.31 m and therefore would have been able to pass through the original Panama canal.
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Agatharchides or Agatharchus (Ἀγαθαρχίδης or Ἀγάθαρχος, Agatharchos) of Cnidus was a Greek historian and geographer (flourished 2nd century BC).
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The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
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The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the 16th to the mid-19th century.
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Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
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An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
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An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.
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The Ajuran Sultanate (Dawladdii Ajuuraan, الدولة الأجورانيون), also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
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The Alaska pollock or walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) is a marine fish species of the cod family Gadidae.
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The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
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The America's Cup, affectionately known as the "Auld Mug", is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts.
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An amphibious assault ship (also commando carrierIn historical use, commando carriers have not necessarily operated landing craft, e.g. British aircraft carrier conversions or an amphibious assault carrier) is a type of amphibious warfare ship employed to land and support ground forces on enemy territory by an amphibious assault.
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The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
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An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
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The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites.
Archaeology is a bimonthly magazine for the general public, published by the Archaeological Institute of America.
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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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An artificial reef is a man-made underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, to control erosion, block ship passage, or improve surfing.
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Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
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were large Japanese warships of the 16th and 17th century used during the internecine Japanese wars for political control and unity of all Japan.
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Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is a herring in the family Clupeidae.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
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An attack submarine or hunter-killer submarine is a submarine specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and merchant vessels.
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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
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An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of an aircraft without constant 'hands-on' control by a human operator being required.
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Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
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Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
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A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
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Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.
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A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
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A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel with three or more masts having the fore- and mainmasts rigged square and only the mizzen (the aftmost mast) rigged fore-and-aft.
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A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point as measured at the ship's nominal waterline.
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Berbera (Barbara, بربرة) is a city in the northwestern Woqooyi Galbeed region of Somaliland.
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Bifurcation memory is a generalized name for some specific features of the behaviour of the dynamical system near the bifurcation.
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The bilge (IPA: /bɪldʒ/) is the lowest compartment on a ship or seaplane, below the waterline, where the two sides meet at the keel.
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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
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Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.
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The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
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The blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou, one of the two species in the genus Micromesistius in the cod family, is common in the northeast Atlantic Ocean from Morocco to Iceland and Spitsbergen.
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A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size.
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Bottom trawling is trawling (towing a trawl, which is a fishing net) along the sea floor.
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The bow is the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is usually most forward when the vessel is underway.
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A bow wave is the wave that forms at the bow of a ship when it moves through the water.
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The bowsprit of a sailing vessel is a spar extending forward from the vessel's prow.
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Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift.
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A brigantine was a two-masted sailing vessel with a fully square rigged foremast and at least two sails on the main mast: a square topsail and a gaff sail mainsail (behind the mast).
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The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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A bulbous bow is a protruding bulb at the bow (or front) of a ship just below the waterline.
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A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or colloquially, bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds.
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In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
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The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire.
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A cabin or berthing is an enclosed space generally on a ship or an aircraft.
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A cable layer or cable ship is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electric power transmission, or other purposes.
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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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Cape Bojador (رأس بوجادور, trans. Rā's Būjādūr; ⴱⵓⵊⴷⵓⵔ, Bujdur; Spanish and Cabo Bojador; Cap Boujdour) is a headland on the northern coast of Western Sahara, at 26° 07' 37"N, 14° 29' 57"W (various sources give various locations: this is from the Sailing Directions for the region), as well as the name of the large nearby town with a population of 41,178.
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Capesize ships are the largest dry cargo ships.
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A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
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In economics, cargo or freight are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by water, air or land.
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A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
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A carrack was a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe.
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Carrier-based aircraft, sometimes known as carrier-capable aircraft or carrier-borne aircraft, are naval aircraft designed for operations from aircraft carriers.
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Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
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Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
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The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
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A catamaran (informally, a "cat") is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size.
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Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
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In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
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Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
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Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water.
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Chartering is an activity within the shipping industry whereby a shipowner hires out the use of his vessel to a charterer.
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A chemical tanker is a type of tanker ship designed to transport chemicals in bulk.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
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Chinamax (also known as Valemax) is a standard of ship measurements that allow conforming ships to use various harbours when fully laden, the maximum size of such a ship being draft, beam and length overall.
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A Chinese treasure ship was a type of large wooden ship in the fleet of admiral Zheng He, who led seven voyages during the early 15th-century Ming dynasty.
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Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
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The chub mackerel, Pacific mackerel, or Pacific chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is a species of fish in the tuna and mackerel family, Scombridae.
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A circle is a simple closed shape.
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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
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A clipper was a very fast sailing ship of the middle third of the 19th century, generally either a schooner or a brigantine.
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In sailing, the clipper route was the traditional route derived from the Brouwer Route and sailed by clipper ships between Europe and the Far East, Australia and New Zealand.
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A cluster munition is a form of air-dropped or ground-launched explosive weapon that releases or ejects smaller submunitions.
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The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
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Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
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The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
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A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
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A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows.
Concrete ships are built of steel and ferrocement (reinforced concrete) instead of more traditional materials, such as steel or wood.
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Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
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Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.
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A corvette is a small warship.
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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
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A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.
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A crane vessel, crane ship or floating crane is a ship with a crane specialized in lifting heavy loads.
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A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed.
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A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
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A cruiser is a type of warship.
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Cyperus papyrus (papyrus,papyrus sedge, paper reed, Indian matting plant, Nile grass) is a species of aquatic flowering plant belonging to the sedge family Cyperaceae.
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The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
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Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load.
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The deck department is an organisational team on board naval and merchant ships.
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In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
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A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
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A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
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A double-hulled tanker refers to an oil tanker which has a double hull.
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The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull (keel), with the thickness of the hull included; in the case of not being included the draft outline would be obtained.
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Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.
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A drilling rig is a machine that creates holes in the earth subsurface.
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A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.
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Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516).
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A ducted propeller, also known as a Kort nozzle, is a marine propeller fitted with a non-rotating nozzle.
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Dynamic positioning (DP) is a computer-controlled system to automatically maintain a vessel's position and heading by using its own propellers and thrusters.
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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
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Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
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Ship (or marine) Engineering Officers or, simply, Ship Engineers are responsible for operating and maintaining the propulsion plants and support systems on board crew, passengers and cargo seafaring vesselsWise Geek: or other watercraft.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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The personal pronouns in English take various forms according to number, person, case and natural gender.
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The environmental impact of shipping includes greenhouse gas emissions, acoustic, and oil pollution.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
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Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
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Eudoxus of Cyzicus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κυζικηνός, Eúdoxos ho Kyzikēnós; fl. c. 130 BC) was a Greek navigator who explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
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In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.
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The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled of crude oil over the next few days.
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A factory ship, also known as a fish processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish or whales.
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The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
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Famous First Facts is a book listing "First Happenings, Discoveries and Inventions in the United States".
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A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.
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A fish hook or fishhook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish.
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A fish trap is a trap used for fishing.
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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing vessels.
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A fishing net is a net used for fishing.
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A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls.
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A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river.
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The flag state of a merchant vessel is the jurisdiction under whose laws the vessel is registered or licensed.
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A floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) unit is a floating vessel used by the offshore oil and gas industry for the production and processing of hydrocarbons, and for the storage of oil.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The forecastle (abbreviated fo'c'sle or fo'c's'le) is the upper deck of a sailing ship forward of the foremast, or the forward part of a ship with the sailors' living quarters.
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In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula.
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A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
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A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
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In sailing and boating, a vessel's freeboard is the distance from the waterline to the upper deck level, measured at the lowest point of sheer where water can enter the boat or ship.
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Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.
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The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.
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Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
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A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
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In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
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A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is term of art denoting a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged.
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Galleons were large, multi-decked sailing ships first used by the Spanish as armed cargo carriers and later adopted by European states from the 16th to 18th centuries during the age of sail and were the principal fleet units drafted for use as warships until the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the mid-1600s.
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A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.
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The galley is the compartment of a ship, train, or aircraft where food is cooked and prepared.
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A galvanic anode is the main component of a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system used to protect buried or submerged metal structures from corrosion.
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A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
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A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
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Gerald R. Ford class (or Ford class; previously known as CVN-21 class) is a class of aircraft carrier being built to replace the and eventually the United States Navy's existing ''Nimitz''-class carriers, beginning with the delivery of.
Gil Eanes (or Eannes, in the old Portuguese spelling) was a 15th-century Portuguese navigator and explorer.
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Gillnetting is a common fishing method used by commercial and artisanal fishermen of all the oceans and in some freshwater and estuary areas.
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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
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This is a partial glossary of nautical terms; some remain current, while many date from the 17th to 19th centuries.
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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
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In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
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The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
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The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.
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The Great Storm of 1987 was a violent extratropical cyclone that occurred on the night of 15–16 October, with hurricane-force winds causing casualties in England, France and the Channel Islands as a severe depression in the Bay of Biscay moved northeast.
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Great Zimbabwe is a medieval city in the south-eastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo.
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Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
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Gross tonnage (often abbreviated as GT, G.T. or gt) is a nonlinear measure of a ship's overall internal volume.
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In fixed-wing aircraft, ground effect is the increased lift (force) and decreased aerodynamic drag that an aircraft's wings generate when they are close to a fixed surface.
The H. W. Wilson Company, Inc., was founded in 1898 and is located in The Bronx, New York.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
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Handline fishing, or handlining, is a fishing technique where a single fishing line is held in the hands.
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Handymax and Supramax are naval architecture terms for the larger bulk carriers in the Handysize class.
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Handysize is a naval architecture term for smaller bulk carriers or oil tanker with deadweight of up to 50,000 tonnes, although there is no official definition in terms of exact tonnages.
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The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
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A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
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Hawsehole is a nautical term for a small hole in the hull of a ship through which hawsers may be passed.
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The head (or heads) is a ship's toilet.
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Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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A high-speed craft (HSC) is a high-speed water vessel for civilian use, also called a fastcraft or fast ferry.
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A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
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The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
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Hobyo (Hobyo, also known as Obbia), is an ancient port city in Galmudug state in the north-central Mudug region of Somalia.
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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
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Horse mackerel is a vague vernacular term for a range of species of fish throughout the English-speaking world.
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A hospital ship is a ship designated for primary function as a floating medical treatment facility or hospital.
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A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud, ice, and other surfaces.
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The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.
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Hull speed or displacement speed is the speed at which the wavelength of the boat's bow wave (in displacement mode) is equal to the boat length.
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A hydrofoil is a lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water.
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Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
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An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
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The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
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An impeller (also written as impellor or impellar) is a rotor used to increase (or decrease in case of turbines) the pressure and flow of a fluid.
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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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Initial stability is the resistance of a boat to small changes in the difference between the vertical forces applied on its two sides.
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An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo.
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The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, OACI), is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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The Navy of Islamic Republic of Iran Army (نیروی دریایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) acronymed NEDAJA (نداجا), is the naval warfare service branch of Iran's regular military, the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (''Artesh'').
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
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Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.
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The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
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On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element.
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Khambhat (/kɑːmˈbɑːt/), also known as Cambay, is a town and the surrounding urban agglomeration in Khambhat Taluka, Anand district in the Indian state of Gujarat.
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The Khufu ship is an intact full-size vessel from Ancient Egypt that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC.
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Kilwa one of the 6 districts of the Lindi Region of Tanzania.
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Kilwa Kisiwani is a community on an Indian Ocean island off the southern coast of present-day Tanzania in eastern Africa.
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The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
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A knarr is a type of Norse merchant ship used by the Vikings.
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The Korean People's Navy (KPN), officially known as the Korean People's Army Naval Force (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 해군; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 海軍, Chosŏn-inmingun Haegun, literally "Korean People's Army Sea Military"), is the naval service branch of the Korean People's Army, which contains each branch of the North Korean armed forces.
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Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
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Lake freighters, or lakers, are bulk carrier vessels that ply the Great Lakes of North America.
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Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America.
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Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located entirely within the United States.
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Lake Superior (Lac Supérieur; ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
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The largehead hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) or beltfish is a member of the cutlassfish family, Trichiuridae.
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Length between perpendiculars (often abbreviated as p/p, p.p., pp, LPP, LBP or Length BPP) is the length of a ship along the waterline from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member.
Liberty ships were a class of cargo ship built in the United States during World War II.
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A lifeboat is a small, rigid or inflatable boat carried for emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard a ship.
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The lighter aboard ship (LASH) system refers to the practice of loading barges (lighters) aboard a bigger vessel for transport.
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The list of auxiliary ship classes in service includes all auxiliary ships in naval service in the world.
This list of fictional ships lists artificial vehicles supported by water, which are either the subject of, or an important element of, a notable work of fiction.
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The following is a list of largest cruise ships over 120,000 gross tonnes, including ships that are in service, under construction, and out of service.
This is a list of some of the world's largest ships by gross tonnage.
The world's longest ships are listed according to their overall length (LOA), which is the maximum length of the vessel measured between the extreme points in fore and aft.
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The list of naval ship classes in service includes all combatant surface classes in service currently with navies or armed forces and auxiliaries in the world.
A Panamax port is a deepwater port that can accommodate a fully laden Panamax ship.
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This is a list of historical ship types, which includes any classification of ship that has ever been used, excluding smaller vessels considered to be boats.
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The list of submarine classes in service includes all submarine classes currently in service with navies or other armed forces worldwide.
This is a list of types of watercraft which have seen naval use.
This is a list of the lists of ships on Wikipedia - a meta-list.
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This is an index of lists of shipwrecks (i.e. sunken or grounded ships whose remains have been located), sorted by region.
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An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG).
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Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
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Longline fishing is a commercial fishing technique.
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Luís Vaz de Torres (Galician and Portuguese), or Luis Váez de Torres in the Spanish spelling (born c. 1565; fl. 1607), was a 16th- and 17th-century maritime explorer of a Spanish expedition noted for the first recorded European navigation of the strait which separates the continent of Australia from the island of New Guinea, and which now bears his name (Torres Strait).
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The Maersk Triple E-class container ships comprise a family of very large container ships of more than 18,000 TEU.
Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest tonnage of ship capable of fitting through the Strait of Malacca.
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The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.
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Manoeuvring thruster (bow thruster or stern thruster) is a transversal propulsion device built into, or mounted to, either the bow or stern, of a ship or boat, to make it more maneuverable.
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Mare Nostrum (mare nostrvm, "Our Sea") was a Roman name for the Mediterranean Sea.
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Marine electronics refers to electronics devices designed and classed for use in the marine environment on board ships and yachts where even small drops of salt water will destroy electronics devices.
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Marine fuel management (MFM) is a multi-level approach to measuring, monitoring, and reporting fuel usage on a boat or ship, with the goals of reducing fuel usage, increasing operational efficiency, and improving fleet management oversight.
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Marine salvage is the process of recovering a ship and its cargo after a shipwreck or other maritime casualty.
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Marine weather forecasting is the process by which mariners and meteorological organizations attempt to forecast future weather conditions over the Earth's oceans.
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Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.
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Maritime transport is the transport of people (passengers) or goods (cargo) by water.
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The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat.
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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
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A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
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Merca (Marka, مركة) is an ancient port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia.
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A merchant vessel, trading vessel or merchantman is a boat or ship that transports cargo or carries passengers for hire.
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The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
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A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
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A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
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The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.
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In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
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The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
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Mnemiopsis leidyi, the warty comb jelly or sea walnut, is a species of tentaculate ctenophore (comb jelly), originally native to the western Atlantic coastal waters.
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Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
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Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
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Mombasa is a city on the coast of Kenya.
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The, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom.
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Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
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The Monthly Weather Review is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Meteorological Society.
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A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured.
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A mother ship, mothership or mother-ship is a large vehicle that leads, serves, or carries other smaller vehicles.
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MS Polarfront was a Norwegian weather ship located in the North Atlantic.
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A multihull is a ship, vessel, craft or boat with more than one hull.
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Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Mali Empire.
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A museum ship, also called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes.
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Erika was the name of a tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf.
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Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
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Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
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The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding, maintenance, and operation of marine vessels and structures.
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Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
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A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation.
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A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
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A Navy List or Naval Register is an official list of naval officers, their ranks and seniority, the ships which they command or to which they are appointed, etc., that is published by the government or naval authorities of a country.
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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
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The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.
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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
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North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
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North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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NS Savannah was the first nuclear-powered merchant ship.
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Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
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Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
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Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship or submarine with heat provided by a nuclear power plant.
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Nuclear navy, or nuclear-powered navy consists of naval ships powered by relatively small onboard nuclear reactors known as naval reactors.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
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An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans.
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Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
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An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
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The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) (101 H.R.1465, P.L. 101-380) was passed by the 101st United States Congress and signed by President George H. W. Bush.
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An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship designed for the bulk transport of oil or its products.
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The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.
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An outboard motor is a propulsion system for boats, consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine, gearbox and propeller or jet drive, designed to be affixed to the outside of the transom.
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The overall length of an ammunition cartridge is a measurement from the base of the brass shell casing to the tip of the bullet, seated into the brass casing.
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The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
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A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water.
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The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
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Panamax and New Panamax (or Neopanamax) are terms for the size limits for ships travelling through the Panama Canal.
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A passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea.
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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
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A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties.
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The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), also known as the PLA Navy, is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, which is the armed wing of the Communist Party of China and, by default, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Personal injury is a legal term for an injury to the body, mind or emotions, as opposed to an injury to property.
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The Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a species of fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae, from the Southeast Pacific Ocean.
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The Philadelphia Convention Hall and Civic Center—more commonly known as the Philadelphia Civic Center and the Philadelphia Convention Center, and formerly known as Municipal Auditorium and the Philadelphia Convention Hall—located in Philadelphia, in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, was a complex of five or more buildings developed out of a series of buildings dedicated to expanding trade which began with the National Export Exhibition in 1899.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
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A pilot boat is a type of boat used to transport maritime pilots between land and the inbound or outbound ships that they are piloting.
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Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
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A plank is timber that is flat, elongated, and rectangular with parallel faces that are higher and longer than wide.
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A Platform supply vessel (often abbreviated as PSV) is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil and gas platforms.
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Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
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A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
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In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
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A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
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"Praise of the Two Lands", appearing in an inscription (c. 2613 BCE) of boat building projects of Egyptian pharaoh Sneferu, is the first reference to a ship bearing a name.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
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Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories relate to visits or interactions with the Americas and/or indigenous peoples of the Americas by people from Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania before Columbus's first voyage to the Caribbean in 1492.
The Prestige oil spill was an oil spill in Galicia, Spain, caused by the sinking of the 26 year old structurally deficient oil tanker MV Prestige in November 2002, carrying 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil.
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Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
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A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
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A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.
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Propulsion means to push forward or drive an object forward.
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A view of pump-jets operating ''Discovery'' jet ski pump jet Rear view of pump-jet on a Mark 50 torpedo A pump-jet, hydrojet, or water jet is a marine system that creates a jet of water for propulsion.
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Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
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Q-Max is a type of ship, specifically a membrane type liquefied natural gas carrier.
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Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
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Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
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The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
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A replenishment oiler or replenishment tanker is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry cargo holds which can supply both fuel and dry stores during underway replenishment (UNREP) at sea.
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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
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The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
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The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
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A research vessel (RV or R/V) is a ship or boat designed, modified, or equipped to carry out research at sea.
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The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
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A riverboat is a watercraft designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways.
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Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo, such as cars, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers, and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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A rotor ship is a type of ship designed to use the Magnus effect for propulsion.
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Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward.
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The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
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A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).
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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
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The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
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Saginaw is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the seat of Saginaw County.
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A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sail-powered land vehicles.
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A sail plan is a set of drawings, usually prepared by a naval architect which shows the various combinations of sail proposed for a sailing ship.
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A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails smaller than a sailing ship.
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Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.
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The term "sailing ship" is most often used to describe any large vessel that uses sails to harness the power of wind.
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A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
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The Saint Lawrence Seaway (la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North America, as far inland as the western end of Lake Superior.
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Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
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Samuel Plimsoll (10 February 1824 – 3 June 1898) was an English politician and social reformer, now best remembered for having devised the Plimsoll line (a line on a ship's hull indicating the maximum safe draft, and therefore the minimum freeboard for the vessel in various operating conditions).
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La Santa María de la Inmaculada Concepción (Spanish for: The Holy Mary of the Immaculate Conception), or La Santa María, originally La Gallega, was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage.
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A scow, in the original sense, is a flat-bottomed boat with a blunt bow, often used to haul bulk freight; cf.
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Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials.
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Scuttling is the deliberate sinking of a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.
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A sea captain, ship's captain, captain, master, or shipmaster, is a high-grade licensed mariner in ultimate command of the merchant vessel.
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A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
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The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
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Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
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Sealift is a term used predominantly in military logistics and refers to the use of cargo ships for the deployment of military assets, such as weaponry, vehicles, military personnel, and supplies.
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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
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The term Seawaymax refers to vessels which are the maximum size that can fit through the canal locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway, linking the inland Great Lakes of North America with the Atlantic Ocean.
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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
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Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats.
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The is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict.
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Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for either a source of parts, which can be sold for re-use, or for the extraction of raw materials, chiefly scrap.
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A ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself.
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A ship class is a group of ships of a similar design.
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A number of different methods exist for disposing of a ship after it has reached the end of its effective or economic service life with an organisation.
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A ship graveyard or ship cemetery is a location where the hulls of scrapped ships are left to decay and disintegrate, or left in reserve.
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Ship grounding is the impact of a ship on seabed or waterway side.
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Ship models or model ships are scale models of ships.
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A ship model basin is a physical basin or tank used to carry out hydrodynamic tests with ship models, for the purpose of designing a new (full sized) ship, or refining the design of a ship to improve the ship's performance at sea.
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A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.
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A ship prefix is a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name of a civilian or naval ship.
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A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship.
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Ship stability is an area of naval architecture and ship design that deals with how a ship behaves at sea, both in still water and in waves, whether intact or damaged.
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A ship's tender, usually referred to as a tender, is a boat, or a larger ship used to service or support other boats or ships, generally by transporting people and/or supplies to and from shore or another ship.
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A shipowner is the owner of a merchant vessel (commercial ship) and is involved in the shipping industry.
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Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.
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A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either beached on land or sunken to the bottom of a body of water.
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A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired.
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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.
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The skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae.
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Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
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A Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull, better known by the acronym SWATH, is a twin-hull ship design that minimizes hull cross section area at the sea's surface.
Sneferu (also read Snefru or Snofru), well known under his Hellenized name Soris (Σῶρις) (by Manetho), was the founding monarch of the 4th dynasty during the Old Kingdom.
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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
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Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
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Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
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The Soo Locks (sometimes spelled Sault Locks, but pronounced "sue") are a set of parallel locks which enable ships to travel between Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes.
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A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
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The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given.
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A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
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Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts.
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The square-rigged caravel, originally caravela redonda in Portuguese (meaning round caravel, but of the type with Portuguese origin), also called caravela de armada (generically and also particularly for a largest or strong major sub-type of this ship) was a sailing ship created by the Portuguese in the second half of the fifteenth century.
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Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
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Ship stabilizers are fins or rotors mounted beneath the waterline and emerging laterally from the hull to reduce a ship's roll due to wind or waves.
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A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
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A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
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A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.
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The stern is the back or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail.
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A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.
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A strap, sometimes also called strop, is an elongated flap or ribbon, usually of fabric or leather.
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A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
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A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
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A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
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"Suezmax" is a naval architecture term for the largest ship measurements capable of transiting the Suez Canal in a laden condition, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers.
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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
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Surface combatants (or surface ships or surface vessels) are a subset of naval warships which are designed for warfare on the surface of the water, with their own weapons.
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A Surface Effect Ship (SES) or Sidewall Hovercraft is a watercraft that has both an air cushion, like a hovercraft, and twin hulls, like a catamaran.
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A survey vessel is any type of ship or boat that is used for mapping.
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An immersion suit, or survival suit (or more specifically an immersion survival suit) is a special type of waterproof dry suit that protects the wearer from hypothermia from immersion in cold water, after abandoning a sinking or capsized vessel, especially in the open ocean.
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Swahili culture is the culture of the Swahili people inhabiting the Swahili Coast.
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The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.
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A swell, in the context of an ocean, sea or lake, is a series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air and so they are often referred to as surface gravity waves.
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A tank container or tanktainer is an intermodal container for the transport of liquids, gases and powders as bulk cargo.
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A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
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A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
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A tiller or till is a lever used to steer a vehicle.
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The ton is a unit of measure.
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Tonnage is a measure of the cargo-carrying capacity of a ship.
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A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
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A towpath is a road or trail on the bank of a river, canal, or other inland waterway.
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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
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Jack mackerels or saurels are marine fish in the genus Trachurus of the family Carangidae.
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A train ferry is a ship (ferry) designed to carry railway vehicles.
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In naval architecture, a transom is either the surface that forms the stern of a vessel or one of the many horizontal beams that make up that surface (e.g., the "wing transom", etc.). Transoms may be flat or curved and they may be vertical, raked forward, also known as a retroussé or reverse transom, angling forward (toward the bow) from the waterline to the deck, or raked aft, often simply called "raked", angling in the other direction.
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Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.
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A trimaran (or double-outrigger) is a multihull boat that comprises a main hull and two smaller outrigger hulls (or "floats") which are attached to the main hull with lateral beams.
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A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.
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Trolling is a method of fishing where one or more fishing lines, baited with lures or bait fish, are drawn through the water.
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A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
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A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
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A tug (tugboat or towboat) is a type of vessel that maneuvers other vessels by pushing or pulling them either by direct contact or by means of a tow line.
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The turbosail is a naval propulsion system using a sail-like vertical surface and a powered boundary layer control system to improve lift across a wide angle of attack.
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A turtle ship, also known as Geobukseon (거북선), was a type of large Korean warship that was used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navy during the Joseon dynasty from the early 15th century up until the 19th century.
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A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.
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The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun (Grand Cape), and about miles southeast of Kaş, in south-western Turkey.
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The UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport (RMT) an annual publication that has been published since 1968 by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.
Valemax ships are a fleet of very large ore carriers (VLOC) owned or chartered by the Brazilian mining company Vale S.A. to carry iron ore from Brazil to European and Asian ports.
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Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
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The Vendée Globe is a single-handed (solo) non-stop yacht race around the world without assistance.
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Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
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Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security.
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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
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Due to the importance of surface weather observations from the surface of the ocean, the voluntary observing ship program, known as VOS, was set up to train crews how to take weather observations while at sea and also to calibrate weather sensors used aboard ships when they arrive in port, such as barometers and thermometers.
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The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
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A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
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Watercraft or marine vessel are water-borne vehicles including ships, boats, hovercraft and submarines.
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The waterline is the line where the hull of a ship meets the surface of the water.
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The waterline length (originally Load Waterline Length, abbreviated to LWL) is the length of a ship or boat at the point where it sits in the water.
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A wave power ship is a ship, propelled harnessing the energy of the waves.
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Wave-making resistance is a form of drag that affects surface watercraft, such as boats and ships, and reflects the energy required to push the water out of the way of the hull.
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Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
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Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
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Weather buoys are instruments which collect weather and ocean data within the world's oceans, as well as aid during emergency response to chemical spills, legal proceedings, and engineering design.
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A weather ship, or Ocean Station Vessel, was a ship stationed in the ocean for surface and upper air meteorological observations for use in weather forecasting.
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The Welland Canal is a ship canal in Ontario, Canada, connecting Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.
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West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized ship, designed for whaling: the catching or processing of whales.
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Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
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Wilfred Harvey Schoff (1874–1932) was an early twentieth-century American antiquarian and classical scholar.
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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
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In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
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A wingsail is a variable-camber aerodynamic structure that is fitted to a marine vessel in place of conventional sails.
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WordNet is a lexical database for the English language.
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Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue their employer for the tort of negligence.
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A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
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World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
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The yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) is a species of tuna found in pelagic waters of tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide.
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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
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A Z-drive is a type of marine propulsion unit.
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Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.
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Zeila (Saylac, زيلع), also known as Zaila or Zeyla, is a port city in the northwestern Awdal region of Somaliland.
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Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
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Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
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The 25th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2500 BC to 2401 BC.
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The 30th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC.
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