244 relations: Abhinavagupta, Acala, Adi Shankara, Advaita Vedanta, Agni, Aiyanar, Ajmer, Amish Tripathi, Andhaka, Aniconism, Annapurna Massif, Ardhanarishvara, Asceticism, Ashokasundari, Atharvashiras Upanishad, Ayyappan, Ātman (Hinduism), Ōkuninushi, Śruti, Batara Guru, Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavata Purana, Bhairava, Bhasma, Bhimbetka rock shelters, Brahma, Brahman, Bull, Cambridge University Press, Caste, Chandra, Crescent, Daikokuten, Dakshinamurthy, Damaru, Dandan Oilik, Dark Souls, Dasam Granth, Dattatreya, David Frawley, David Kalupahana, Deva (Hinduism), Devanagari, Devi, Devi Mahatmya, Devi Upanishad, Devon Ke Dev...Mahadev, Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend, Dionysus, Doris Meth Srinivasan, ..., Durga, Durvasa, Ellora Caves, Final Fantasy, Gana, Ganesha, Ganges, Gavin Flood, Grihastha, Guṇa, Gujarati language, Gupta Empire, Guru, Guru Granth Sahib, Halahala, Hanuman, Hanuman Chalisa, Hatha yoga, Henotheism, Hephthalite Empire, Himalayas, Hindu deities, Hindu texts, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, Iṣṭa-devatā (Hinduism), Iconography, India, Indian classical dance, Indian epic poetry, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, Ishana, Ishvara, Jainism, Jalandhara, Jan Gonda, Java, Jejuri, John Keay, John Marshall (archaeologist), Jyotirlinga, Kaivalya Upanishad, Kali, Kamadeva, Kamakshi, Kapalika, Karnataka, Kartik Purnima, Kartikeya, Kashmir Shaivism, Kerala, Khandoba, Kingdom of Khotan, Kushan Empire, Lasya, Life OK, Linga Purana, Lingam, Lingayatism, Linguistics, Lotus position, Madurai, Maha Shivaratri, Mahabharata, Mahadeva (Buddhism), Maharashtra, Mahābhāṣya, Mahākāla, Manasa, Maruts, Meditation, Meenakshi, Mesolithic, Mic (media company), Mohenjo-daro, Mohini, Monier Monier-Williams, Moriz Winternitz, Motilal Banarsidass, Mount Kailash, Mudra, Murdeshwar, Murti, Nandi (bull), Nataraja, Nāga, Nepal, Nirukta, North India, Numismatics, Om, Om Namah Shivaya, Oxford University Press, Panchayatana puja, Pantheism, Para Brahman, Parameshwara (God), Parashu, Parasnath, Parvati, Pashupatastra, Pashupati, Patanjali, Paul Deussen, Phallus, Philology, Pinaka (Hinduism), Prajñā (Buddhism), Prakṛti, Princeton University Press, Proto-Indo-European religion, Puranas, Quincunx, Rajas, Rigveda, Rigvedic deities, Rishikesh, Rudra, Rudraksha, Rudras, S. N. Balagangadhara, Saṃsāra, Sacred bull, Sadyojata, Sahasranama, Samudra manthan, Sanskrit, Sati (Hindu goddess), Sattva, Seven Lucky Gods, Shaiva Siddhanta, Shaiva Upanishads, Shaivism, Shaktism, Sharabha, Shasta (deity), Shiva Purana, Shiva Sahasranama, Shraavana, Shri Rudram Chamakam, Shvetashvatara Upanishad, Sivananda Saraswati, Smarta tradition, Sogdia, South India, Sri Lanka, Stambha, Stella Kramrisch, Storm, Stotra, SUNY Press, Surya, Swami Vivekananda, Taklamakan Desert, Tamas (philosophy), Tamil language, Tamil Nadu, Tandava, Tantra, Tapas (Indian religions), Tatpurusha, Teej, The Immortals of Meluha, Third eye, Thomas McEvilley, Tirtha (Hinduism), Tirthankara, Trident, Trimurti, Tripura Sundari, Tripurantaka, Tripurasura, Trishula, Unifying Hinduism, Upaya, Vahana, Vaishnavism, Vajrayana, Vamadeva, Varanasi, Vayu-Vata, Vedanta, Virabhadra, Vishnu, Vishnu Purana, Vishnu sahasranama, Vishnumaya, Wendy Doniger, Wiley-Blackwell, Yajna, Yajurveda, Yoga, Yogi, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (194 more) » « Shrink index
Abhinavagupta (c. 950 – 1016 AD) was a philosopher, mystic and aesthetician from Kashmir.
Acala (अचल "immovable") is a dharmapala, Jp.
Adi Shankara (pronounced) or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.
Agni (अग्नि, Pali: Aggi, Malay: Api) is an Indian word meaning fire, and connotes the Vedic fire god of Hinduism.
Aiyanar or Shasta (IAST: Aiyaṉār, Śāstā, ஐயனார், சாஸ்தா) is a Hindu deity particularly praised by the Malayalis and Tamil speaking community of India and Sri Lanka.
Ajmer (अजमेर) is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the centre of the eponymous Ajmer District.
Amish Tripathi (born 18 October 1974) is an Indian author, known for his novels The Immortals of Meluha, The Secret of the Nagas, The Oath of the Vayuputras, Ram: Scion of Ikshvaku and Sita: Warrior of Mithila.
In Hindu mythology, Andhaka (Sanskrit: अन्धक, IAST: andhaka, lit. he who darkens) often refer to a malevolent asura who is killed by Shiva for trying to abduct Parvati.
Aniconism is the absence of material representations of the natural and supernatural world in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions.
Annapurna (Sanskrit, Nepali, Newar: अन्नपूर्णा) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over, thirteen peaks over, and sixteen more over.
Ardhanarishwara (अर्धनारीश्वर) is a composite androgynous form of the Hindu God Shiva and his consort Parvati (also known as Devi, Shakti and Uma in this icon).
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Ashokasundari (Sanskrit: अशोकसुंदरी) or Ashoka Sundari, is a goddess and the daughter of Shiva and Parvati in Hinduism. She is referenced to in the Padma Purana, which narrates her story. The goddess is mostly venerated in South India in the form of Bala Tripurasundari.
The Atharvashiras Upanishad is a Sanskrit text that is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
Ayyappan is the Hindu god of growth, particularly popular in Kerala.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
is a divinity (kami) in Japanese Shinto.
Shruti or Shruthi (श्रुति;; IPA/Sanskrit) in Sanskrit means "that which is heard" and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism.
Batara Guru (also called Bhattara Guru, Debata Batara Guru and Batara Siwa) is the name of a supreme god in Indonesian Hinduism.
The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).
Bhagavata Purana (Devanagari: भागवतपुराण) also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam or Bhāgavata, is one of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas (Mahapuranas, great histories).
Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव, lit. frightful) is a Hindu deity worshiped by Hindus.
Bhasma in Ayurveda has been defined as a substance obtained by calcination.
The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in central India that spans the prehistoric paleolithic and mesolithic periods, as well as the historic period.
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male of the species Bos taurus (cattle).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Chandra (चन्द्र, IAST: Candra, lit. "shining" or "moon")Graha Sutras By Ernst Wilhelm, Published by Kala Occult Publishers p.51 is a lunar deity and is also one of the nine planets (Navagraha) in Hinduism.
A crescent shape (British English also) is a symbol or emblem used to represent the lunar phase in the first quarter (the "sickle moon"), or by extension a symbol representing the Moon itself.
In Japan, Daikokuten (大黒天), the god of great darkness or blackness, or the god of five cereals, is one of the Seven Lucky Gods (Fukujin).
Dakshinamurthy दक्षिणामूर्ति is an aspect of the Hindu god Shiva as a guru (teacher) of all types of knowledge.
A damaru (Tamil: உடுக்கை; ḍamaru; Tibetan ཌ་མ་རུ; Devanagari: डमरु) or damru is a small two-headed drum, used in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism.
Dandan Oilik, also Dandān-Uiliq, lit. "the houses with ivory", is an abandoned historic oasis town and Buddhist site in the Taklamakan Desert of China, located to the northeast of Khotan in what is now the autonomous region of Xinjiang, between the Khotan and Keriya rivers.
Dark Souls is an action role-playing game developed by FromSoftware and published by Namco Bandai Games.
The Dasam Patishah Ji Da Granth (Gurmukhi: ਦਸਮ ਪਾਤਿਸ਼ਾਹ ਦਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ.
Dattatreya (IAST: Dattātreya, दत्तात्रेय), Dattā or Dattaguru, is a paradigmatic Sannyasi (monk) and one of the lords of Yoga in Hinduism.
David Frawley (Sanskrit title: वामदेव शास्त्री, IAST: Vāmadeva Śāstrī), born 1950, is an American Hindu teacher (acharya) and author, who has written more than thirty books on topics such as the Vedas, Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Yoga, Ayurveda and Vedic astrology, published both in India and in the United States.
David J. Kalupahana (1936–2014) was a Buddhist scholar from Sri Lanka.
Deva (Sanskrit: देव) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for "goddess"; the masculine form is Deva.
The Devi Mahatmya or Devi Mahatmyam (Sanskrit:, देवीमाहात्म्यम्), or "Glory of the Goddess") is a Hindu religious text describing the Goddess as the supreme power and creator of the universe. It is part of the Markandeya Purana, and estimated to have been composed in Sanskrit between 400-600 CE. Devi Mahatmyam is also known as the Durgā Saptashatī (दुर्गासप्तशती) or Caṇḍī (चण्डीपाठः). The text contains 700 verses arranged into 13 chapters. Along with Devi-Bhagavata Purana and Shakta Upanishads such as the Devi Upanishad, it is one of the most important texts of Shaktism (goddess) tradition within Hinduism. The Devi Mahatmyam describes a storied battle between good and evil, where the Devi manifesting as goddess Durga leads the forces of good against the demon Mahishasura—the goddess is very angry and ruthless, and the forces of good win. In peaceful prosperous times, states the text, the Devi manifests as Lakshmi, empowering wealth creation and happiness. The verses of this story also outline a philosophical foundation wherein the ultimate reality (Brahman in Hinduism) is female. The text is one of the earliest extant complete manuscripts from the Hindu traditions which describes reverence and worship of the feminine aspect of God. The Devi Mahatmya is often ranked in some Hindu traditions to be as important as the Bhagavad Gita. The Devi Mahatmya has been particularly popular in eastern states of India, such as West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha and Assam, as well as Nepal. It is recited during Navratri celebrations, the Durga Puja festival, and in Durga temples across India.
The Devi Upanishad (Sanskrit:देवी उपनिषत्), is one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism and a text composed in Sanskrit.
Devon Ke Dev...
The Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (2002) is a book written by Anna L. Dallapiccola, and contains information on over one thousand concepts, characters, and places of Hindu mythology and Hinduism, one of the major religions of the Indian subcontinent.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Doris Meth Srinivasan is a Professor of Indological studies.
Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.
In Hindu Puranas, Durvasa (Sanskrit: दुर्वासा) also known as Durvasas (Sanskrit: दुर्वासस्), was an ancient Rishi, the son of Atri and Anasuya.
Ellora (\e-ˈlȯr-ə\, IAST), located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India, is one of the largest rock-cut monastery-temple cave complexes in the world, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, featuring Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments, and artwork, dating from the 600-1000 CE period.
Final Fantasy is a science fiction and fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix (formerly Square).
The word (Sanskrit: गण) in Sanskrit and Pali means "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series or class".
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Gavin Dennis Flood (born 1954) FBA is a British scholar of comparative religion specialising in Shaivism and phenomenology, but with research interests that span South Asian traditions.
Grihastha (Sanskrit: gr̥hastha) literally means "being in and occupied with home, family" or "householder".
depending on the context means "string, thread, or strand", or "virtue, merit, excellence", or "quality, peculiarity, attribute, property".
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
Halāhala (Sanskrit हलाहल) or kālakūṭa (Sanskrit कालकूटं, literally: 'black mass' or 'time puzzle') is the name of a poison (as per Hindu mythology) created from the sea when Devas (Gods) and Asuras (Demons) churned it (see Samudra manthan) in order to obtain Amrita, the nectar of immortality.
Hanuman (IAST: Hanumān, Sanskrit: हनुमान्) is an ardent devotee of Lord Rama and one of the central characters in the various versions of the epic Ramayana found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
The Hanuman Chalisa (literally Forty chaupais on Hanuman) is a Hindu devotional hymn (stotra) addressed to Lord Hanuman.
Hatha yoga is a branch of yoga.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu deities are the gods and goddesses in Hinduism.
Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
Ishta-Deva or Ishta Devata (Sanskrit: ईष्ट देवता,, literally "cherished divinity" from iṣṭa "desired, liked, cherished, preferred" and devatā "godhead, divinity, tutelary deity" or deva "deity") is a term denoting a worshipper's favourite deity within Hinduism.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
Ishana (Sanskrit. Īśāna), or Ishan (Koushik. Īśhan, literally translates into "Guardian of the North-east").
Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jalandhara (Sanskrit: जलन्धर, lit. he who holds water), also known as Calantaraṇa (Sanskrit: चलन्तरण, lit. he who walks and swims) was the Asura creation of Lord Shiva and a disciple of Shukracharya (Guru of Asuras).
Jan Gonda, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jejuri is a city and a municipal council in Pune district in the Western Indian state of Maharashtra.
John Stanley Melville Keay FRGS, widely known as John Keay, (pronounced 'Kay') is a British historian, journalist, radio presenter and lecturer specialising in popular histories of India, the Far East and China, often with a particular focus on their colonisation and exploration by Europeans.
Sir John Hubert Marshall, CIE, FBA (19 March 1876, Chester, England – 17 August 1958, Guildford, England) was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1902 to 1928.
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirlingam, is a devotional representation of the Supreme God Shiva.
The Kaivalya Upanishad (Sanskrit: कैवल्य उपनिषत्) is an ancient Sanskrit text and one of the minor Upanishads of Hinduism.
(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.
Kāmadeva (Sanskrit in Devanagari: कामदेव), Kāma or Manmatha is the Hindu god of human love or desire, often portrayed along with his female counterpart Rati.
The goddess Kamakshee is the form of Tripura Sundari or Parvati or the universal mother goddess.
The Kāpālika tradition was a non-Puranic form of Shaivism in India.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kartika Purnima is a Hindu, Sikh and Jain holy festival, celebrated on the Purnima (full moon) day or the fifteenth lunar day of Kartik (November–December).
Kartikeya (IAST), also known as Murugan, Skanda, Kumara, and Subrahmanya, is the Hindu god of war.
Kashmir Shaivism is a group of nondualist Tantric Shaiva exegetical traditions from Kashmir that originated after 850 CE.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Khandoba (IAST: Khaṇḍobā), Martanda Bhairava or Malhari, is a Hindu deity worshiped as a manifestation of Shiva mainly in the Deccan plateau of India, especially in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka Telangana.
The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Iranic Saka Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
்யம் The term Lasya, in the context of Hindu mythology, describes the dance performed by Goddess Parvati as it expresses happiness and is filled with grace and beauty.
Life OK (लाइफ ओके) was a Hindi language Indian cable and satellite television channel based in India, part of Star India, which was fully owned by 21st Century Fox.
The Linga Purana (लिंग पुराण, IAST: Liṅga Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, and a Shaivism text of Hinduism.
Lingam (Sanskrit: लिंगम्,, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"; also linga, Shiva linga), is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva, used for worship in temples, smaller shrines, or as self-manifested natural objects.
Lingayatism is a Shaivite religious tradition in India.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Padmasana or Lotus Position (पद्मासन) is a cross-legged sitting asana originating in meditative practices of ancient India, in which the feet are placed on the opposing thighs.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Maha Shivaratri a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahādeva (महादेव) is a controversial figure who appears in various roles in the histories of the early Buddhist schools.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
The (महाभाष्य,, great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on selected rules of Sanskrit grammar from 's treatise, the ''Ashtadhyayi'', as well as Kātyāyana's Varttika, an elaboration of Pāṇini's grammar.
Mahakala (Sanskrit: महाकाल; IAST: Mahākāla) is a deity common to Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Manasā, also Mansā Devi, is an Indian folk goddess of snakes, worshipped mainly in Bengal and other parts of North and northeastern India, chiefly for the prevention and cure of snakebite and also for fertility and prosperity.
In Hinduism, the Maruts or Marutas (मरुत), also known as the Marutagana and sometimes identified with Rudras, are storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni.
Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.
Meenakshi, is an avatar of the Goddess Parvati, the divine consort of Sundareswarar (Shiva), R.K.K. 2005.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Mic is an American internet and media company based in New York City.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Mohini (Sanskrit: मोहिनी) is the only female avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu.
Sir Monier Monier-Williams, KCIE (né Williams; 12 November 1819 – 11 April 1899) was the second Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University, England.
Moriz Winternitz (Horn, December 23, 1863 – Prague, January 9, 1937) was a Jewish scholar from Austria who began his Indology contributions working with Max Müller at the Oxford University.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Mount Kailash (also Mount Kailasa; Kangrinboqê or Gang Rinpoche (Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; s (simplified); t (traditional)), is a 6,638 m (21,778 ft) high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of Transhimalaya in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India. Mount Kailash is considered to be sacred in four religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Bön and Jainism.
A mudra (Sanskrit "seal", "mark", or "gesture") is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Murdeshwar is a town in Bhatkal Taluk of Uttara Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, India.
A Murti (Sanskrit: मूर्ति, IAST: Mūrti) literally means any form, embodiment or solid object, and typically refers to an image, statue or idol of a deity or person in Indian culture.
Nandi (नन्दि, நந்தி, ನಂದಿ, న౦ది, ନନ୍ଦି) is the name of the gate- guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva.
Nataraja (meaning "the lord of dance") is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the cosmic ecstatic dancer.
Nāga (IAST: nāgá; Devanāgarī: नाग) is the Sanskrit and Pali word for a deity or class of entity or being taking the form of a very great snake, specifically the king cobra, found in the Indian religions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nirukta (निरुक्त) means "explained, interpreted" and refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
Om (IAST: Auṃ or Oṃ, Devanagari) is a sacred sound and a spiritual symbol in Hindu religion.
Om Namah Shivaya (Devanagari: ॐ नमः शिवाय.; IAST: Om Namaḥ Śivāya).
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Panchayatana puja (IAST) is a system of worship ('puja') in the Smarta tradition of Hinduism.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Para Brahman (Sanskrit:परब्रह्मन्) (IAST) is the "Highest Brahman" that which is beyond all descriptions and conceptualisations.
Parameshwara (IAST: Parameśvara, Sanskrit: परमेश्वर) or Paramashiva is the term usually referred to god Shiva as the Supreme being according to Saivism which is one of 4 major sampradaya of Hinduism.
Parashu (script) is the Sanskrit word for battle-axe which can be wielded with one or both hands.
Parasnath is a mountain peak in the Parasnath Range.
Parvati (Sanskrit: पार्वती, IAST: Pārvatī) or Uma (IAST: Umā) is the Hindu goddess of fertility, love and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power.
The Pashupatastra (IAST: Pāśupatāstra, sanskrit: पाशुपतास्त्र), in Hindu History, is an irresistible and most destructive personal weapon of Shiva, Kali and Adi Para Shakti discharged by the mind, the eyes, words, or a bow.
Pashupati (Sanskrit Paśupati) is an incarnation of the Hindu god Shiva as "lord of the animals".
(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.
Paul Jakob Deussen (7 January 1845 – 6 July 1919) was a German Indologist and professor of Philosophy at University of Kiel.
A phallus is a penis (especially when erect), an object that resembles a penis, or a mimetic image of an erect penis.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Shiva Dhanush (शिव धनुष) or Pinaka (पिनाक, pínāka) is the bow of Lord Shiva.
Prajñā (Sanskrit) or paññā (Pāli) "wisdom" is insight in the true nature of reality, namely primarily anicca (impermanence), dukkha (dissatisfaction or suffering), anattā (non-self) and śūnyatā (emptiness).
Prakṛti, also Prakṛiti or Prakṛuti (from Sanskrit language प्रकृति, prakṛti), means "nature".
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
A quincunx is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, with four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center.
Rajas (Sanskrit: रजस्) is one of the three Guṇas (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
There are 1000 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.
Rishikesh is a city, municipal corporation and a tehsil in Dehradun district of the Indian state, Uttarakhand.
(Sanskrit: रुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity, associated with wind or storm and the hunt.
Rudraksha (IAST:, Devanagari: रूद्राक्ष, Telugu: రుద్రాక్ష, Tamil:ருத்ராட்ச) ("Lord Rudra's teardrops"), is a seed traditionally used as prayer beads in Hinduism (especially Shaivism).
Rudras are forms and followers of the god Rudra-Shiva and make eleven of the Thirty-three gods in the Hindu pantheon.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Numerous peoples throughout the world have at one point in time honored bulls as sacred.
According to Śaiva Agama, Lord Shiva performs five actions - creation, preservation, dissolution, concealing grace, and revealing grace.
is a Sanskrit term which means "a thousand names".
The samudra manthana (Sanskrit: समुद्रमन्थन, lit. churning of the ocean) is one of the best-known episodes in the Hindu mythology, narrated in the Bhagavata Purana, in the Mahabharata and in the Vishnu Purana.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Satī (सती.), is also known as Dākṣāyaṇī (Sanskrit: दाक्षायणी, lit. daughter of Daksha).
Sattva (Sanskrit: सत्त्व) is one of the three Guṇas or "modes of existence" (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
In Japanese mythology, the Seven Lucky Gods or Seven Gods of Fortune (七福神, shichifukujin in Japanese) are believed to grant good luck and often have their place in netsuke engravings or in other representations.
Shaiva siddhanta,(IAST: Śaiva siddhānta), provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Agamic and Vedic Shaivam combined.
The Shaiva Upanishads are minor Upanishads of Hinduism, specific to Shiva theology (Shaivism).
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shaktism (Sanskrit:, lit., "doctrine of energy, power, the Goddess") is a major tradition of Hinduism, wherein the metaphysical reality is considered feminine and the Devi (goddess) is supreme.
Sharabha (शरभ,, ಶರಭ, Telugu: శరభ) or Sarabha is a part-lion and part-bird beast in Hindu mythology, who, according to Sanskrit literature, is eight-legged and more powerful than a lion or an elephant, possessing the ability to clear a valley in one jump.
Shasta (IAST Śāstā) is the name of a Hindu deity in India.
The Shiva Purana is one of eighteen Purana genre of Sanskrit language in Hinduism, and part of the Shaivism literature corpus.
The Shiva sahasranama is a "list of a thousand names" of Shiva, one of the most important deities in Hinduism.
Śrāvaṇa (श्रावण), (shraavan), (saavan) is the fifth month of the Hindu calendar.
Sri Rudram (श्री रुद्रम्), is a stotra or homage hymn to Lord Rudra (an epithet of Lord Shiva) taken from the Krishna Yajurveda's Taittiriya Samhita (TS 4.5, 4.7).
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (Sanskrit:श्वेताश्वतरोपनिशद or श्वेताश्वतर उपनिषद्, IAST: or) is an ancient Sanskrit text embedded in the Yajurveda.
Sivananda Saraswati (or Swami Sivananda) (8 September 1887 – 14 July 1963) was a Hindu spiritual teacher and a proponent of Yoga and Vedanta.
Smarta tradition is a movement in Hinduism that developed during its classical period around the beginning of the Common Era.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stambha (also spelled as Skambha) - is used to denote pillar or column.
Stella Kramrisch (1896-1993) was a cosmopolitan art historian, who was well known as a specialist in Indian art and Hinduism.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or in an astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
Stotra or Stotram is a Sanskrit word, that means "ode, eulogy or a hymn of praise".
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.
Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
Tamas (Sanskrit: तमस् tamas "darkness") is one of the three Gunas (tendencies, qualities, attributes), a philosophical and psychological concept developed by the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
(Tamil: தாண்டவம்) (also known as) is a divine dance performed by the Hindu god Shiva.
Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of 1st millennium CE.
Tapas is a Sanskrit word that means "to heat".
In Sanskrit grammar a (तत्पुरुष) compound is a dependent determinative compound, i.e. a compound XY meaning a type of Y which is related to X in a way corresponding to one of the grammatical cases of X. There are many tatpuruṣas (one for each noun case, and a few others besides); in a, one component is related to another.
Teej is a generic name for a number of festivals that are celebrated by Bahun jati in Nepal and some parts of India.
The Immortals of Meluha is the first novel of the Shiva trilogy series by Amish Tripathi.
The third eye (also called the mind's eye, or inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept of a speculative invisible eye which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.
Thomas McEvilley (July 13, 1939 – March 2, 2013) was an American art critic, poet, novelist, and scholar.
Tirtha (तीर्थ, IAST: Tīrtha) is a Sanskrit word that means "crossing place, ford", and refers to any place, text or person that is holy.
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
A trident is a three-pronged spear.
The Trimūrti (Sanskrit: त्रिमूर्ति, "three forms") is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism in which the cosmic functions of creation, maintenance, and destruction are personified as a triad of deities, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer, though individual denominations may vary from that particular line-up.
Tripura Sundari (Sanskrit: त्रिपुरा सुंदरी, IAST: Tripura Sundarī), is a goddess and one of the ten Mahavidyas.
Tripurantaka is a manifestation of the Hindu god Shiva.
Tripurasura (Sanskrit: त्रिपुरासुर) is a collective name given to the three demons Vidyunmali, Tarakaksha and Viryavana, who were sons of the demon Tarakasur.
Trishula (Sanskrit: त्रिशूल, IAST: triśūla) is a trident, commonly used as the principal symbols in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History is a book Andrew J. Nicholson on Indian philosophy, describing the philosophical unification of Hinduism, which it places in the Middle Ages.
Upaya (Sanskrit:, expedient means, pedagogy) is a term used in Mahayana Buddhism to refer to an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist Paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action is driven by an incomplete reasoning about its direction.
Vahana (वाहन,, literally "that which carries, that which pulls") denotes the being, typically an animal or mythical entity, a particular Hindu deity is said to use as a vehicle.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
In Hinduism, Vamadeva (वामदेव) is the name of the preserving aspect of the God Shiva, one of six aspects of the universe he embodies, as well as the name of an ancient rishi.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Vāyu-Vāta or Vāta-Vāyu (IPA) is the Avestan language name of a dual-natured Zoroastrian divinity of the wind (Vayu) and of the atmosphere (Vata).
Vedanta (Sanskrit: वेदान्त, IAST) or Uttara Mīmāṃsā is one of the six orthodox (''āstika'') schools of Hindu philosophy.
Vīrabhadra (Sanskrit: वीरभद्र, lit. distinguished hero), also known as Veerabathira,Veerabathiran,Veeraputhiran is a fearsome form of the Hindu god Shiva.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The 'Vishnu Purana' (IAST: Viṣṇu Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism.
Vishnu Sahasranama (Sanskrit: विष्णुसहस्रनाम, IAST: Viṣṇusahasranāma), is a list of 1,000 names (sahasranama) of Vishnu, one of the main deities in Hinduism and the supreme God in Vaishnavism.
Vishnumaya, also known as Chathan, is a Hindu god often associated with sorcery, popularly known in Kerala.
Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (born November 20, 1940) is an American Indologist whose professional career has spanned five decades.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.
The Yajurveda (Sanskrit: यजुर्वेद,, from meaning "prose mantra" and veda meaning "knowledge") is the Veda of prose mantras.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
A yogi (sometimes spelled jogi) is a practitioner of yoga.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Adinath Shiva, Budha Mahadev, Nither, Civa, Dances of Creation, Gangadhara, God shiva, Ishtalingam, Loard Siva, Lord Shankar, Lord Shiva, Lord Siva, Lord Thyagaraja, Lord Śiva, Lord Ṣiva, Mahandeo, Mahasu, Mahesha, Maheshvar, Maheshvara, Maheshwara, Mahesvara, Maheśvara, Mallikarjuna Swamy, Masheshvara, Neelkanth, Nilkanth, Pinakin, Sharva, Shiv (god), Shiv Nam, Shiva (Hinduism), Shiva Shankara, Shiva in Tamil culture, Shiva in contemporary culture, Shiva the Destroyer, Shiva the Great, Shivay, Shivay (2016 film), SiVa, Sivam, Sivan (Hindu deity), Somanatheshwara, Vadakunnathan, Śiva, शिव.