90 relations: Abbreviation, Abjad, Abugida, Alphabet, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Autocomplete, Boyd's syllabic shorthand, Breviograph, Carolingian Renaissance, China, Chinese characters, Chinook Jargon, Cicero, Cincinnati, Clerk, Closed captioning, Computer, Computer keyboard, Court reporter, Current Shorthand, Cursive, Cursive script (East Asia), Deutsche Einheitskurzschrift, Dictation machine, Duployan shorthand, Eclectic shorthand, England, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Floruit, Forkner shorthand, Franz Xaver Gabelsberger, Freedman, Gabelsberger shorthand, Germany, Greek language, Gregg shorthand, Hellenistic period, Henry Sweet, Internet slang, Interpreting notes, Isaac Newton, Isaac Pitman, Jeremiah Rich, John Byrom, John Robert Gregg, Kamloops Wawa, Latin, Marcus Tullius Tiro, Melin Shorthand, ..., Middle Egypt, Mobile phone, Modi script, Monastery, Munson Shorthand, National Council for the Training of Journalists, Ohio, Parthenon, Personal digital assistant, Personal Shorthand, Phonemic orthography, Pitman shorthand, Quikscript, Reformation, Richard S. Westfall, Samuel Pepys, Samuel Taylor (stenographer), Secularization, Shavian alphabet, Speech-to-text reporter, Speedwriting, Stenomask, Stenoscript, Stenotype, Subtitle (captioning), SuperWrite, Taylor shorthand, Teeline Shorthand, Telecommunications relay service, Theophilus Metcalfe, Thomas Gurney (shorthand writer), Thomas Natural Shorthand, Thomas Shelton (stenographer), Timothie Bright, Tironian notes, Transcript (law), United States, Velotype, Vowel, Words per minute. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Autocomplete, or word completion, is a feature in which an application predicts the rest of a word a user is typing.
Boyd's syllabic shorthand is a system of shorthand invented by Robert Boyd, published originally in 1903, and updated in 1912.
A breviograph or brevigraph (from brevis, short, and Greek grapho, to write) is a type of scribal abbreviation in the form of an easily-written symbol, character, flourish or stroke, based on a modified letter form to take the place of a common letter combination, especially those occurring at the beginning or end of a word.
The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinook Jargon (also known as chinuk wawa, or chinook wawa) is a revived American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska and Yukon Territory, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A clerk is a white-collar worker who conducts general office tasks, or a worker who performs similar sales-related tasks in a retail environment (a retail clerk).
Closed captioning (CC) and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A court reporter or court stenographer, also called stenotype operator, shorthand reporter, or law reporter, is a person whose occupation is to transcribe spoken or recorded speech into written form, using shorthand, machine shorthand or voice writing equipment to produce official transcripts of court hearings, depositions and other official proceedings.
Current Shorthand was developed beginning in 1884 and published in 1892 by Dr.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Cursive script, often mistranslated as grass script, is a style of Chinese calligraphy.
Deutsche Einheitskurzschrift (“DEK”, German Unified Shorthand) is a German stenography system.
A dictation machine is a sound recording device most commonly used to record speech for later playback or to be typed into print.
The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography (Sténographie Duployé), was created by Father Émile Duployé in 1860 for writing French.
Eclectic shorthand (sometimes called "Cross shorthand" or "Eclectic-Cross shorthand" after its founder, J. G. Cross) is an English shorthand system of the 19th century.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
Forkner Shorthand is an alphabetic shorthand created by Hamden L. Forkner and first published in 1955.
Franz Xaver Gabelsberger (9 February 1789 – 4 January 1849, both in Munich) was a German inventor of a shorthand writing system, named Gabelsberger shorthand after him.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Gabelsberger shorthand, named for its creator, is a form of shorthand previously common in Germany and Austria.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregg shorthand is a form of shorthand that was invented by John Robert Gregg in 1888.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Henry Sweet (15 September 1845 – 30 April 1912) was an English philologist, phonetician and grammarian.
Internet slang (Internet shorthand, cyber-slang, netspeak, or chatspeak) refers to various kinds of slang used by different people on the Internet.
Interpreting notes are used by some interpreters, who re-express oral communications (such as speeches) in whole or in part.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Sir Isaac Pitman (4 January 1813 – 22 January 1897), was a teacher of the:English language who developed the most widely used system of shorthand, known now as Pitman shorthand.
Jeremiah Rich (died 1660?) was an English stenographer, who published a pioneering system of shorthand writing.
John Byrom or John Byrom of Kersal or John Byrom of Manchester FRS (29 February 1692 – 26 September 1763) was an English poet, the inventor of a revolutionary system of shorthand and later a significant landowner.
John Robert Gregg (b. 17 June 1867, Shantonagh, Monaghan, Ireland – d. 23 February 1948, New York City, New York) was an educator, publisher, humanitarian, and the inventor of the eponymous shorthand system Gregg Shorthand.
The Kamloops Wawa ("Talk of Kamloops") was a newspaper published by Father Jean-Marie-Raphaël Le Jeune, superior of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kamloops in British Columbia, Canada, beginning May 25, 1891, and continuing into the 1900s.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Marcus Tullius Tiro (died c. 4 BC) was first a slave, then a freedman of Cicero.
The Melin system of shorthand is the dominant shorthand system used in Sweden.
Middle Egypt (Misr al-Wista) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Modi (मोडी,,; also Mudiya) is a script used to write the Marathi language, which is the primary language spoken in the state of Maharashtra, India.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Munson Shorthand system was a form of shorthand devised by James Eugene Munson, who was an official court stenographer in New York State.
The National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ) was founded in 1951 as organisation to oversee the training of journalists for the newspaper industry in the United Kingdom and is now playing a role in the wider media.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
Personal Shorthand, originally known as Briefhand in the 1950s, is a completely alphabetic shorthand.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Pitman shorthand is a system of shorthand for the English language developed by Englishman Sir Isaac Pitman (1813–1897), who first presented it in 1837.
Quikscript (also known as the Read Alphabet and Second Shaw) is an alphabet (and phonemic orthography) specifically designed for the English language.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Richard S. Westfall (April 22, 1924 – August 21, 1996) was an American academic, biographer and historian of science.
Samuel Pepys (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament who is most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a relatively young man.
Samuel Taylor (1748/49 – 1811) was the British inventor of a widely used system of stenography.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
The Shavian alphabet (also known as the Shaw alphabet) is an alphabet conceived as a way to provide simple, phonetic orthography for the English language to replace the difficulties of conventional spelling.
A speech-to-text reporter (STTR), also known as a captioner, is a person who listens to what is being said and inputs it, word for word (verbatim), using an electronic shorthand keyboard or speech recognition software and a CAT software system.
Speedwriting is the trademark under which three versions of a shorthand system were marketed during the 20th century.
A stenomask is a hand-held microphone built into a padded, sound-proof enclosure that fits over the speaker's mouth or nose and mouth.
Stenoscript or Stenoscript ABC Shorthand is a shorthand system invented by Manuel C. Avancena (1923-1987) and first published in 1950.
A stenotype, stenotype machine, shorthand machine or steno writer is a specialized chorded keyboard or typewriter used by stenographers for shorthand use.
Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen.
SuperWrite is an English shorthand system based largely on previous shorthand systems and largely intended for people who need to increase their writing speed without devoting months to learning more complicated systems.
The system of geometric shorthand published in Britain by Samuel Taylor in 1786, under the title An essay intended to establish a standard for an universal system of Stenography, or Short-hand writing, was the first shorthand system to be used across the English-speaking world.
Teeline is a shorthand system developed in 1968 by James Hill, a teacher of Pitman Shorthand.
A telecommunications relay service, also known as TRS, relay service, or IP-relay, or Web-based relay service, is an operator service that allows people who are deaf, hard of hearing, deafblind, or have a speech disorder to place calls to standard telephone users via a keyboard or assistive device.
Theophilus Metcalfe (bap. 1610 – c.1645) was an English stenographer.
Thomas Gurney (1705–1770) was an English shorthand-writer.
Thomas Natural Shorthand is an English shorthand system created by Charles A. Thomas which was first published in 1935.
Thomas Shelton (1600/01–1650(?)) was an English stenographer and the inventor of a much-used British 17th- and 18th-century stenography.
Timothie Bright, M.D. (1551?-1615) was an Early Modern British physician and clergyman, the inventor of modern shorthand.
Tironian notes (notae Tironianae; or Tironian shorthand) is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro (94 4 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero's slave and personal secretary, and later his freedman.
A transcript is a written record of spoken language.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Velotype is the old trademark for a type of keyboard for typing text known as a syllabic chord keyboard, an invention of the Dutchmen Nico Berkelmans and Marius den Outer.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Words per minute, commonly abbreviated wpm (sometimes uppercased WPM), is a measure of words processed in a minute, often used as a measurement of the speed of typing, reading or Morse code sending and receiving.