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Sialic acid

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Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone. [1]

53 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Acetylation, Adenoviridae, Bacterial capsule, Carbon, Chromosome 6, Complement system, Cytidine triphosphate, Deuterostome, Epimer, Estradiol, Estrogen, Ethinylestradiol, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Ganglioside, Glycoconjugate, Glycolipid, Glycoprotein, Gunnar Blix, Hemagglutinin, Influenza A virus, Lipopolysaccharide, Mannose, Metastasis, Methylation, Monosaccharide, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, Neural cell adhesion molecule, Neuraminic acid, Neuraminidase, Oligosaccharide, Orthomyxoviridae, Oseltamivir, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid, Post-translational modification, Red blood cell, Regulation of gene expression, Reoviridae, Rotavirus, Saliva, Salla disease, Selectin, Sialidase, Sialidosis, Sialoglycoprotein, Sialyltransferase, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Sweden, Synapse, Synaptogenesis, ..., Transferase, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Zanamivir. Expand index (3 more) »


Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.

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Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.

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Bacterial capsule

Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Chromosome 6

Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Complement system

The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.

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Cytidine triphosphate

Cytidine triphosphate is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate.

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Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.

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In stereochemistry, an epimer is one of a pair of stereoisomers.

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Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.

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Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase

Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, often just aldolase, is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction that splits the aldol, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, into the triose phosphates dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P).

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A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.

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Glycoconjugates is the general classification for carbohydrates covalently linked with other chemical species such as proteins, peptides, lipids and saccharides.

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Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.

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Gunnar Blix

Fritiof Gunnar Blix (7 September 1894 in Lund – 10 June 1981 in Uppsala) was a Swedish chemist and Professor of Medical and Physiological chemistry at the University of Uppsala.

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Hemagglutinin or haemagglutinin (British English)p refers to a substance that causes red blood cells (RBCs) to agglutinate.

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Influenza A virus

Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Mannose, packaged as the nutritional supplement "d-mannose", is a sugar monomer of the aldohexose series of carbohydrates.

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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N-Acetylneuraminic acid

N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA) is the predominant sialic acid found in mammalian cells.

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Neural cell adhesion molecule

Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), also called CD56, is a homophilic binding glycoprotein expressed on the surface of neurons, glia and skeletal muscle.

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Neuraminic acid

Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is a 9-carbon monosaccharide (a nonose), a derivative of a ketononose.

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Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids.

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An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

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The Orthomyxoviruses (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes seven genera: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Influenza virus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus.

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Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).

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Phosphoenolpyruvic acid

Phosphoenolpyruvate (2-phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP) as the ester derived from the enol of pyruvate and phosphate.

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Post-translational modification

Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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Reoviridae is a family of viruses.

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Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.

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Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Salla disease

Salla disease (SD), also called sialic acid storage disease or Finnish type sialuria, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by early physical impairment and intellectual disability.

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The selectins (cluster of differentiation 62 or CD62) are a family of cell adhesion molecules (or CAMs).

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Sialidases hydrolyse alpha-(2->3)-, alpha-(2->6)-, alpha-(2->8)-glycosidic linkages of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid and synthetic substrates.

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Mucolipidosis type I (ML I) or sialidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that results from a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-N -acetyl neuraminidase (sialidase).

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A sialoglycoprotein is a combination of sialic acid and glycoprotein, which is, itself, a combination of sugar and protein.

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Sialyltransferases are enzymes that transfer sialic acid to nascent oligosaccharide.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system.

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A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor).

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Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry

Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.

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Zanamivir is a medication used to treat and prevent influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses.

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C11h19n1o9, Sialate, Sialic acids, Sialination, Sialylation.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sialic_acid

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