95 relations: Abkhaz language, Affricate consonant, Almería, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Amplitude, Andalusia, Apical consonant, Australian Aboriginal languages, Basque language, Bilabial consonant, Brazilian Portuguese, California, Catalan language, Córdoba, Spain, Consonant, Cook Islands Māori, Coronal consonant, De-essing, Dental consonant, Denti-alveolar consonant, Dialectology, English language, Ewe language, Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, Fricative consonant, Fundamental frequency, Granada, Hard palate, Hawaiian language, Huelva, International Phonetic Alphabet, Jaén, Spain, Japanese language, Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Kumeyaay language, Labialization, Mandarin Chinese, Manner of articulation, Marquesan language, Māori language, Morris Halle, Nigeria, Noam Chomsky, Northern Qiang language, Northwest Caucasian languages, OpenType, Palatalization (phonetics), Palato-alveolar consonant, Peter Ladefoged, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, ..., Place of articulation, Polish language, Polynesian languages, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Proto-Bantu language, Psychoacoustics, Rapa Nui language, Retroflex consonant, Rotokas language, Russian language, S with swash tail, Secondary articulation, Serbo-Croatian, Shanghai, Shibboleth, Shona language, Sj-sound, Sound intensity, Southern Qiang language, Spain, Spanish language, Stop consonant, Strident vowel, Sulcalization, Tahitian language, Tamil language, Toda language, Tongue, Tongue shape, Tooth, Tuamotuan language, Ubykh language, Ukue language, Uvular consonant, Vietnamese language, Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiced alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex fricative, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless retroflex fricative, Z with swash tail. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Cook Islands Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language.
Coronal consonants are consonants articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue.
De-essing (also desibilizing) is any technique intended to reduce or eliminate the excessive prominence of sibilant consonants, such as the sounds normally represented in English by "s", "z", "ch", "j" and "sh", in recordings of the human voice.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant or dento-alveolar consonant is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ewe (Èʋe or Èʋegbe) is a Niger–Congo language spoken in southeastern Ghana by approximately 6–7 million people as either the first or second language.
The extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, also extIPA symbols for disordered speech or simply extIPA, are a set of letters and diacritics devised by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association to augment the International Phonetic Alphabet for the phonetic transcription of disordered speech.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Jaén is a city in south-central Spain.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology is a leading regional source of scholarly information on the ethnography, archaeology, linguistics, and Native American history of the Western United States created by Harry Lawton.
Kumeyaay (Kumiai), also known as Central Diegueño, Kamia, and Campo, is the Native American language spoken by the Kumeyaay people of southern San Diego and Imperial counties in California.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Marquesan is a collection of East-Central Polynesian dialects, of the Marquesic group, spoken in the Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
Morris Halle (July 23, 1923 – April 2, 2018) was a Latvian-American linguist who was an Institute Professor, and later professor emeritus, of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Northern Qiang is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Qiangic branch spoken by approximately 60,000 people in north-central Sichuan Province, China.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
OpenType is a format for scalable computer fonts.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.
Peter Nielsen Ladefoged (17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British linguist and phonetician who travelled the world to document the distinct sounds of endangered languages and pioneered ways to collect and study data.
In Spanish dialectology, the terms,, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that do not exhibit the distinction and have only one coronal fricative phoneme, either alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción) or, less commonly, denti-alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción).
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia and on a patchwork of outliers from south central Micronesia to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the southeast Solomon Islands and sprinkled through Vanuatu.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Proto-Bantu is the reconstructed common ancestor of the 550 or so Bantu languages which are spread across Central and Southern Africa.
Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology.
Rapa Nui or Rapanui also known as Pascuan, or Pascuense, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken on the island of Rapa Nui, also known as Easter Island.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Rotokas is a North Bougainville language spoken by about 4,320 people on the island of Bougainville, an island located to the east of New Guinea which is part of Papua New Guinea.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Ȿ (lowercase: ȿ) is a Latin letter s with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7E for uppercase and U+023F for lowercase) that was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent the sound.
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
In Swedish phonology, the sj-sound (sj-ljudet) is a voiceless fricative phoneme found in most dialects.
Sound intensity level also known as acoustic intensity is defined as the power carried by sound waves per unit area in a direction perpendicular to that area.
Southern Qiang is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Qiangic branch spoken by approximately 81,300 people along the Minjiang (岷江) river in Sichuan Province, China.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Strident vowels (also called sphincteric vowels) are strongly-pharyngealized vowels accompanied by (ary)epiglottal trill, with the larynx being raised and the pharynx constricted.
Sulcalization (from Latin sulcus, "groove"), in phonetics, is the pronunciation of a sound, typically a sibilant consonant, such as English and, with a deep groove running along the back of the tongue that focuses the airstream on the teeth, producing a more intense sound.
Tahitian (autonym Reo Tahiti, part of Reo Mā'ohi, languages of French Polynesia)Reo Mā'ohi correspond to “languages of natives from French Polynesia”, and may in principle designate any of the seven indigenous languages spoken in French Polynesia.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Toda is a Dravidian language noted for its many fricatives and trills.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
Tongue shape, in linguistics (articulatory phonetics) describes the shape that the tongue assumes when it makes a sound.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Tuamotuan, Paumotu or Paumotu (Paumotu: Reo Paumotu or Reko Paumotu) is a Polynesian language spoken by 4,000 people in the Tuamotu archipelago, with an additional speakers in Tahiti.
Ubykh, or Ubyx, is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Ukue (Epinmi) is an Edoid language of Ondo State, Nigeria.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Ɀ (lowercase: ɀ) is a Latin letter z with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7F for uppercase and U+0240 for lowercase) was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent a voiced labio-alveolar fricative.
Groove spirant, Hissing consonant, Hissing sound, Hushing (linguistics), Hushing consonant, Hushing sound, Shibilant, Sibilance, Sibilancies, Sibilancy, Sibilant consonant, Sibilant consonants, Sibilant fricative, Sibilant sound, Sibilantly, Sibilants, Sibilation, Silibant, Strident consonant, Strident consonants, Stridents, Thibilant, Voiceless sibilant, Whistled sibilant.