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Associazioni Calcio Riunite Messina S.S.D. a r.l. is an Italian football club based in Messina, Sicily.
Academic institution is an educational institution dedicated to education and research, which grants academic degrees.
Aci Castello (Sicilian: Jaci Casteḍḍu) is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania in Sicily, Italy.
Acireale (Sicilian: Jaciriali; locally shortened to Jaci or Aci) is a coastal city and comune in the north-east of the Metropolitan City of Catania, Sicily, southern Italy, at the foot of Mount Etna, on the coast facing the Ionian Sea.
Adelaide del Vasto (Adelasia, Azalaïs) (– 16 April 1118) was countess of Sicily as the third spouse of Roger I of Sicily, and Queen consort of Jerusalem by marriage to Baldwin I of Jerusalem.
Adrano (Adranu), ancient Adranon, is a town and comune in the province of Catania on the east coast of Sicily.
The Aegadian Islands (Isole Egadi; Sicilian: Ìsuli Ègadi, Aegates Insulae, Αιγάται Νήσοι, meaning "the islands of goats") are a group of five small mountainous islands in the Mediterranean Sea off the northwest coast of Sicily, Italy, near the cities of Trapani and Marsala, with a total area of.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Aeolian Islands (Isole Eolie,, Ìsuli Eoli, Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus.
In Greek mythology, Aeolus (Αἴολος, Aiolos, Modern Greek: "quick-moving, nimble") is a name shared by three mythical characters.
Saint Agatha of Sicily (c. 231 – c. 251 AD) is a Christian saint and virgin martyr.
Agathocles (Greek: Ἀγαθοκλῆς) is a Greek name, the most famous of which is Agathocles of Syracuse, the tyrant of Syracuse.
The Aghlabids (الأغالبة) were an Arab dynasty of emirs from Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids.
Agrigento (Sicilian: Girgenti or Giurgenti) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy and capital of the province of Agrigento.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alcamo (Sicilian: Àrcamu) is the fourth-largest town in the province of Trapani in Sicily, with a population of 45,307 inhabitants.
Alcamo Wine is produced in the DOC of Alcamo, Sicily.
The Alcantara (Alcàntara) is a river in Sicily, southern Italy.
Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti (2 May 1660 – 22 October 1725) was an Italian Baroque composer, known especially for his operas and chamber cantatas.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Altavilla Milicia is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Palermo in the Italian region Sicily, located about southeast of Palermo.
Amaro Averna is an Italian liqueur in the Amaro category produced in Caltanissetta, Sicily.
Amatori Catania is an Italian rugby union club who got relegated from the National Championship of Excellence.
The America's Cup, affectionately known as the "Auld Mug", is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts.
The Anapo (Sicilian: Ànapu) is a river in Sicily whose ancient Greek name is similar to the word for "swallowed up" and at many points on its course it runs underground.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Andrea Calogero Camilleri (born 6 September 1925) is an Italian writer.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio, but also called Antonello degli Antoni and Anglicized as Anthony of Messina (1430February 1479), was an Italian painter from Messina, Sicily, active during the Italian Renaissance.
Antonino Zichichi (born October 15, 1929) is an Italian physicist who has worked in the field of nuclear physics.
The Apennines or Apennine Mountains (Ἀπέννινα ὄρη; Appenninus or Apenninus Mons—a singular used in the plural;Apenninus has the form of an adjective, which would be segmented Apenn-inus, often used with nouns such as mons (mountain) or Greek ὄρος oros, but just as often used alone as a noun. The ancient Greeks and Romans typically but not always used "mountain" in the singular to mean one or a range; thus, "the Apennine mountain" refers to the entire chain and is translated "the Apennine mountains". The ending can vary also by gender depending on the noun modified. The Italian singular refers to one of the constituent chains rather than to a single mountain and the Italian plural refers to multiple chains rather than to multiple mountains. Appennini) are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending along the length of peninsular Italy.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Arab Agricultural Revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Aragonese (Aragonese and aragoneses, aragonesos) are the people self-identified with the historical region of Aragon, in inland northeastern Spain.
Arancini (Italian and Sicilian plural; in the singular, arancino, arancinu or arancina) are stuffed rice balls which are coated with bread crumbs and then deep fried.
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.
An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Archimede combined cycle power plant (also known as Centrale a ciclo combinato Archimede, once Centrale Enel Priolo Gargallo) is an integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) power generation plant at Priolo Gargallo near Syracuse in Sicily, Italy.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Augusta (Sicilian: Austa, Greek and Latin: Megara Hyblaea, Medieval: Augusta and Agosta) is a town and comune in the province of Syracuse, located on the eastern coast of Sicily (Italy).
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
"Ausones", the original Greek form for the Latin "Aurunci," was a name applied by Greek writers to describe various Italic peoples inhabiting the southern and central regions of Italy.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Autostrada A18 is a motorway on the Ionian coast of Sicily that links Messina to Catania.
The Autostrada A19 is a motorway on the island of Sicily that links Palermo to Catania.
The Autostrada A20 is a toll motorway on the island of Sicily that links the city of Palermo to Messina.
The Autostrada A29 is a motorway on the island of Sicily that links Palermo to Mazara del Vallo.
The Autostrada Catania-Siracusa is a motorway 25 km long in eastern Sicily that connects the cities of Catania and Syracuse.
The motorway RA15, also known as Tangenziale di Catania or Catania's By Pass (West), is a motorway to contour Catania in Sicily, running from north to south, west of the city.
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
Banditry is the life and practice of bandits.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barbary slave trade refers to the slave markets that were extremely lucrative and vast on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
The Battle of Campo Tenese (10 March 1806) saw two divisions of the Imperial French Army of Naples led by Jean Reynier attack the left wing of the Royal Neapolitan Army under Roger de Damas.
The Battle of Derna at Derna, Cyrenaica was the decisive victory in April–May 1805 of a mercenary army recruited and led by United States Marines under the command of U.S. Army Lieutenant William Eaton, (1764-1811), diplomatic Consul to Tripoli and U.S. Marine Corps First Lieutenant Presley Neville O’Bannon (1776-1850).
At the Battle of Taginae (also known as the Battle of Busta Gallorum) in June/July 552, the forces of the Byzantine Empire under Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy, and paved the way for the temporary Byzantine reconquest of the Italian Peninsula.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
The Belice,, is a river of western Sicily.
Flavius Belisarius (Φλάβιος Βελισάριος, c. 505 – 565) was a general of the Byzantine Empire.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a widely distributed very long-legged wader in the avocet and stilt family (Recurvirostridae).
The blood orange is a variety of orange (''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'') with crimson, almost blood-colored flesh.
Bronte is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania, in Sicily, southern Italy.
Buccellati, in Sicilian, literally "little bracelets" are uniquely Sicilian fig cookies of a sweet dough rolled out and filled with figs as well as numerous other ingredients.
A Buccellato is a Sicilian circular cake.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Caccamo (Sicilian: Càccamu) is a town and comune located on the Tyrrhenian coast of Sicily in the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Caciocavallo is a type of stretched-curd cheese made out of sheep's or cow's milk.
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
The Calatubo Castle (Latin: catrum Calathatubi; Arabic: قلعة ﺍوبي - Qal'at 'Awbi; Italian: Castello di Calatubo) is a fortress located near the town of Alcamo, Sicily, southern Italy.
Calcio Catania is an Italian football club founded in 1908 and based in Catania, Sicily.
The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.
The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.
Caltagirone (Caltaggiruni) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania, on the island (and region) of Sicily, southern Italy, about southwest of Catania.
Caltanissetta (Nissa or Cartanisetta) is a comune in the central interior of Sicily, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Caltanissetta.
Camillo Camilliani (fl. 1574–1603) was an Italian architect, military engineer and sculptor.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Cannoli (cannula) are Italian pastries of the Sicily region.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
Capo d'Orlando is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina, Sicily, southern Italy, one of the main centers of the mountain and coastal Nebrodi area.
Capo Passero or Cape Passaro (Greek: Πάχυνος; Latin: Pachynus or Pachynum) is a celebrated promontory of Sicily, forming the extreme southeastern point of the whole island, and one of the three promontories which were supposed to have given to it the name of "Trinacria." (Ovid, Fast. iv. 479, Met. xiii. 725; Dionys. Per. 467-72; Scyl. p. 4. § 13; Pol. i. 42; Strabo vi. pp. 265, 272, &c.; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 8; Mela, ii. 7. § 15.).
The Carabinieri (formally Arma dei Carabinieri, "Carabinieri Force" or previously Corpo dei Carabinieri Reali, "Royal Carabinieri Corps") is the fourth Italian military force charged with police duties under the authority of the Ministry of Defense.
Carini (Latin:Hyccara or Hyccarum) is a town and comune in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, by rail west-northwest of Palermo.
Carmelo Di Bella (January 30, 1921 – September 9, 1992) was an Italian football player and manager. Di Bella spent the vast majority of his career in Sicily where he was a prominent figure in the footballing scene, especially in relation to the island's most successful clubs; Catania and Palermo.
Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
The Cassa del Mezzogiorno (Fund for the South) was a public effort by the government of Italy to stimulate economic growth and development in the less developed Southern Italy (also called the "Mezzogiorno").
Cassata or Cassata siciliana is a traditional sweet from Sicily, Italy.
Castelbuono (Sicilian: Castiddubbuonu) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Palermo, Sicily (southern Italy).
Castellammare del Golfo (Casteddammari; Emporium Segestanorum / Emporium Aegestensium) is a town and comune in the Trapani Province of Sicily.
The Castello di Caccamo (Caccamo Castle) is a castle in Caccamo, Sicily.
The Castello Maniace is a citadel and castle in Syracuse, Sicily.
Castello Ursino (lit), also known as Castello Svevo di Catania, is a castle in Catania, Sicily, southern Italy.
The Castle of the Counts of Modica (or Castle of Alcamo) is a medieval castle situated in the town centre of Alcamo, in the province of Trapani, Sicily, southern Italy.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea.
The Catania Metro (Metropolitana di Catania) is a classical metro system serving the city of Catania, Sicily, in southern Italy.
Catania–Fontanarossa Airport (aeroporto internazionale Vincenzo Bellini di Catania-Fontanarossa, English: Catania International Airport) also named as Vincenzo Bellini Airport, is an international airport southwest of Catania, the second largest city on the Italian island of Sicily.
Catarratto is a white Italian wine grape planted primarily in Sicily where it is the most widely planted grape.
Catenanuova (Sicilian: Catinanova) is a town and comune in the province of Enna, in the region of Sicily in southern Italy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cefalù (Cifalù; Kephaloídion, Diod., Strabo, or Κεφαλοιδίς, Ptol.; Cephaloedium, or Cephaloedis, Pliny) is a city and comune in the Province of Palermo, located on the northern coast of Sicily, Italy on the Tyrrhenian Sea about east of the provincial capital and west of Messina.
The centre-right coalition (coalizione di centro-destra) is a political alliance of political parties in Italy, active—under several forms and names—since 1994, when Silvio Berlusconi entered politics and formed his Forza Italia party.
Centuripe (Latin: Centuripae; Sicilian: Centorbi) is a town and comune in the province of Enna (Sicily, southern Italy).
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
Cerda is a comune (municipality) in the province of Palermo in the Italian region Sicily, located about southeast of Palermo.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Cesare Mori (Pavia, December 22, 1871 – Udine, July 6, 1942) was a prefect (prefetto) before and during the Fascist period in Italy.
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
Charles II, also known as Charles the Lame (Charles le Boiteux; Carlo lo Zoppo; 1254 – 5 May 1309), was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1285–1309), Prince of Achaea (1285–1289), and Count of Anjou and Maine (1285–1290); he also styled himself King of Albania and claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem from 1285.
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana, DC) was a Christian democratic political party in Italy.
Christian Riganò (born 25 May 1974) is an Italian football manager and former professional footballer who played as a striker.
Saint Christina of Bolsena, also known as Christina of Tyre, or in the Eastern Orthodox Church as Christina the Great Martyr, is venerated as a Christian martyr of the 3rd century.
Ciarduna is a type of Italian pastry.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Cinecittà (Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome, Italy.
Cinisi is a town and a comune in the province of Palermo in Sicily.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
The Cioccolato di Modica ("Chocolate of Modica", also known as cioccolata modicana) is an Italian P.A.T. specialty chocolate, typical of the municipality of Modica in Sicily, characterized by an ancient and original recipe using manual grinding (rather than conching) which gives the chocolate a peculiar grainy texture and aromatic flavor.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
The United States government collaborated with the Italian Mafia during World War II and afterwards on several occasions.
In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators.
Comiso Airport "Pio La Torre", also known as Vincenzo Magliocco Airport, is located in the Sicilian town of Comiso in the Ragusa province.
The common toad, European toad, or in Anglophone parts of Europe, simply the toad (Bufo bufo, from Latin bufo "toad"), is an amphibian found throughout most of Europe (with the exception of Ireland, Iceland, and some Mediterranean islands), in the western part of North Asia, and in a small portion of Northwest Africa.
Commuter rail, also called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that primarily operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km (10 miles) and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis.
Concentrated solar power (also called concentrating solar power, concentrated solar thermal, and CSP) systems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.
Constance of Aragon (1179 – 23 June 1222) was an Aragonese infanta who was by marriage firstly Queen of Hungary, and secondly Queen of Germany and Sicily and Holy Roman Empress.
Constance (2 November 1154 – 27 November 1198) was Queen regnant of Sicily in 1194–98, jointly with her spouse from 1194 to 1197, and with her infant son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1198, as the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily.
Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668.
Constantine IV (translit; Flavius Constantinus Augustus; c. 652 – 14 September 685), sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos (Πωγωνάτος), "the Bearded", out of confusion with his father, was Byzantine Emperor from 668 to 685.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
The coppola is a traditional kind of flat cap typically worn in Sicily, Calabria, Sardinia (where it is known as su bonette in Sardinian, likely from the French bonnet) and the French island of Corsica.
Corleone (Sicilian: Cunigghiuni or Curliuni) is an Italian town and comune of roughly 11,158 inhabitants in the Metropolitan City of Palermo, in Sicily.
The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong.
The County of Apulia and Calabria, later the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria, was a Norman country founded by William of Hauteville in 1042 in the territories of Gargano, Capitanata, Apulia, Campania, and Vulture.
The crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) is a species of rodent in the family Hystricidae found in Italy, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
Cuccìa is a traditional, primarily Sicilian dish containing boiled wheatberries and sugar, which is eaten on December 13, the feast day of Saint Lucy, the patron saint of Syracuse.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching in mantle length and over in mass. Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates. (television program) NOVA, PBS, April 3, 2007. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The 'cuttle' in 'cuttlefish' comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi ('cushion') and the Middle Low German Kudel ('rag'). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Dagmar Reichardt (born September 25, 1961 in Rome, Italy) is a German cultural scholar.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Democratic Party of the Left (Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS) was a democratic-socialist and social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Democrats of the Left (Democratici di Sinistra, DS) was a social-democratic political party in Italy.
The Derby di Sicilia or Sicilian Derby in English, is a local derby between Italian football clubs Calcio Catania and U.S. Città di Palermo.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
The Diamante citron (Citrus medica var. vulgaris or cv. diamante − cedro di diamante, אתרוג קלבריה or גינובה) is a variety of citron named after the town of Diamante, located in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, on the south-western coast of Italy, which is its most known cultivation point.
Dieselisation or dieselization is a term generally used for the increasingly common use of diesel fuel in vehicles, or known to be said "Rise of diesel power" as opposed to gasoline or steam engines.
The Dirillo, or Acate, is a river in Sicily which springs from the Hyblaean Mountains and flows through the areas of Vizzini, Licodia Eubea, Mazzarrone, Chiaramonte Gulfi, Acate, Vittoria, Gela.
The Dittaino (Greek: Χρύσας; Latin: Chrysas) is a river of central Sicily which rises in the Heraean Mountains, not far from the modern towns of Gangi and Enna.
Divorce Italian Style (Divorzio all'italiana) is a 1961 Italian comedy film directed by Pietro Germi.
A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".
Domenico Antonio Lo Faso Pietrasanta (October 21, 1783, Palermo, Kingdom of Sicily – February 15 1863, Florence, Kingdom of Italy) was an Italian architect, archaeologist, and writer.
Domenico Tempio (1750–1821) was an Italian writer who mainly wrote in the Sicilian language or dialect.
A doughnut or donut (both: or; see etymology section) is a type of fried dough confection or dessert food.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
The Duchy of Benevento (after 774, Principality of Benevento) was the southernmost Lombard duchy in the Italian peninsula, centered on Benevento, a city in Southern Italy.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
The electronics industry, especially meaning consumer electronics, emerged in the 20th century and has now become a global industry worth billions of dollars.
Elio Vittorini (23 July 1908 – 12 February 1966) was an Italian writer and novelist.
The Elymians (Greek: Ἔλυμοι; Latin: Elymi) were an ancient people who inhabited the western part of Sicily during the Bronze Age and Classical antiquity.
Emilia-Romagna (Emilian and Emélia-Rumâgna) is an administrative Region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.
The Emirate of Sicily (إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة) was an emirate on the island of Sicily which existed from 831 to 1091.
Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily.
Empedocles is a large underwater volcano located 40 km off the southern coast of Sicily named after the Greek philosopher Empedocles who believed that everything on Earth was made up of the four elements.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
Enna (Sicilian: Castrugiuvanni; Greek: Ἔννα; Latin: Henna and less frequently Haenna) is a city and comune located roughly at the center of Sicily, southern Italy, in the province of Enna, towering above the surrounding countryside.
Epicharmus of Kos or Epicharmus Comicus or Epicharmus Comicus Syracusanus (Ἐπίχαρμος ὁ Κῷος), thought to have lived between c. 550 and c. 460 BC, was a Greek dramatist and philosopher who is often credited with being one of the first comic writers, having originated the Doric or Sicilian comedic form.
Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.
Erice (Èrici) is a historic town and comune in the province of Trapani in Sicily, Italy.
Ernesto Basile (31 January 1857, in Palermo – 26 August 1932, in Palermo) was an Italian architect and an exponent of modernism and Art Nouveau.
Eryx (Greek: Ἔρυξ) was an ancient city and a mountain in the west of Sicily, about 10 km from Drepana (modern Trapani), and 3 km from the sea-coast.
Etna is a Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) for wine from the Etna region in Italy.
Ettore Majorana (born on 5 August 1906 – probably died after 1959) was an Italian theoretical physicist who worked on neutrino masses.
Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture (acronym EMFCSC) is an organization based in Erice, Sicily (Italy).
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Euphemius or Euphemios (Εὐφήμιος) was a Byzantine commander in Sicily, who rebelled against the imperial governor in 826, and invited the Aghlabids to aid him, thus beginning the Muslim conquest of Sicily.
Saint Euplius (Euplus) (Sant' Euplo, Sant' Euplio, ἅγιος Εὖπλος) (d. ca. AD 304) is venerated as a martyr and saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is a forage fish somewhat related to the herring.
The European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a primarily ocean-going fish native to the waters off Europe's western and southern and Africa's northern coasts, though it can also be found in shallow coastal waters and river mouths during the summer months.
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
The European Rugby Challenge Cup is an annual European rugby union competition organised by European Professional Club Rugby.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Expedition of the Thousand (Italian Spedizione dei Mille) was an event of the Italian Risorgimento that took place in 1860.
The expulsion of the Jews from Sicily began in 1493 when the Spanish Inquisition reached the island of Sicily and its population of more than 30,000 Jews.
Falcone–Borsellino Airport (Aeroporto Falcone e Borsellino) or simply Palermo Airport, formerly Punta Raisi Airport is located at Punta Raisi, west northwest of Palermo, the capital city of the Italian island of Sicily.
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
The Fasci Siciliani, short for Fasci Siciliani dei Lavoratori (Sicilian Workers Leagues), were a popular movement of democratic and socialist inspiration, which arose in Sicily in the years between 1889 and 1894.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Federico De Roberto (16 January 1861 Naples – 26 July 1927 Catania) was an Italian writer, who became well known for his novel I Viceré (1894), translated as The Viceroys.
Ferdinand I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
The Ferrovia Circumetnea (roughly translated as "Round-Etna Railway") is a narrow-gauge,, regional railway line in Sicily.
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.
At the end of each FIFA World Cup final tournament, several awards are awarded to the players and teams which have distinguished from the rest, in different aspects of the game.
Filippo Juvarra (7 March, 1678 – 31 January 1736) was an Italian architect and stage set designer, active in a late-Baroque style.
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
The First Servile War of 135–132 BC was an unsuccessful slave rebellion against the Roman Republic.
The European Flag is an official symbol of two separate organisations—the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU).
The flag of Italy (Bandiera d'Italia), often referred to in Italian as il Tricolore; is a tricolour featuring three equally-sized vertical pales of green, white and red, with the green at the hoist side.
The flag of Sicily (Bannera dâ Sicilia; Bandiera siciliana) was first adopted in 1282, after the successful Sicilian Vespers revolt against the king Charles I of Sicily.
The Flaiano Prizes (Premi Flaiano) are a set of Italian international awards recognizing achievements in the fields of creative writing, cinema, theater and radio-television.
Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.
A flat cap is a rounded cap with a small stiff brim in front.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Francesco Coco (born 8 January 1977) is a retired Italian football defender.
Francesco "Franco" Scoglio (2 May 1941 – 3 October 2005) was an Italian football manager who coached at both national and international level.
Frappato di Vittoria or Frappato is a red Italian wine grape variety planted primarily in Sicily.
Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250; Fidiricu, Federico, Friedrich) was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225.
Frederick II (or III) (13 December 1272 – 25 June 1337) was the regent (from 1291) and subsequently King of Sicily from 1295 until his death.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Frutta martorana (also frutta di Martorana or in sicilian frutta Marturana) are traditional marzipan sweets, in the form of fruits and vegetables, from the provinces of Palermo and Messina, Sicily.
Gaetano Mosca (1 April 1858 – 8 November 1941) was an Italian political scientist, journalist and public servant.
Gaspare Canino (Partinico, 28 May 1900 – Alcamo, 1977) was an Italian artist and one of the last puppetmasters of the Canino family, working in Alcamo in the province of Trapani; his activity, interrupted in 1970, has been resumed in 1990 by Salvatore Oliveri, his grandson.
Gela (Γέλα), is a city and comune in the Autonomous Region of Sicily, the largest for area and population in the island's southern coast.
The Gela river is located in Sicily.
General aviation (GA) is all civil aviation operations other than scheduled air services and non-scheduled air transport operations for remuneration or hire.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Genseric (c. 400 – 25 January 477), also known as Gaiseric or Geiseric (Gaisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: *Gaisarīks), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.
George Maniakes (transliterated as Georgios Maniaces, Maniakis, or Maniaches,; died 1043) was a prominent Eastern Roman general during the 11th century, he was the catepan of Italy in 1042.
George of Antioch (died 1151 or 1152) was the first true ammiratus ammiratorum, successor of the great Christodulus.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Giacomo da Lentini, also known as Jacopo (il) Notaro, was an Italian poet of the 13th century.
Giardini Naxos (Giaddini) is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Messina on the island of Sicily in southern Italy.
Giorgio de Chirico (10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian artist and writer.
Giovanni Battista Hodierna, also spelled as Odierna (April 13, 1597 – April 6, 1660) was an Italian astronomer at the court of Giulio Tomasi, Duke of Palma (Palma di Montechiaro).
Giovanni Falcone (18 May 1939 – 23 May 1992) was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate.
Giovanni Gentile (30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician.
Giovanni Meli (4 March 1740, Palermo – 20 December 1815) was an Italian poet.
Giovanni Pacini (17 February 17966 December 1867) was an Italian composer, best known for his operas.
Giovanni Carmelo Verga (2 September 1840 – 27 January 1922) was an Italian realist (Verismo) writer, best known for his depictions of life in his native Sicily, especially the short story (and later play) "Cavalleria rusticana" and the novel I Malavoglia (The House by the Medlar Tree).
Giufà, or Giucà as he is referred to in some areas of the country, is a character of Italian folklore.
Giuseppe Furino (born 5 July 1946 in Palermo) is a retired Italian footballer who played as a midfielder.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Giuseppe Piazzi (16 July 1746 – 22 July 1826) was an Italian Catholic priest of the Theatine order, mathematician, and astronomer.
Giuseppe Pitrè (21 December 184110 April 1916), the great Italian folklorist was also a medical doctor, professor, and senator in Sicily.
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (December 23, 1896 – July 26, 1957) was an Italian writer and the last Prince of Lampedusa.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
The Gornalunga is an river located in central-eastern Sicily.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Graham Island (also Graham Bank or Graham Shoal; Isola Ferdinandea) is a submerged volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
Granita (in Italian also granita siciliana) is a semi-frozen dessert made from sugar, water and various flavorings.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church (Greek: Ελληνόρρυθμη Καθολική Εκκλησία, Ellinórrythmi Katholikí Ekklisía) is a sui iuris Eastern Catholic particular church of the Catholic Church that uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in Koine Greek and Modern Greek.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Greek presence in Italy begins with the migrations of the old Greek Diaspora in the 8th century BC, continuing down to the present time.
The Guardia di Finanza (GdF) (Financial Guard) is an Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
The Hauteville family, also called the Hauteville dynasty or House of Hauteville (French: Maison de Hauteville, Italian: Casa d'Altavilla), was a Norman family originally of seigneurial rank from the Cotentin.
Hayreddin Barbarossa (Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
Henry VI (Heinrich VI) (November 1165 – 28 September 1197), a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1190 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 until his death.
Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.
Heraclea Minoa (Ἡράκλεια Μινῴα; Eraclea Minoa; Hêrakleia Minôia: Eth. Rhachlôtês, Heracliensis) was an ancient Greek city, situated on the southern coast of Sicily at the mouth of the river Halycus (modern Platani), 25 km west of Agrigentum (Acragas, modern Agrigento).
Himera (Greek: Ἱμέρα), was an important ancient Greek city of Sicily, situated on the north coast of the island, at the mouth of the river of the same name (the modern Grande), between Panormus (modern Palermo) and Cephaloedium (modern Cefalù).
Hippopotamus pentlandi is an extinct hippopotamus from Sicily.
Between the 9th and 14th centuries, the Muslim world developed many concepts and techniques in economics such as Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, Islamic trusts known as waqf, and mufawada.
Hitachi Rail Italy S.p.A. (HRI) is a rail transport engineering company based in Italy whose main products are designing and manufacturing of railway and mass transit vehicles.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hoopoes are colourful birds found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for their distinctive "crown" of feathers.
The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
"How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension" is a paper by mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot, first published in ''Science'' in 1967.
The Hundred-Horse Chestnut (Castagno dei Cento Cavalli; Castagnu dê Centu Cavaddi) is the largest and oldest known chestnut tree in the world.
The Hutchinson Encyclopedia is an English-language general encyclopedia.
The Hyblaean Mountains (Italian: Monti Iblei) is a mountain range in south-eastern Sicily, Italy.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Muḥammad Abū’l-Qāsim Ibn Ḥawqal (محمد أبو القاسم بن حوقل, born in Nisibis, Upper Mesopotamia; travelled 943-969 CE) was a 10th-century Arab Muslim writer, geographer, and chronicler.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
In Verrem ("Against Verres") is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC, during the corruption and extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily.
The National Institute for Astrophysics (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, or INAF) is the most important Italian institution conducting scientific research in astronomy and astrophysics.
Arabic has had a great influence on other languages, especially in vocabulary.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
The Irminio is a long river located in south-eastern Sicily and is also the most important of the rivers of the province of Ragusa.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ispica is a city and comune in the south of Sicily, Italy.
The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN; "National Institute for Nuclear Physics") is the coordinating institution for nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics in Italy.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
The Italian diaspora is the large-scale emigration of Italians from Italy.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
General elections were held in Italy on Sunday, 2 June 1946.
General elections were held in Italy on Sunday 18 April 1948 to elect the First Republican Parliament.
An institutional referendum (referendum istituzionale, or referendum sulla forma istituzionale dello Stato, in Italian) was held in Italy on 2 June 1946,Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 a key event of Italian contemporary history.
Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
Italian Studies is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the Italian language, literature, art, history, politics, culture and society.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages.
The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church (Chiesa cattolica Italo-Albanese; Kisha Bizantine Arbëreshe), Italo-Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church or Italo-Albanian Church, is one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches which, together with the Latin Church, compose the Catholic Church.
The Italo-Normans, or Siculo-Normans when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy, are the Italian-born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century.
The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kalsa or Mandamento Tribunali is a historical quarter of the Italian city of Palermo in Sicily.
Kamarina (Καμάρινα, Latin, Italian, & Camarina) was an ancient city on the southern coast of Sicily in southern Italy.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae, Regno di Sicilia, Regnu di Sicilia, Regne de Sicília, Reino de Sicilia) was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time Africa from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816.
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
The Kore University of Enna, in Italian Università Kore di Enna, is a university founded in 2004 in Enna, the capital city of the Province of Enna, in the center of Sicily and has been visited by two Italian Presidents (Oscar Luigi Scalfaro before, and Carlo Azeglio Ciampi for the final inauguration).
La Terra Trema ("The Earth Trembles") is a 1948 Italian dramatic film directed by Luchino Visconti.
Lampedusa (Lampidusa; Λοπαδούσσα Lopadoussa) is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
Lampedusa Airport is an airport on the Italian island of Lampedusa in the Province of Agrigento, Sicily.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
The least weasel (Mustela nivalis), or simply weasel in the UK and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae and order Carnivora.
The Lega Basket Serie A, officially abbreviated as LBA, (English: Serie A Basketball League) and known for sponsorship reasons as the Serie A PosteMobile, is a professional men's club basketball league that has been organised in Italy since 1920.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leonardo Sciascia (8 January 1921 – 20 November 1989) was an Italian writer, novelist, essayist, playwright, and politician.
Licata (Greek: Φιντίας; Latin: Phintias or Plintis; formerly also Alicata) is a city and comune located on the south coast of Sicily, at the mouth of the Salso River (the ancient Himera), about midway between Agrigento and Gela.
Ligny Tower (Torre di Ligny, Turrignì) is a coastal watchtower in Trapani, Sicily.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
In anthropology, liminality (from the Latin word līmen, meaning "a threshold") is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that occurs in the middle stage of rites, when participants no longer hold their preritual status but have not yet begun the transition to the status they will hold when the rite is complete.
Limoncello is an Italian lemon liqueur mainly produced in Southern Italy, especially in the region around the Gulf of Naples, the Sorrentine Peninsula and the coast of Amalfi, and islands of Procida, Ischia, and Capri.
Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.
This list of ancient peoples living in Italy summarises groupings existing before the Roman expansion and conquest.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The following is a list describing the islands located in the Mediterranean Sea.
This is a list of major islands of Italy.
This article lists Italian regions and autonomous provinces (NUTS2) by gross domestic product (GDP).
In 1382, the Kingdom of Naples was heired by Charles III, King of Hungary, Great grandson of King Charles II of Naples After this, the House of Anjou of Naples was renamed House of Anjou-Durazzo, like Charles III married his first cousin Margaret of Durazzo, member of a prominent Neapolitan noble family.
The monarchs of Sicily ruled from the establishment of the County of Sicily in 1071 until the "perfect fusion" in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1816.
The land of Provence has a history quite separate from that of any of the larger nations of Europe.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Lieutenant-General Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (14 September 1774 – 17 June 1839), known as Lord William Bentinck, was a British soldier and statesman.
The Louis Vuitton Cup is a yachting competition connected with the America's Cup.
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline (also known as ''no-frills'', ''discount'' or budget carrier or airline, or LCC) is an airline without most of the traditional services provided in the fare, resulting in lower fares and fewer comforts.
Luchino Visconti di Modrone, Count of Lonate Pozzolo (2 November 1906 – 17 March 1976), was an Italian theatre, opera and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter.
Luigi Capuana (May 28, 1839 – November 29, 1915) was an Italian author and journalist and one of the most important members of the ''verist'' movement (see also ''verismo'' (literature)).
Luigi Pirandello (28 June 1867 – 10 December 1936) was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet, and short story writer whose greatest contributions were his plays.
The Madonie (Sicilian: Madunìi) are one of the principal mountain ranges on the island of Sicily, located in southwestern Italy.
"Madreterra" is the official anthem of Sicily since 2003.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
The Majorana equation is a relativistic wave equation.
A Majorana fermion (uploaded 19 April 2013, retrieved 5 October 2014; and also based on the physicist's name's pronunciation.), also referred to as a Majorana particle, is a fermion that is its own antiparticle.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Manfria is an Italian village and the only civil parish (frazione) of the municipality of Gela, in the Province of Caltanissetta, Sicily.
Marina di Ragusa, also known as Mazzarelli, is a southern Italian village and hamlet (frazione) of Ragusa, a municipality seat of the homonym province, Sicily.
The hydrology of the Strait of Messina accommodates a variety of populations of marine organisms.
Mario Rapisardi (25 February 1844, Catania – 4 January 1912, Catania) was an Italian poet, supporter of Risorgimento and member of the Scapigliatura (definition but refused).
A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.
Marsala (Maissala; Lilybaeum) is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani in the westernmost part of Sicily.
Marsala is a wine, dry or sweet, produced in the region surrounding the Italian city of Marsala in Sicily.
Martello towers, sometimes known simply as Martellos, are small defensive forts that were built across the British Empire during the 19th century, from the time of the French Revolutionary Wars onwards.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Mazara del Vallo is a town and comune in southwestern Sicily, Italy, which lies mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the Mazaro river, administratively part of the province of Trapani.
Mazzarino (Sicilian: Mazzarinu) is a city and comune in the province of Caltanissetta in the region of Sicily, Italy.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Megara Hyblaea (τὰ Μέγαρα) – perhaps identical with Hybla Major – is the name of an ancient Greek colony in Sicily, situated near Augusta on the east coast, north-northwest of Syracuse, Italy, on the deep bay formed by the Xiphonian promontory.
Merlot is a dark blue-colored wine grape variety, that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines.
Messina (Sicilian: Missina; Messana, Μεσσήνη) is the capital of the Italian Metropolitan City of Messina.
Metaphysical art (Pittura metafisica) was a style of painting developed by the Italian artists Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carrà.
Michael II (Μιχαήλ Β', Mikhaēl II), (770- 829), surnamed the Amorian (ὁ ἐξ Ἀμορίου) or the Stammerer (ὁ Τραυλός or ὁ Ψελλός), reigned as Byzantine Emperor from 25 December 820 to his death on 2 October 829, the first ruler of the Phrygian or Amorian dynasty.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Milazzo (Sicilian: Milazzu, Latin: Mylae) is a town (comune) in the Metropolitan City of Messina, Sicily, southern Italy; it is the largest commune in the Metropolitan City after Messina and Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto.
Militello in Val di Catania (Sicilian: Militeddu) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, located about southeast of Palermo and about southwest of Catania, on the last slopes of the Iblean Mountains.
Misilmeri (Musulumeli) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Palermo, Sicily.
Misterbianco (Mustarjancu, Medieval Latin: Monasterium Album, meaning White Monastery or White Minster) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, located about southeast of Palermo and about west of Catania.
Mizizios (Μιζίζιος; Մժէժ, Mžēž or Mzhezh) was an Armenian noble who served as a general of Byzantium, later usurping the Byzantine throne in Sicily from 668 to 669.
Modica (Sicilian: Muòrica, Greek: Μότουκα, Motouka, Latin: Mutyca or Motyca) is a city and comune of 54.456 inhabitants in the Province of Ragusa, Sicily, southern Italy.
Molten salt is salt which is solid at standard temperature and pressure (STP) but enters the liquid phase due to elevated temperature.
Monreale (Sicilian: Murriali) is a town and comune in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy.
Morgantina is an archaeological site in east central Sicily, southern Italy.
The Morgetes (Μόργητες, Morgetes) are a largely mythical ancient Italic people, who are meant to have occupied areas of Calabria and Sicily.
Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.
Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
Motya (Μοτύη, Μοτύα; Mozia, Mothia; Mozzia), was an ancient and powerful city on an island off the west coast of Sicily, between Drepanum (modern Trapani) and Lilybaeum (modern Marsala).
Mount Etna, or Etna (Etna or Mongibello; Mungibeddu or â Muntagna; Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Muscat of Alexandria is a white wine grape that is a member of the Muscat family of Vitis vinifera.
The Music of Sicily refers to music created by peoples from the isle of Sicily.
The Muslim conquest of Sicily began in June 827 and lasted until 902, when the last major Byzantine stronghold on the island, Taormina, fell.
Mussomeli (Mussumeli in Sicilian) is a town and comune in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily, Italy.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
Narses (also sometimes written Nerses; Նարսես; Ναρσής; 478–573) was, with Belisarius, one of the great generals in the service of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I during the Roman reconquest that took place during Justinian's reign.
The National Championship of Excellence is the highest tier of the national rugby union competition in Italy The first Italian championship took place in 1929, contested by six of the sixteen teams that existed in Italy at that time.
In the Christian tradition, a nativity scene (also known as a manger scene, crib, crèche (or, or in Italian presepio or presepe) is the special exhibition, particularly during the Christmas season, of art objects representing the birth of Jesus.Berliner, R. The Origins of the Creche. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 30 (1946), p. 251. While the term "nativity scene" may be used of any representation of the very common subject of the Nativity of Jesus in art, it has a more specialized sense referring to seasonal displays, either using model figures in a setting or reenactments called "living nativity scenes" (tableau vivant) in which real humans and animals participate. Nativity scenes exhibit figures representing the infant Jesus, his mother, Mary, and her husband, Joseph. Other characters from the nativity story, such as shepherds, sheep, and angels may be displayed near the manger in a barn (or cave) intended to accommodate farm animals, as described in the Gospel of Luke. A donkey and an ox are typically depicted in the scene, and the Magi and their camels, described in the Gospel of Matthew, are also included. Several cultures add other characters and objects that may or may not be Biblical. Saint Francis of Assisi is credited with creating the first live nativity scene in 1223 in order to cultivate the worship of Christ. He himself had recently been inspired by his visit to the Holy Land, where he'd been shown Jesus's traditional birthplace. The scene's popularity inspired communities throughout Catholic countries to stage similar pantomimes. Distinctive nativity scenes and traditions have been created around the world, and are displayed during the Christmas season in churches, homes, shopping malls, and other venues, and occasionally on public lands and in public buildings. Nativity scenes have not escaped controversy, and in the United States their inclusion on public lands or in public buildings has provoked court challenges.
Naval Air Station Sigonella, is a U.S. Navy installation at NATO Base Sigonella and an Italian Air Force base (Aeroporto "Cosimo Di Palma" di Sigonella) in Sicily, Italy.
Naxos or Naxus (Νάξος) was an ancient Greek city of Sicily on the east coast of the island between Catana (modern Catania) and Messana (modern Messina).
The Nebrodi (Monti Nebrodi,; Sicilian: Munti Nèbbrudi) is a mountain range that runs along the north east of Sicily.
A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.
The Necropolis of Pantalica in southeast Sicily, Italy, is a collection of cemeteries with rock-cut chamber tombs dating from the 7th to the 13th centuries BC.
Sebastiano Musumeci (born 21 January 1955) is an Italian politician.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
Nerello is a name given to two varieties of red wine grapes that are grown primarily in Sicily and Sardinia.
Nero d'Avola ("Black of Avola" in Italian) is "the most important red wine grape in Sicily" and is one of Italy's most important indigenous varieties.
The net migration rate is the difference between the number of immigrants (people coming into an area) and the number of emigrants (people leaving an area) throughout the year.
Niccolò Cacciatore (26 January 1770 – 28 January 1841) was an Italian astronomer.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Noto (Sicilian: Notu; Latin: Netum) is a city and comune in the Province of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Numonyx was a semiconductor company making flash memories, which was founded on March 31, 2008, by Intel Corporation, STMicroelectronics and Francisco Partners.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.
Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
The Opera dei Pupi (Opera of the Puppets; Sicilian: Òpira rî pupi) is a marionette theatrical representation of Frankish romantic poems such as The Song of Roland or Orlando furioso that is one of the characteristic cultural traditions of Sicily.
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
Opuntia ficus-indica is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world.
Orlandina Basket, known as Betaland Capo d'Orlando for sponsorship reasons, is an Italian professional basketball club that is based in Capo d'Orlando, Sicily.
Orlando Furioso ("The Frenzy of Orlando", more literally "Raging Roland"; in Italian titled "Orlando furioso" as the "F" is never capitalized) is an Italian epic poem by Ludovico Ariosto which has exerted a wide influence on later culture.
The Orto Botanico di Palermo (Palermo Botanical Garden) is both a botanical garden and a research and educational institution of the Department of Botany of the University of Palermo.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three-volume historical dictionary published by the English Oxford University Press.
Paceco (Sicilian: Paceca) is a town and comune in Western Sicily, Italy, administratively part of the province of Trapani, located nearby the Trapani city area, a distance of.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
Palaeoloxodon mnaidriensis or Elephas mnaidriensis is an extinct species of elephant from Malta and Sicily closely related to the modern Asian elephant.
Palazzolo Acreide (Sicilian: Palazzolu Acrèidi, in the local dialect: Palazzuolu) is a town and comune in the Province of Syracuse, Sicily (Italy).
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
The Palermo metropolitan railway service is a commuter rail system operated by Trenitalia.
Palermo–Boccadifalco Airport, also known as Giuseppe and Francesco Notarbartolo Airport, is the elder of two facilities which serve the Sicilian capital Palermo, in Italy.
Pantelleria (Pantiddirìa), the ancient Cossyra (Arabic: قوصرة, Maltese: Qawsra, now Pantellerija, Ancient Greek Kossyra, Κοσσύρα), is an Italian island and Comune in the Strait of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea, southwest of Sicily and east of the Tunisian coast.
Pantelleria Airport is a regional airport on the Italian island of Pantelleria.
Paolo Borsellino (January 19, 1940 – July 19, 1992) was an Italian judge and prosecuting magistrate.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Greece, Portugal, Spain, Malta, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as an herb, a spice, and a vegetable.
Partinico (Sicilian: Partinicu, Ancient Greek: Parthenikòn) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Palermo, Sicily, southern Italy.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.
Paternò (Patennò) is a southern Italian town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Catania, Sicily.
The Peace of Caltabellotta, signed on 31 August 1302, was the last of a series of treaties, including those of Tarascon and Anagni, designed to end the conflict between the Houses of Anjou and Barcelona for ascendancy in the Mediterranean and especially Sicily and the Mezzogiorno.
Pecorino Siciliano DOP is an origin-protected firm sheep milk cheese from the Italian island and region of Sicily.
The Pelagie Islands (Isole Pelagie, Ìsuli Pilaggî), from the Greek πέλαγος, pélagos meaning "open sea", are the three small islands of Lampedusa, Linosa, and Lampione, located in the Mediterranean Sea between Malta and Tunisia, south of Sicily.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
The Peloritani (Sicilian: Piluritani, Monti Peloritani) are a mountain range of north-eastern Sicily, in southern Italy, extending for some 65 km from Capo Peloro to the Nebrodi Mountains.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter the Great (Pere el Gran, Pero lo Gran; 1239 – 11 November 1285) was the King of Aragon (as Peter III) of Valencia (as Peter I), and Count of Barcelona (as Peter II) from 1276 to his death, (this union of kingdoms was called the Crown of Aragon).
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Piazza Armerina (Gallo-Italic of Sicily: Ciazza; Sicilian: Chiazza) is an Italian comune in the province of Enna of the autonomous island region of Sicily.
Pietro Anastasi (born 7 April 1948), nicknamed Petruzzu 'u turcu by fans, is a former Italian footballer who played mainly in the role of a striker.
Pietro Germi (14 September 1914 – 5 December 1974) was an Italian actor, screenwriter, and director.
Pignolata (Sicilian: Pignulata) is a Sicilian pastry, which originated in Messina and is also common in Calabria.
Pignolo (plural pignoli) is a macaroon typical of Sicily, Italy.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Platani (Plàtani), known in ancient Greek as the Λύκος (Lykos, "wolf") or Ἁλυκός (Halykos, "Salty"), is a river in southern Sicily, Italy.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Police aviation is the use of rotary-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft, nonrigid-wing aircraft or lighter-than-air aircraft in police operations.
The Politics of Sicily, Italy takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
The Pomodoro di Pachino (Tomato of Pachino) is an IGP/PGI for tomatoes from the southeast coast of Sicily, Italy.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope Martin IV (Martinus IV; c. 1210/1220 – 28 March 1285), born Simon de Brion, was Pope from 22 February 1281 to his death in 1285.
The Port of Pozzallo is the major port of the province of Ragusa on the Mediterranean coast of Sicily and is one of the most important harbours on the island.
Porto Empedocle (Sicilian: Marina) is a town and comune in Italy on the coast of the Strait of Sicily, administratively part of the province of Agrigento.
Portopalo di Capo Passero (Sicilian: Puortupalu) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Syracuse, Sicily (Italy).
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Pozzallo (Puzzaddu) is a town and comune in the province of Ragusa, Sicily, Italy.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
In the field of medical procedures, Proton therapy, or proton beam therapy is a type of particle therapy that uses a beam of protons to irradiate diseased tissue, most often in the treatment of cancer.
The Province of Agrigento (Provincia di Agrigento; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Girgenti) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy, situated on its south-western coast.
The Province of Caltanissetta (Provincia di Caltanissetta; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Nissa) is a province in the southern part of Sicily, Italy.
The Province of Catania (Provincia di Catania; Pruvincia di Catania) was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in southern Italy.
Enna (Provincia di Enna; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy.
Messina (Italian: Provincia di Messina; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Missina) was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy.
The Province of Palermo (provincia di Palermo; Sicilian: pruvincia di Palermu) was a province in the autonomous region of Sicily, a major island in Southern Italy.
The Province of Ragusa (Provincia di Ragusa; Sicilian: Pruvincia 'i Rausa) is a province in the autonomous region of Sicily in Italy, located in the south-east of the island.
The Province of Syracuse (Provincia di Siracusa; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Sarausa) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy.
Trapani (Provincia di Trapani, Pruvincia di Tràpani) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
Punta del Faro is the northeastern promontory of Sicily situated in Messina province, northeast of the city of Messina.
Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.
Ragusa (Sicilian: Rausa; Latin: Ragusia) is a city and comune in southern Italy.
Ragusano is an Italian cow's-milk cheese produced in Ragusa, in Sicily in southern Italy.
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.
A raisin is a dried grape.
Ramacca is a comune (municipality) in a mountainous area in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region of Sicily, located about southeast of Palermo and about southwest of Catania.
Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta. Randazzo (Rannazzu) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania, Sicily, southern Italy.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
Regalbuto (Latin: Ameselum; Sicilian: Regarbutu) is a comune in the province of Enna, Sicily, southern Italy.
Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.
The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renato Guttuso (26 December 1912 – 18 January 1987) was an Italian painter.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution.
Ricotta (in Italian) is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep, cow, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses.
Riposto (Ripostu) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, located about east of Palermo and about northeast of Catania.
Riserva naturale dello zingaro was the first natural reserve set up in Sicily in May 1981, located almost completely in the municipal territory of San Vito Lo Capo.
Roberto Galia (born 16 March 1963 in Trapani) is an Italian professional football coach and a former player, who played as a defender and as a midfielder.
The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), also known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or simply roe deer or roe, is a Eurasian species of deer.
Roger I (– 22 June 1101), nicknamed Roger Bosso and The Great Count, was a Norman nobleman who became the first Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101.
Roger II (22 December 1095Houben, p. 30. – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his brother Simon.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also known as Saint Lucy or Saint Lucia (Sancta Lucia), was a Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution.
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
The River Salso (Sicilian: Salsu), also known as the Imera Meridionale (Greek: Ἱμέρας; Latin Himera), is a river of Sicily.
Salvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 – June 14, 1968) was an Sicilian novelist and poet.
Salvatore Schillaci (born 1 December 1964), commonly referred to by his nickname Totò, is an Italian former footballer, who played as a striker.
Salvatore Sciarrino (born Palermo, Italy, on April 4, 1947) is an Italian composer of contemporary classical music.
Inspector Salvo Montalbano (Italian: commissario Salvo Montalbano) is a fictional detective created by Italian writer Andrea Camilleri in a series of novels and short stories.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sant'Alessio Siculo (Sicilian: Sant'Alessiu Sìculu) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about east of Palermo and about southwest of Messina.
Sant'Alfio (Sant'Arfiu) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, about east of Palermo and about north of Catania.
"Sardine" and "pilchard" are common names used to refer to various small, oily fish in the herring family Clupeidae.
Savoca (Sicilian: Sàvuca) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Messina in the Italian region Sicily, located about east of Palermo and about southwest of Messina.
The Scala dei Turchi (Italian: "Stair of the Turks") is a rocky cliff on the coast of Realmonte, near Porto Empedocle, southern Sicily, Italy.
Schisò Castle (in Italian Castello di Schisò) is a 16th-century fortress on Cape Schisò in Giardini Naxos, Sicily, Italy.
Sciacca (Greek: Θέρμαι; Latin: Thermae Selinuntinae, Thermae Selinuntiae, Thermae, Aquae Labrodes and Aquae Labodes), is a town and comune in the province of Agrigento on the southwestern coast of Sicily, southern Italy.
Scicli is a town and municipality in the Province of Ragusa in the south east of Sicily, Italy.
Scoglitti (Scugghitti) is a southern Italian fishing village and hamlet (frazione) of Vittoria, a municipality in the Province of Ragusa, Sicily.
Scuola Superiore di Catania (SSC) is a learning institute in Italy.
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Second Servile War was an unsuccessful slave uprising against the Roman Republic on the island of Sicily.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
Seduced and Abandoned (Sedotta e abbandonata) is an 1964 Italian film directed by Pietro Germi.
A seesaw (also known as a teeter-totter or teeterboard) is a long, narrow board supported by a single pivot point, most commonly located at the midpoint between both ends; as one end goes up, the other goes down.
Segesta (Egesta; Siggésta) was one of the major cities of the Elymian people, one of the three indigenous peoples of Sicily.
Selinunte (Σελινοῦς, Selinous; Selinūs) was an ancient Greek city on the south-western coast of Sicily in Italy.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group.
Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.
Serradifalco (Sicilian: Serradifarcu) is a town and comune in the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily, Italy.
Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey (67 BC – 35 BC), was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC).
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired.
The Sicani (Greek Σικανοί Sikanoi) or Sicanians were one of three ancient peoples of Sicily present at the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization.
The Sicels (Siculi; Σικελοί Sikeloi) were an Italic tribe who inhabited eastern Sicily during the Iron Age.
Sicilian Baroque is the distinctive form of Baroque architecture which evolved on the island of Sicily, off the southern coast of Italy, in the 17th and 18th centuries, when it was part of the Spanish Empire.
The Sicilian cart (or carretto siciliano in Italian and carrettu sicilianu in Sicilian or carretti (plural)) is an ornate, colorful style of horse or donkey-drawn cart native to the island of Sicily, in Italy.
Sicilian cuisine is the style of cooking on the island of Sicily.
The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place during the period from 415 BC to 413 BC (during the Peloponnesian War).
The Sicilian Independence Movement (Movimento Indipendentista Siciliano, MIS) is a separatist Sicilian political party originally active in Sicily from 1943 to 1951.
Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.
The Sicilian Mafia, also known as simply the Mafia and frequently referred to by members as Cosa Nostra (this thing of ours), is a criminal syndicate in Sicily, Italy.
The Sicilian regional election of 2012 for the renewal of the Sicilian Regional Assembly and the election of the President of Sicily was held on 28 October 2012.
The Sicilian revolt was a revolt against the Second Triumvirate of the Roman Republic which occurred between 44 BC and 36 BC.
The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts.
The Sicilian School was a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia.
The Sicilian Vespers (Vespri siciliani; Vespiri siciliani) is the name given to the successful rebellion on the island of Sicily that broke out at Easter, 1282 against the rule of the French-born king Charles I, who had ruled the Kingdom of Sicily since 1266.
The Sicilian Wars, or Greco-Punic Wars, were a series of conflicts fought between Ancient Carthage and the Greek city-states led by Syracuse, Sicily, over control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean between 600–265 BC.
Sicilians or the Sicilian people (Siciliani in Italian and Sicilian, or also Siculi in Italian) are a Southern European ethnic group from or with origins in the Italian island of Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea as well as the largest and most populous of the autonomous regions of Italy.
Siculo-Arabic (or Sicilian Arabic) is the term used for the variety (or varieties) of Arabic that were spoken in the Emirate of Sicily (that included Malta) from the 9th century, persisting under the subsequent Norman rule till the 13th century.
The Siege of Gaeta was the concluding event of the war between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, part of the unification of Italy.
Sigismondo d'India (c. 1582 – before 19 April 1629) was an Italian composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Silvio Amato (born April 10, 1961 in Catania, Italy), is a composer of classical, contemporary and popular music, and film soundtracks.
Silvio Berlusconi (born 29 September 1936) is an Italian media tycoon and politician who has served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments.
The Simeto (Sicilian: Simetu Symaethus; Greek Σύμαιθος) is a long river in Sicily, southern Italy.
Simon of Hauteville (Palermo 1093 – Mileto 1105), called Simon de Hauteville in French and Simone D'Altavilla in Italian, was the eldest son and successor of Roger the Great Count, count of Sicily, and Adelaide del Vasto, under whose regency he reigned.
Sirocco, scirocco,, jugo or, rarely, siroc (Xaloc; Sciroccu; Σορόκος; Siroco; Siròc, Eisseròc; Jugo, literally southerly; Libyan Arabic: Ghibli; Egypt: khamsin; Tunisia: ch'hilli) is a Mediterranean wind that comes from the Sahara and can reach hurricane speeds in North Africa and Southern Europe, especially during the summer season.
A smallholding is a small farm.
Soluntum or Solus (Greek: Σολόεις, Thuc.; Σολοῦς, Diod.: Eth. Σολουντῖνος, Diod., but coins have Σολοντῖνος; Italian Solunto) was an ancient city of Sicily, one of the three chief Phoenician settlements in the island, situated on the north coast, about east of Panormus (modern Palermo), and immediately to the east of the bold promontory called Capo Zafferano.
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.
Southern Italy or Mezzogiorno (literally "midday") is a macroregion of Italy traditionally encompassing the territories of the former Kingdom of the two Sicilies (all the southern section of the Italian Peninsula and Sicily), with the frequent addition of the island of Sardinia.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
The Sparidae are a family of fish in the order Perciformes, commonly called sea breams and porgies.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora refers to the global diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamil origin.
Stanislao Cannizzaro FRS (13 July 1826 – 10 May 1910) was an Italian chemist.
STMicroelectronics is a French-Italian multinational electronics and semiconductor manufacturer headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Strait of Messina (Stretto di Messina), is a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily (Punta del Faro) and the western tip of Calabria (Punta Pezzo) in the south of Italy.
The Strait of Messina Bridge is a long-planned suspension bridge across the Strait of Messina, a narrow section of water between the eastern tip of Sicily and the southern tip of mainland Italy, specifically between north Messina's Torre Faro and Villa San Giovanni.
Stromboli (Struògnuli, Ancient Greek: Στρογγύλη, Strongulē) is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
Swabians (Schwaben, singular Schwabe) are an ethnic German people who are native to or have ancestral roots in the cultural and linguistic region of Swabia, which is now mostly divided between the modern states of Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria, in southwest Germany.
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Syrah, also known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine.
Taormina (Sicilian: Taurmina; Latin: Tauromenium; Ταυρομένιον, Tauromenion) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Messina, on the east coast of the island of Sicily, Italy.
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near the island's capital of Palermo.
The Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele is an opera house and opera company located on the Piazza Verdi in Palermo, Sicily.
The Teatro Massimo Bellini is an opera house in Catania, Sicily, southern Italy.
Tellaro is a small fishing village, perched on a cliff on the east coast of the Gulf of La Spezia in Liguria, northern Italy.
Termini Imerese is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Palermo on the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy.
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Terrasini is a town and comune in the Province of Palermo on the island of Sicily in Italy.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Thapsos (Θάψος) was a prehistoric village in Sicily of the middle Bronze Age.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
"The Doctrine of Fascism" ("La dottrina del fascismo") is an essay attributed to Benito Mussolini.
The Jewish Mind is a non-fiction cultural psychology book by cultural anthropologist Raphael Patai first published in 1977.
The Leopard (Il Gattopardo) is a novel by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa that chronicles the changes in Sicilian life and society during the Risorgimento.
The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) is an epic poem (Chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne.
Theoderic the Great (454 – 30 August 526), often referred to as Theodoric (*𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃,, Flāvius Theodericus, Teodorico, Θευδέριχος,, Þēodrīc, Þjōðrēkr, Theoderich), was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patricius of the Roman Empire.
During the Muslim rule on Sicily, the island was divided into three different administrative regions: the Val di Noto in the southeast, the Val Demone in the northeast and the Val di Mazara in the west.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Torre Cabrera, also known as Torre Mazzarelli, Torre della Dogana or Torre di Gaddimeli, is a 16th-century tower in Marina di Ragusa, a frazione of Ragusa, Sicily.
The Torre Cabrera (Turri Cabrera) is a watchtower in Pozzallo, Sicily.
Totila, original name Baduila (died July 1, 552), was the penultimate King of the Ostrogoths, reigning from 541 to 552 AD.
The Messina tramway (Tranvia di Messina) is a tramway forming part of the public transport system in Messina, a city and comune in the region of Sicily, Italy.
Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures.
Trapani (Tràpani; Drepanon, Δρέπανον) is a city and comune on the west coast of Sicily in Italy.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
Trenitalia is the primary train operator in Italy.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
A triskelion or triskele is a motif consisting of a triple spiral exhibiting rotational symmetry.
A troubadour (trobador, archaically: -->) was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tunisian people or Tunisians (Twensa توانسة), are a Maghrebi ethnic group and nation native to Maghreb, primarily Tunisia who speak Tunisian Darja and share a common Tunisian culture and identity.
Turkey meat, commonly referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys.
Turrón), or torrone, is a southern European nougat confection, typically made of honey, sugar, and egg white, with toasted almonds or other nuts, and usually shaped into either a rectangular tablet or a round cake. It is frequently consumed as a traditional Christmas dessert in Spain and Italy as well as countries formerly under the Spanish Empire, particularly in Latin America.
Tweed is a rough, woolen fabric, of a soft, open, flexible texture, resembling cheviot or homespun, but more closely woven.
Typhon (Τυφῶν, Tuphōn), also Typhoeus (Τυφωεύς, Tuphōeus), Typhaon (Τυφάων, Tuphaōn) or Typhos (Τυφώς, Tuphōs), was a monstrous serpentine giant and the most deadly creature in Greek mythology.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo, commonly referred to as Palermo, is an Italian football club from Palermo, Sicily, playing in Serie B. Formed in 1900 as Anglo Palermitan Athletic and Football Club, the club had various names before assuming its current form in 1987, and is the top-ranked football club from the island of Sicily.
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
The Union of the Centre (Unione di Centro, UdC), whose complete name is Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e Democratici di Centro, UDC), is a Christian democratic political party in Italy.
The University of Catania (Università degli Studi di Catania) is a university located in Catania, Sicily.
The University of Messina (Università degli Studi di Messina, UNIME) is a public university located in Messina, Italy.
The University of Palermo (Università degli Studi di Palermo) is a university located in Palermo, Italy, and founded in 1806.
Ustica (Sicilian: Ùstica) is the name of a small island, about across, situated north of Capo Gallo, Italy in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Val Demone or Val di Demona (English: 'Valley of Demona') is a historical and geographical region encompassing the north-eastern third of Sicily.
Val di Noto (English: Province of Noto) is a historical and geographical area encompassing the south-eastern third of Sicily; it is dominated by the limestone Iblean plateau.
The Valle dei Templi (English: Valley of the Temples; Vaddi di li Tempri) is an archaeological site in Agrigento (ancient Greek Akragas), Sicily, southern Italy.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
The Varangian Guard (Τάγμα τῶν Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) was an elite unit of the Byzantine Army, from the 10th to the 14th centuries, whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Byzantine Emperors.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Verdura is a river of southern Sicily.
Verismo (from, meaning "true") was an Italian literary movement which peaked between approximately 1875 and the early 1900s.
Gaius Verres (ca. 120 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily.
Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.
Vignazza Tower (Torre Vignazza) is a 16th-century coastal watchtower in Giardini Naxos, Sicily.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Villa Romana del Casale (Sicilian: Villa Rumana dû Casali) is a large and elaborate Roman villa or palace located about 3 km from the town of Piazza Armerina, Sicily.
Villa San Giovanni is a town and comune in the province of Reggio Calabria, Calabria, southern Italy.
Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,Lippmann and McGuire 1998, in Sadie, p. 389 who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".
Vincenzo Consolo (18 February 1933 – 21 January 2012) was an Italian writer.
Vincenzo Florio Jr. (18 March 1883 – 6 January 1959) was an Italian entrepreneur, heir of the rich Florio economic dynasty, one of the wealthiest Italian families during the late 19th century.
Vincenzo Florio Airport Trapani–Birgi (Aeroporto Vincenzo Florio di Trapani-Birgi), also known simply as Trapani Airport, is a military and public airport serving Trapani, in Sicily, Italy.
Vipera aspis is a venomous viper species found in southwestern Europe.
Vitaliano Brancati (24 July 1907 – 25 September 1954) was an Italian novelist, dramatist, poet and screenwriter.
Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe.
Vulcano (Vurcanu) is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of the eight Aeolian Islands.
The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests.
The War of the Sicilian Vespers or just War of the Vespers was a conflict that started with the insurrection of the Sicilian Vespers against Charles of Anjou in 1282 and ended in 1302 with the Peace of Caltabellotta.
A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
The Zisa is a castle in the western part of Palermo in Sicily, southern Italy.
Ziyadat Allah I (زيادة الله الأول) (died June 10, 838) was the third Aghlabid Emir in Ifriqiya from 817 until his death.
The 1693 Sicily earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria, and Malta on January 11 at around 21:00 local time.
The 1908 Messina earthquake (also known as the 1908 Messina and Reggio earthquake) occurred on 28 December in Sicily and Calabria, southern Italy with a moment magnitude of 7.1 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme).
The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.