192 relations: Abaza family, Abdalonymus, Abdashtart I, Achaemenid Empire, Acheulean, Adel Osseiran, Afif al-Bizri, Ain al-Hilweh, Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah, Alawites, Alexander Sarcophagus, Alexander the Great, Ali Osseiran, Amarna letter EA 144, American University of Science and Technology, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Antipater of Sidon, Arabs, Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut, Archaeology, Archery, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Catholic Church, Artaxerxes III, Assemblage (archaeology), Assyria, Assyrian Church of the East, Astarte, Axe, Ayatollah, İstanbul Archaeology Museums, Baal, Babylon, Bahaa Hariri, Bahia Hariri, Baldwin I of Jerusalem, Beirut, Bethsaida, Biblical Hebrew, Bint Jbeil, Biomedical waste, Boethus of Sidon, Book of Genesis, Bronze Age, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Byblos, Byzantine Empire, Caesarea, ..., Canaan (son of Ham), Caravanserai, Chaldean Catholic Church, Charles Napier (Royal Navy officer), Chert, Chisel, Chorazin, Christianity in Lebanon, Classical Arabic, Colonia (Roman), Constanța, Copts, Crusade of 1197, Crusades, David, Deir al-Qamar, Diadochi, Diocletian, Districts of Lebanon, Dorotheus of Sidon, Druze, Eastern European Summer Time, Eastern European Time, Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41), El-Bizri, Elagabalus, Elijah, Ernest Renan, Eshmun, Eshmunazar II sarcophagus, Euthymios Saifi, Evagoras II, Evangelicalism, Fakhr-al-Din II, Fatimid Caliphate, Fayza Ahmed, First Crusade, Flint, Fouad Siniora, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Governorates of Lebanon, Ham (son of Noah), Heavy Neolithic, Hellenistic period, Herod the Great, Hexaplex trunculus, Hisham Bizri, History of the Jews in Lebanon, HMS Sidon, Homer, Iran, Israelites, Istanbul, Jezebel, Jezzine, Jumblatt family, Kfar Beit, King James Version, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Kitbuqa, Land of Israel, Latin Church, Law school of Beirut, League of Nations mandate, Lebanese International University, Lebanese people (Maronite Christians), Lebanese people (Shia Muslims), Lebanese people (Sunni Muslims), Lebanese University, Lebanon, List of cities and towns in Lebanon, Lordship of Sidon, Lycia, Maarouf Saad, Mediterranean Sea, Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Metres above sea level, Mieh Mieh refugee camp, Mongols, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Nader El-Bizri, National Museum of Beirut, Nereus, Noah, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Palestinians, Paul the Apostle, Peripatetic school, Phoenice (Roman province), Phoenicia, Phoenician language, Pottery, Rafic Hariri, Raymond Audi, Riad Al Solh, Saad Hariri, Saida International Stadium, Saint Louis Castle, Saladin, Sami as-Solh, Sanchuniathon, Saracen, Saray (building), Sheikh Mohamad Osseiran, Sidon District, Sidon Eyalet, Sidon Sea Castle, Sidon Soap Museum, Siege of Sidon, Sigurd the Crusader, Sochi, Sofia, Solh, Solomon, South Governorate, Southern Lebanon, Stone tool, Strabo, Syria–Lebanon Campaign, Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Tabnit sarcophagus, Tell (archaeology), Temple of Eshmun, Tiberius Julius Abdes Pantera, Tribe of Zebulun, Tyre District, Tyre, Lebanon, Ugaritic, University of Saint Joseph, Vichy France, World War I, World War II, Zeno of Sidon, Zenobios and Zenobia, Zimredda (Sidon mayor), 1948 Palestinian exodus, 2000 AFC Asian Cup, 551 Beirut earthquake. Expand index (142 more) » « Shrink index
The Abaza family (الأسرة الأباظية), is an Egyptian family that has had an influential role in Egyptian cultural, economic, intellectual and political life since their establishment in Egypt in the late 18th century to modern times.
Abdalonimus (Ἀβδαλώνιμος; literally "servant of the most high gods") was a gardener, but of royal descent, who was made king of Sidon by Alexander the Great in 332 BC.
Abdashtart I (in Greek, Straton I), the son of Baalshillem II, ruled the Phoenician city-state of Sidon from 365 to 352 BC, having been associated in power by his father since the 380s.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Acheulean (also Acheulian and Mode II), from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis.
Adel Osseiran (Arabic: عادل عسيران) was a prominent Lebanese statesman, a former Speaker of the Lebanese Parliament, and one of the founding fathers of the Lebanese Republic.
Afif al-Bizri (عفيف البزري) (1914 – 28 January 1994) was a Syrian career military officer who served as the chief of staff of the Syrian Army between 1957–1959.
Ain al-Hilweh (عين الحلوة, lit. meaning "sweet natural spring"), also spelled as Ayn al-Hilweh and Ein al-Hilweh, is the largest Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon.
Abu Tamim Maad al-Muizz li-Dinillah (26 September 932 – 19 December 975) (lit), also spelled as al-Moezz, was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and 14th Ismaili imam, and reigned from 953 to 975.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
The Alexander Sarcophagus is a late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagus adorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali Adel Osseiran (Arabic: علي عادل عسيران) is former Lebanese government minister and a current member of the Parliament of Lebanon.
Amarna letter EA 144, titled: "Zimreddi of Sidon," is a square-shaped, mostly flat clay tablet letter written on both sides and the bottom edge.
The American University of Science and Technology (AUST), (Université américaine de sciences et technologie or الجامعة الأميركية للعلوم والتكنولوجيا), is a private, non-sectarian and co-educational American university in Lebanon.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antipater of Sidon (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Σιδώνιος, Antipatros ho Sidonios) was an ancient Greek poet in the second half of the 2nd century BC.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Archaeology Museum of the American University of Beirut in Beirut, Lebanon is the third oldest museum in the Near East after Cairo and Constantinople.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt.
An assemblage is an archaeological term meaning a group of different artifacts found in association with one another, that is, in the same context.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bahaa Hariri (Arabic: بهاء الحريري) (born 1966) is a Lebanese-Saudi billionaire.
Bahia Bahaeddine Hariri (Arabic: بهية الحريري) (born 1952) is a Lebanese politician and sister of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and her second brother Shafic Hariri.
Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne (1060s – 2 April 1118), was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first King of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Bethsaida (from Hebrew/Aramaic beth-tsaida, lit. "house of hunting" or "fishing", from the Hebrew root or) is a place mentioned in the New Testament.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Bint Jbeil is the second largest town in the Nabatiye Governorate in Southern Lebanon.
Biomedical waste is any kind of waste containing infectious (or potentially infectious) materials.
Boethus of Sidon (Βόηθος; c. 75 – c. 10 BC) was a Peripatetic philosopher from Sidon, who lived towards the end of the 1st century BC.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research is one of three academic journals published by the American Schools of Oriental Research.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Canaan (Kənā‘an), according to the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, was a son of Ham and grandson of Noah, and was the father of the Canaanites.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
Admiral Sir Charles John Napier KCB GOTE RN (6 March 1786 – 6 November 1860) was a British naval officer whose sixty years in the Royal Navy included service in the War of 1812 (with the United States), the Napoleonic Wars, Syrian War and the Crimean War (with the Russians), and a period commanding the Portuguese navy in the Liberal Wars.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power.
Chorazin (Korazim; also Karraza, Kh. Karazeh, Chorizim, Kerazeh, Korazin) was an ancient village in northern Galilee, two and a half miles from Capernaum on a hill above the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.
Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.
The Copts (ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ,; أقباط) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian denomination in the country.
The Crusade of 1197, also known as the Crusade of Henry VI (Kreuzzug Heinrichs VI.) or the German Crusade (Deutscher Kreuzzug) was a crusade launched by the Hohenstaufen emperor Henry VI in response to the aborted attempt of his father, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa during the Third Crusade in 1189–90.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Deir al-Qamar (دير القمر), meaning "Monastery of the Moon" is a village south-east of Beirut in south-central Lebanon.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
The 8 governorates of Lebanon are subdivided into 26 districts (Aqdya, singularqadaa).
Dorotheus of Sidon (Δωρόθεος Σιδώνιος, c. 75 CE) was a 1st-century Hellenistic astrologer who wrote a didactic poem on horoscopic astrology known in Greek as the Pentateuch (five books).
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Second Egyptian–Ottoman War or Second Turko–Egyptian War lasted from 1839 until 1841 and was fought mainly in Syria, whence it is sometimes referred as the (Second) Syrian War.
The El-Bizri (البزري—البزرة) is the Arabic name of a well-known Levantine family.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.
Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun; Phoenician) was a Phoenician god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon.
The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II (Phoenician), a Phoenician king of Sidon and the son of King Tabnit (possibly the Greek Tenes), was created in the early 5th century BCE.
Euthymios Michael Saifi (or Aftimios Sayfi, 1643–1723) was the Melkite Catholic bishop of Tyre and Sidon during the early 18th century.
Evagoras II or Euagoras II (Εὐαγόρας) was a king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Salamis in Cyprus, and later satrap for Achaemenid Persia in Phoenicia.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan (August 6, 1572 – April 13, 1635) (الامير فخر الدين بن معن), also known as Fakhreddine and Fakhr-ad-Din II, was a Druze Ma'ani Emir and an early leader of the Mount Lebanon Emirate, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fayza Ahmed (Arabic: فايزة أحمد) (December 5, 1934 – September 24, 1983) was an Arab Syrian-Egyptian-Lebanese singer and actress.
The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Sinyora, Fouad Sanioura, Fouad Seniora, Fuad Siniora) (فؤاد السنيورة, Fu'ād as-Sanyūrah) (born 22 November 1943) is a Lebanese politician, a former Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he held from 19 July 2005 to 25 May 2008.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Lebanon is divided into eight governorates (muhafazah): All of the governorates except for Beirut and Akkar are divided into districts, and then subdivided into municipalities.
Ham (Greek Χαμ, Kham; Arabic: حام, Ḥām), according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.
Heavy Neolithic (alternatively, Gigantolithic) is a style of large stone and flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with the Qaraoun culture in the Beqaa Valley, Lebanon, dating to the Epipaleolithic or early Pre-pottery Neolithic at the end of the Stone Age.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
Hexaplex trunculus (also known as Murex trunculus, Phyllonotus trunculus, or the banded dye-murex) is a medium-sized sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex shells or rock snails.
Hisham Bizri is a film director, writer, producer, and scholar born in Beirut, Lebanon.
The history of the Jews in Lebanon encompasses the presence of Jews in present-day Lebanon stretching back to Biblical times.
Two ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Sidon after the naval bombardment of Sidon a city in Lebanon in 1840.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jezebel is described in the Book of Kings (1 Kings 16:31) as a queen who was the daughter of Ithobaal I of Sidon and the wife of Ahab, King of Israel.
Jezzine (Jizzīn) is a town in Lebanon, located from Sidon and south of Beirut.
The Jumblatt family (originally Kurdish Canpolad, meaning "steel-bodied" or "soul of steel"), also transliterated as Joumblatt, Junblat and Junblatt) is a Kurdish family who settled in the Kurdistan Lebanon mountains (coming from Syria) around the 15-16th century, fleeing persecution from an Ottoman governor. Tradition holds the Jumblatt family to be the leaders of the Kaysi Arabs, who fought a bitter war with the Yemeni Druze in the Battle of Ain Darra of 1711. Although Lebanese Druze leader Walid Jumblatt is the most known and influential figure of the family in modern Lebanon, there are other Jumblatt family members from this lineage who contribute to the cultural, economic and social life in Lebanon, and not restricted to the Chouf and Mount Lebanon, but also having a visible presence in mansions and villas within the distinguished Clemenceau area of Beirut and in the north-west area of Sidon.
Kfar Beit (also known as كفر بيت, Kfar Beït, Kafr Bayt or Kfarbeet) is a Lebanese village in the south of Lebanon.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Kitbuqa Noyan (Хитбуха; died 1260) was a Nestorian Christian of the Mongolian Naiman tribe, a group that was subservient to the Mongol Empire.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
The law school of Beirut (also known as the law school of Berytus and the school of Roman law at Berytus) was a center for the study of Roman law in classical antiquity located in Beirut.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
The Lebanese International University (LIU; الجامعة اللبنانية الدولية) is a private university established by the philanthropist and former Lebanese defense and education minister Abdul Rahim Mourad.
Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Lebanese people refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Shia branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest Muslim denomination in the country tied with Sunni Muslims.
Lebanese Sunni Muslims refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Sunni branch of Islam in Lebanon, which is the largest denomination in Lebanon tied with Shia Muslims.
The Lebanese University (Université libanaise, الجامعة اللبنانية) is the only public institution for higher learning in Lebanon.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
This is a list of cities and towns in Lebanon distributed according to district.
The Lordship of Sidon was one of the four major fiefdoms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, one of the Crusader States.
Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Λυκία, Lykía; Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, and Burdur Province inland.
Maarouf Saad (معروف سعد) (1910. Maarouf Saad Cultural Center. or 1914–6 March 1975) was a Lebanese politician and activist.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Melkite (Greek) Catholic Church (كنيسة الروم الملكيين الكاثوليك) is an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Mieh Mieh camp is a Palestinian refugee camp in Lebanon, located on the outskirts of Mieh Mieh village in the hills east of Sidon.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
The Muslim conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْإٍسْـلَامِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-Islāmiyyuash-Shām) or Arab conquest of the Levant (اَلْـفَـتْـحُ الْـعَـرَبِيُّ لِـلـشَّـامِ, Al-Faṫṫḥul-ʿArabiyyu Lish-Shām) occurred in the first half of the 7th century,"Syria." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Nader El-Bizri (نادر البزري, nādir al-bizrĩ) is a professor of philosophy and civilization studies at the American University of Beirut, where he also serves as associate dean of the faculty of arts and sciences, and as the director of the general education program.
The National Museum of Beirut (متحف بيروت الوطنيّ, Matḥaf Bayrūt al-waṭanī) is the principal museum of archaeology in Lebanon.
In Greek mythology, Nereus (Νηρεύς) was the eldest son of Pontus (the Sea) and Gaia (the Earth), who with Doris fathered the Nereids and Nerites, with whom Nereus lived in the Aegean Sea.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
Phoenice was a province of the Roman Empire encompassing the historical region of Phoenicia.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Rafic Baha El Deen Al Hariri (رفيق بهاء الدين الحريري; 1 November 1944 – 14 February 2005) was a Lebanese business tycoon and the Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on.
Raymond Wadih Audi (born 1932 in Sidon, Lebanon) is a Lebanese banker, politician and businessman.
Riad Al Solh (1894 – 17 July 1951) (رياض الصلح) was the first prime minister of Lebanon after the country's independence.
Saad El-Din Rafik Al-Hariri (سعد الدين رفيق الحريري; born 18 April 1970) is a Lebanese politician who has been the Prime Minister of Lebanon since December 2016.
Saida International Stadium is a 22,600 capacity multi-purpose stadium in Saida (Sidon, Zidon), Lebanon.
The Castle of Saint Louis, also known as Qalaat al Muizz or the Land Castle, is a ruined castle in Sidon, Lebanon.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Sami Solh or Sami El Solh (1887–1968) was a Lebanese Sunni Muslim politician.
Sanchuniathon (Σαγχουνιάθων; probably from SKNYTN, Sakun-yaton, " Sakon has given") is the purported Phoenician author of three lost works originally in the Phoenician language, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos, according to the Christian bishop Eusebius of Caesarea.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
In English, a saray (السراي; Turkish: sarayı, seray), with the variant saraya or seraya (السرايا), is a castle, palace or government building which was considered to have particular administrative importance in various parts of the former Ottoman Empire, such as the Arab provinces, Cyprus, etc.
Sheikh Mohamad Osseiran (الشيخ محمد عسيران) is the Jaafari mufti of Saida and Zahrani districts of South Lebanon, Lebanon.
The Sidon District (قضاء صيدا) is a district within the South Governorate of Lebanon.
The Eyalet of Sidon (ایالت صیدا, Eyālet-i Ṣaydā) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire.
Sidon's Sea Castle (Arabic: قلعة صيدا البحرية Kalaat Saida al-Bahriya) was built by the crusaders in the thirteenth century as a fortress of the holy land.
The Sidon Soap Museum is a museum in coastal Lebanese city Sidon.
The Siege of Sidon was an event in the aftermath of the First Crusade.
Sigurd I Magnusson (c. 1090 – 26 March 1130), also known as Sigurd the Crusader (Old Norse: Sigurðr Jórsalafari, Norwegian: Sigurd Jorsalfar), was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
Sofia (Со́фия, tr.) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria.
Solh (or variants as-Solh / al-Solh / el-Solh) (الصلح.) is a common Arabic surname.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
South Governorate (الجنوب; transliterated: al-Janub) is one of the governorates of Lebanon.
Southern Lebanon (Lebanese Arabic: Jnoub, meaning "south") is the area of Lebanon comprising the South Governorate and the Nabatiye Governorate.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
The Syriac Catholic Church (or Syrian Catholic Church) (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), (also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch or Aramean Catholic Church), is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Tabnit sarcophagus is the sarcophagus of the Phoenician king Tabnit of Sidon (c. 490 BCE), the father of King Eshmunazar II.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
The Temple of Eshmun (معبد أشمون) is an ancient place of worship dedicated to Eshmun, the Phoenician god of healing.
Tiberius Julius Abdes Pantera (c. 22 BC – AD 40) was a Roman soldier whose tombstone was found in Bingerbrück, Germany, in 1859.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Zebulun (alternatively rendered as Zabulon, Zabulin, Zabulun, Zebulon) was one of the twelve tribes of Israel.
The Tyre District is a district in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
The University of Saint Joseph (USJ;; Universidade de São José) is a university founded in 1996, previously known as Macau Inter-University Institute (Instituto Inter-Universitário de Macau; IIUM).
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zeno of Sidon (Ζήνων ὁ Σιδώνιος; c. 150 – c. 75 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher from the Phoenician city of Sidon.
The Holy Martyrs Zenobios and Zenobia (died ~ 290; Greek:Ζηνόβιος/Ζινόβιος κα Ζηνοβία; Σινόβιος κα Σινοβία; Latin: Zenobius et Zenobia, Cyrillic alphabet: Зиновий и Зиновия) are recognized by Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church; their day is October 30.
Zimredda (Sidon mayor), also Zimr-Edda or Zimr-Eddi was the mayor of Siduna, (modern Sidon) in the mid 14th century BC.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 2000 AFC Asian Cup was the 12th edition of the men's AFC Asian Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament organised by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
The 551 Beirut earthquake occurred on 9 July with an estimated magnitude of about 7.6 on the moment magnitude scale and a maximum felt intensity of X (Violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale.
Biblical sidon, Great Sidon, Little Sidon, Saida, Lebanon, Saidon, Seyda, Sidhon, Sidon I, Sidon II, Sidon III, Sidon IV, Sidon Wilayah, Sidon, Lebanon, Sidonian, Sidonians, Siduna, Sidón, Tsidon, Tzidon, Zidhon, Zidon, Şaydā, صيدا.