188 relations: Aachen, Albanian revolt of 1432–36, Albert II of Germany, Aldona of Lithuania, Antipope John XXIII, Đurađ II Balšić, Barbara of Cilli, Battle of Agincourt, Battle of Grunwald, Battle of Nicopolis, Bayezid I, Beatrice d'Avesnes, Beckov Castle, Bloody Sabor of Križevci, Bogislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania, Bogislaw V, Duke of Pomerania, Born in the purple, Buda, Buda Castle, Bulgaria, Casimir III the Great, Catholic Church, Charles III of Naples, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Childbirth, Christianity, Clan Ostoja, Constantinople, Coronation, Council of Constance, Council of Florence, Croatia in union with Hungary, Croats, Czech Republic, Czechs, Dalmatia, Danube, Death by burning, Drava, Duke, Elizabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330), Elizabeth of Bosnia, Elizabeth of Luxembourg, Elizabeth of Poland, Duchess of Pomerania, Elizabeth of Pomerania, Engagement, Estates of the realm, Family tree of the German monarchs, Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, ..., Free Imperial City of Nuremberg, Fruzhin, Garai family, Götz Otto, Gediminas, Gertrude of Hohenberg, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Greater Poland, Henry V of England, Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg, Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Heresy, Hermann II, Count of Celje, Holy Crown of Hungary, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Hohenzollern, House of Luxembourg, Hungarian language, Hunyadi family, Hussite Wars, Hussites, Hvar, Imperial Reform, Iron Crown of Lombardy, Italy, Jadwiga of Kalisz, Jadwiga of Poland, Jan Hus, Jewna, Jobst of Moravia, John Horvat, John Hunyadi, John I, Duke of Brabant, John of Bohemia, John the Fearless, Judith of Habsburg, King of Hungary, King of Italy, King of the Romans, Kingdom Come: Deliverance, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Burgundy, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569), Konstanz, Korčula, Kotromanić dynasty, Kraków, Kunigunda of Halych, Ladislaus I of Hungary, Ladislaus of Naples, Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Latin, Legend, Lesser Poland, List of Bohemian monarchs, List of German monarchs, List of Polish monarchs, List of rulers of Brandenburg, List of rulers of Croatia, List of rulers of Lithuania, Louis I of Hungary, Mačva, Margaret of Brabant, Margaret of Flanders, Duchess of Brabant, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Mary, Queen of Hungary, Matthias Corvinus, Messalina, Middle Ages, Milan, Mircea (film), Montenegrins, Moravia, Neumark, Nicholas II Garai, Nikopol, Bulgaria, Nobility, Nowy Sącz, Nuremberg, Oradea, Order of the Dragon, Ottokar II of Bohemia, Ottoman Empire, Papal bull, Paul Horvat, Philip the Bold, Pippo Spano, Pisanello, Polish language, Pope Boniface IX, Pope Eugene IV, Portrait of Sigismund of Luxemburg, Prague, Prince-elector, Principality of Zeta, Queen consort, Reform, Republic of Venice, Romania, Rome, Rudolf I of Germany, Rupert, King of Germany, Safe conduct, Sava, Siena, Sigismund of Burgundy, Slavonia, Slovakia, Sophia of Bavaria, Stibor of Stiboricz, Székesfehérvár, Teutonic Order, The Whore (2010 film), Thomas Carlyle, Tournament (medieval), Transylvania, Treaty of Győr (1386), Turkish people, Tvrtko I of Bosnia, Váh, Veneto, Vidin, Visegrád, Vision (spirituality), Wartislaw IV, Duke of Pomerania, Władysław I the Elbow-high, Władysław II Jagiełło, Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, Western Schism, Zadar, Znojmo, Zvolen. Expand index (138 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
The Albanian revolt of 1432–36 was a series of conflicts between Albanian rebels and the Ottoman Empire during the early period of Ottoman rule in the region.
Albert the Magnanimous KG (10 August 139727 October 1439) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1437 until his death and member of the House of Habsburg.
Aldona (baptized Ona or Anna; her pagan name, Aldona, is known only from the writings of Maciej Stryjkowski; – 26 May 1339) was Queen consort of Poland (1333–1339), and a princess of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Baldassarre Cossa (c. 1370 – 22 December 1419) was Pisan antipope John XXIII (1410–1415) during the Western Schism.
Đurađ Stracimirović (Ђурађ Страцимировић; 1385 – April 1403), or Đurađ II was the Lord of Zeta from 1385 to 1403, as a member of the Balšić noble family.
Barbara of Cilli (1392 – 11 July 1451) was the Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund.
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.
Bayezid I (بايزيد اول; I. (nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman Turkish: یلدیرم), "Lightning, Thunderbolt"); 1360 – 8 March 1403) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402.
Beatrice d'Avesnes (died: 1321) was a daughter of Baldwin of Avesnes and his wife Felicitas of Coucy.
Beckov Castle (Beckovský hrad/Beckov; Beckói vár) is a castle in ruins located near the village of Beckov in Nové Mesto nad Váhom District, Trenčín Region, western Slovakia.
Bloody Sabor of Križevci or Bloody Parliament Session or Križevci Bloody Assembly (Krvavi Sabor u Križevcima, Krvavi sabor križevački; kőrösi országgyűlés) was an organised killing of the former Croatian ban Stephen II Lackfi and his followers by King Sigismund, in Križevci, Croatia on 27 February 1397.
Bogislaw IV (Bogusław IV; died 19 February 1309 or 24 February 1309), of the Griffins dynasty, was Duke of Pomerania for thirty years.
Bogislaw V (Bogusław, Bogislaus) (c. 1318 – 23 April 1374) was a Duke of Pomerania.
Traditionally, born in the purple was a category of members of royal families born during the reign of their parent.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Buda Castle (Budavári Palota, Burgpalast) is the historical castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles the Short or Charles of Durazzo (1345 – 24 February 1386) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem from 1382 to 1386 as Charles III, and King of Hungary from 1385 to 1386 as Charles II.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church was convoked as the Council of Basel by Pope Martin V shortly before his death in February 1431 and took place in the context of the Hussite wars in Bohemia and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Hrvatsko kraljevstvo or Kraljevina Hrvatska) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Deliberately causing death through the effects of combustion, or effects of exposure to extreme heat, has a long history as a form of capital punishment.
The Drava or Drave by Jürgen Utrata (2014).
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
Elizabeth of Bohemia (Eliška Přemyslovna) (20 January 1292 – 28 September 1330) was a princess of the Bohemian Přemyslid dynasty who became queen consort of Bohemia as the first wife of King John the Blind (John of Luxembourg).
Elizabeth of Bosnia (– January 1387) was queen consort and later regent of Hungary and Croatia, as well as queen consort of Poland.
Elizabeth of Luxembourg (7 October 1409 – 19 December 1442) was queen consort of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia.
Princess Elizabeth of Poland (Elżbieta Kazimierzówna) (1326–1361) was the eldest child of Casimir III of Poland and his first wife, Aldona of Lithuania.
Elizabeth of Pomerania (– 15 April 1393) was the fourth and final wife of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia.
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
Frederick (Middle High German: Friderich, Standard German: Friedrich; 21 September 1371 – 20 September 1440) was the last Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1397 to 1427 (as Frederick VI), Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach from 1398, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach from 1420, and Elector of Brandenburg (as Frederick I) from 1415 until his death.
Frederick III (21 September 1415 – 19 August 1493), was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death.
The Imperial City of Nuremberg (Reichsstadt Nürnberg) was a free imperial city — independent city-state — within the Holy Roman Empire.
Fruzhin (Фружин; also transliterated Fružin or Frujin; died c. 1460) was a 15th-century Bulgarian noble who fought actively against the Ottoman conquest of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
Garai or Garay (Gorjanski) were a Hungarian-Croatian noble family, a branch of the Dorozsma (Durusma) clan, with notable members in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Götz Otto (born 15 October 1967) is a German film and television actor who is perhaps best known internationally for his roles as henchman Richard Stamper in the 1997 James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies, and as Nazi commander Klaus Adler in the 2012 comic science fiction film Iron Sky.
Gediminas (– December 1341) was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316 until his death.
Gertrude Anne of Hohenberg (– 16 February 1281) was German queen from 1273 until her death, by her marriage with King Rudolf I of Germany.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (Großpolen; Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VI (– 5 June 1288) was count of Luxembourg and Arlon from the death of his father, Henry V the Blond in 1281 until his own death at the battle of Worringen, seven years later, when he was succeeded by his son, Henry VII.
Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313)Kleinhenz, pg.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
Hermann II (Herman; early 1360s – 13 October 1435), Count of Celje, was a Styrian nobleman and magnate most notable as the faithful supporter and father-in-law of the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxembourg.
The Holy Crown of Hungary (Szent Korona, also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen) was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Hunyadi family was one of the most powerful noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 15th century.
The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Hvar (local Chakavian dialect: Hvor or For, Pharos, Φάρος, Pharia, Lesina) is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea, located off the Dalmatian coast, lying between the islands of Brač, Vis and Korčula.
Imperial Reform (Reformatio imperii, Reichsreform) is the name given to repeated attempts in the 15th and 16th centuries to adapt the structure and the constitutional order (Verfassungsordnung) of the Holy Roman Empire to the requirements of the early modern state and to give it a unified government under either the Imperial Estates or the emperor's supremacy.
The Iron Crown of Lombardy (Corona Ferrea; Corona Ferrea Langobardiae) is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jadwiga of Kalisz (Polish: Jadwiga Bolesławówna; 1266 – 10 December 1339) was a Queen of Poland by marriage to Władysław I the Elbow-high.
Jadwiga, also known as Hedwig (Hedvig; 1373/4 – 17 July 1399), was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland, reigning from 16 October 1384 until her death.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jewna (Еўна, Jaunė, literally, young woman in Lithuanian; died ca. 1344) was daughter of Prince Ivan of Polatsk and wife of Gediminas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1316–1341).
Jobst of Moravia (Jošt Moravský or Jošt Lucemburský; Jo(b)st or Jodokus von Mähren; c. 1354 – 18 January 1411), a member of the House of Luxembourg, was Margrave of Moravia from 1375, Duke of Luxembourg and Elector of Brandenburg from 1388 as well as elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1410 until his death.
John Horvat (Ivan Horvat; János Horváti; died on 15 August 1394) was a Croatian nobleman in the Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia who served as Ban of Macsó from 1376 to 1381, and again between 1385 and 1386.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
John I of Brabant, also called John the Victorious (1252/12533 May 1294) was Duke of Brabant (1267–1294), Lothier and Limburg (1288–1294).
John the Blind (Jang de Blannen; Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Jan Lucemburský; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland.
John (28 May 1371 – 10 September 1419), called John "the Fearless" (Jean sans Peur; Jan zonder Vrees), was Duke of Burgundy as John I from 1404 until his death, succeeding his father Philip.
Judith (13 March 1271 – 21 May 1297), also named Guta (Guta Habsburská), a member of the House of Habsburg, was the youngest daughter of King Rudolf I of Germany and his wife Gertrude of Hohenburg.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
Kingdom Come: Deliverance is an action role-playing video game developed by Warhorse Studios and published by Deep Silver for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom (Regnum Teutonicum, "Teutonic Kingdom"; Deutsches Reich) developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385).
Konstanz (locally; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland.
Korčula (is a Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea. It has an area of; long and on average wide — and lies just off the Dalmatian coast. Its 15,522 inhabitants (2011) make it the second most populous Adriatic island after Krk and the most populous Croatian island not connected to the mainland by a bridge. The population are almost entirely ethnic Croats (95.74%). The island is twinned with Rothesay in Scotland.
The Kotromanić (Serbian Cyrillic: Котроманић, Kotromanići / Котроманићи) were members of a late medieval Bosnian noble and later royal dynasty.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kunigunda Rostislavna (1245 – 9 September 1285; Czech: Kunhuta Uherská or Kunhuta Haličská) was Queen consort of Bohemia and its Regent from 1278 until her death.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas (I or Szent László; Ladislav I.; Svätý Ladislav I; Władysław I Święty; 1040 – 29 July 1095) was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091.
Ladislaus the Magnanimous (Ladislao il Magnanimo di Napoli; Nápolyi László; 15 February 1377 – 6 August 1414) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414).
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented: c.626, Croats migrate from White Croatia (around what is now Galicia) at the invitation of Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius.
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Mačva (Мачва) is a geographical and historical region in the northwest of Central Serbia, on a fertile plain between the Sava and Drina rivers.
Margaret of Brabant (4 October 1276 – 14 December 1311), was the daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders.
Margaret of Flanders (died 3 July 1285) was a Duchess consort of Brabant.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Mary, also known as Maria (137117 May 1395), reigned as Queen of Hungary and Croatia between 1382 and 1385, and from 1386 until her death.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Valeria Messalina (sometimes spelled Messallina; c. 17/20–48) was the third wife of the Roman Emperor Claudius.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Mircea (AKA: Proud Heritage) is a 1989 film about Mircea I of Wallachia, the Christian king of Wallachia who repelled the attempts at conquest made by the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century and early 15th century.
Montenegrins (Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci, or), literally "People of the Black Mountain", are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, was a region of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and its successors located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.
Nicholas II Garai (Garai II Miklós, Nikola II Gorjanski; c. 1367 – December 1433) was a powerful Hungarian baron, who served as the Palatine of Hungary from 1402 until 1433 and the ban of Macsó, Usora, Só, Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia.
Nikopol (Никопол; historically Niğbolu, Νικόπολις, Nikópolis, Nikápoly, Nicopolis) is a town in northern Bulgaria, the administrative center of Nikopol municipality, part of Pleven Province, on the right bank of the Danube river, downstream from the mouth of the Osam river.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nowy Sącz is a city in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship of southern Poland.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Oradea (Großwardein, Nagyvárad, Hungarian pronunciation:, colloquially also Várad, former Varat, גרויסווארדיין Groysvardeyn) the capital city of Bihor County and Crișana region, is one of the important centers of economic, social and cultural development in the western part of Romania, retaining these characteristics throughout history.
The Order of the Dragon (Societas Draconistarum, literally "Society of the Dragonists") was a monarchical chivalric order for selected nobility,Florescu and McNally, Dracula, Prince of Many Faces.
Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church.
Paul Horvat (Pavao Horvat; Pál Horváti) was the 28th bishop of Zagreb.
Philip the Bold (17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404, Halle) was Duke of Burgundy (as Philip II) and jure uxoris Count of Flanders (as Philip II), Artois and Burgundy (as Philip IV).
Filippo Buondelmonti degli Scolari (1369 – December 1426), known as Pippo Spano, was an Italian magnate, general, strategist and confidant of King Sigismund of Hungary, born in the Republic of Florence.
Pisanello (c. 1395c. 1455), known professionally as Antonio di Puccio Pisano or Antonio di Puccio da Cereto, also erroneously called Vittore Pisano by Giorgio Vasari, was one of the most distinguished painters of the early Italian Renaissance and Quattrocento.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Pope Boniface IX (Bonifatius IX; c. 1350 – 1 October 1404, born Pietro Tomacelli Cybo) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 2 November 1389 to his death in 1404.
Pope Eugene IV (Eugenius IV; 1383 – 23 February 1447), born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from 3 March 1431 to his death in 1447.
The Portrait of Sigismund of Luxembourg (Ritratto di Sigismondo di Lussemburgo) is a tempera on panel painting formerly attributed to the Italian Late-Gothic master Pisanello and probably executed between 1432 and 1433.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Principality of Zeta (Кнежевина Зета) (in modern-day Montenegro) is the historiographical name for a medieval state centered around Lake Skadar, ruled by the families of Balšić, Lazarević, Branković and Crnojević in succession from the second half of the 14th century until Ottoman conquest in 1498.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
Reform (reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
Rupert of the Palatinate (Ruprecht von der Pfalz; 5 May 1352 – 18 May 1410), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Elector Palatine from 1398 (as Rupert III) and King of Germany (rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death.
Safe conduct is the situation in time of international conflict or war where one state, a party to such conflict, issues to a person, usually an enemy state's subject, a pass or document to allow the enemy alien to traverse its territory without harassment, bodily harm, or fear of death.
The Sava (Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
Sigismund (𐍃𐌹𐌲𐌹𐍃𐌼𐌿𐌽𐍄𐌷, Sigismunþ; Sigismundus; died 524 AD) was King of the Burgundians from 516 to his death.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Sophia of Bavaria (1376 – 4 November 1428) was a Queen of Bohemia and the spouse of Wenceslaus, King of Bohemia and King of the Romans.
Stibor of Stiboricz of Ostoja (also written in English as Scibor or Czibor; Ścibor ze Ściborzyc, Stiborici Stibor, Știbor de Știborici, Stibor zo Stiboríc; c. 1348 – February 1414) was an aristocrat of Polish origin in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The city of Székesfehérvár, known colloquially as Fehérvár ("white castle") (located in central Hungary, is the ninth largest city of the country; regional capital of Central Transdanubia; and the centre of Fejér county and Székesfehérvár District. The area is an important rail and road junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence. Székesfehérvár, a royal residence (székhely), as capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, held a central role in the Middle Ages. As required by the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, the first kings of Hungary were crowned and buried here. Significant trade routes led to the Balkans and Italy, and to Buda and Vienna. Historically the city has come under Turkish, German and Russian control and the city is known by translations of "white castle" in these languages: (Stuhlweißenburg; Столни Београд; İstolni Belgrad).
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Whore (Die Wanderhure) is a 2010 German television film, adapted from a novel by the same name.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
A tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei) was a chivalrous competition or mock fight in Europe in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries).
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Győr (also known as the Treaty of Raab) was concluded between the Hungarian queen dowager and regent, Elizabeth of Bosnia, and Sigismund of Luxembourg in Győr in April 1386.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Stephen Tvrtko I (Stjepan/Stefan Tvrtko, Стефан/Стјепан Твртко; 1338 – 10 March 1391) was the first King of Bosnia.
The Váh (Waag; Vág; Wag) is the longest river within Slovakia.
Veneto (or,; Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
Vidin (Видин) is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in north-western Bulgaria.
Visegrád is a small castle town in Pest County, Hungary.
A vision is something seen in a dream, trance, or religious ecstasy, especially a supernatural appearance that usually conveys a revelation.
Wartislaw IV or Vartislav IV (before 1290 – 1 August 1326) was Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast from 1309 until his death.
Władysław I the Elbow-high or the Short (Władysław I Łokietek; c. 1260 – 2 March 1333) was the King of Poland from 1306 to 1333, and duke of several of the provinces and principalities in the preceding years.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
Wenceslaus II Přemyslid (Václav II.; Wacław II Czeski; 27 SeptemberK. Charvátová, Václav II. Král český a polský, Prague 2007, p. 18. 1271 – 21 June 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278–1305), Duke of Cracow (1291–1305), and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wenceslaus (also Wenceslas; Václav IV.; Wenzel, nicknamed der Faule ("the Idle"); 26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419) was, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1363 and by election, German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376.
The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 even three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Znojmo (Znaim) is a major town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of the Znojmo District.
Zvolen (Zólyom; Altsohl) is a town in central Slovakia, situated on the confluence of Hron and Slatina rivers, close to Banská Bystrica.
Emperor Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, Holy Roman Empire Sigismund, Holy Sigismund, King Sigismund, King Sigismund of Hungary, Sigismund (HRR), Sigismund of Bohemia, Sigismund of Germany, Sigismund of Hungary, Sigismund of Luxembourg, Sigismund of Luxemburg, Sigismund of the Holy Roman Empire, Sigismund von Luxembourg, Sigismund von Luxemburg, Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, Sigmund, Holy Roman Emperor, Super-Grammaticam, Zsigmond, Holy Roman Emperor, Zygmunt I Luksemburski.