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Sign-on and sign-off

Index Sign-on and sign-off

A sign-on (or start-up) is the beginning of operations for a radio or television station, generally at the start of each day. [1]

156 relations: Ad Council, Adhan, All India Radio, AM broadcasting, Amplitude modulation, Analog television, Automatic transmission system, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, BBC, BBC One, BBC Radio, BBC Two, Bible, Brand, Breakfast television, Broadcast automation, Broadcast relay station, Brunei, Cable television, Cable television headend, Call sign, Campus radio, Catholic Media Network, China, Christianity, City of license, Clock ident, Cockfight, Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters, Copyright, Cover charge, Dark (broadcasting), Digital subchannel, Digital television, Digital television transition in the United States, Disclaimer, Doordarshan, Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling, Easter, Egypt, Electricity, Electronic program guide, Engineer, Fajr prayer, Federal Communications Commission, Film, Folk hero, Frequency, Frequency modulation, Gautama Buddha, ..., German language, Germany, GMA Network, Goodnight Kiwi, Head of state, Hertz, Holy Wednesday, Holy Week in the Philippines, Hong Kong, Horse racing, Hymn, India, Indian-head test pattern, Indonesia, Infomercial, Infotainment, Interval signal, Israel, Italy, ITV (TV network), ITV Nightscreen, Japan, Jewish prayer, Jingle, Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas, Lent, Macau, Malaysia, Maundy Thursday, Military, Montage (filmmaking), Morocco, Nagano, Nagano, National anthem, National Association of Broadcasters, National flag, National symbol, National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines), Nationalism, News broadcasting, Niger, Noise (radio), Noise (video), North Korea, Off-the-air, Oman, Optical fiber, Palm Sunday, Paschal Triduum, Philippine Standard Time, Philippines, Prayer, Psalms, Public service announcement, Quran, Radio network, Radio station, Radio Televisyen Malaysia, Ramadan, Religion, Religious broadcasting, Remote control, Russia, Salah, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sermonette, Short-term Analog Flash and Emergency Readiness Act, Shortwave radio, Sign off routines in the United Kingdom, Slogan, South Korea, Southern United States, Sri Lanka, State ownership, State religion, Station identification, Studio/transmitter link, Television advertisement, Television channel, Television network, Television show, Television station, Test card, Thailand, Theocracy, Toyama, Toyama, Trailer (promotion), Transmitter, Transmitter power output, TV1 (Malaysia), TV2 (Malaysia), TVARK, Ultra high frequency, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Video clip, Watt, Weather forecasting, Weather radio, White noise, 2000 Today, 2012 Summer Olympics, 24/7 service, 3rd millennium. Expand index (106 more) »

Ad Council

The Advertising Council, commonly known as the Ad Council, is an American nonprofit organization that produces, distributes, and promotes public service announcements on behalf of various sponsors, including nonprofit organizations, non-governmental organizations and agencies of the United States government.

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Adhan

The adhan, athan, or azaan (أَذَان) (also called in Turkish: Ezan) is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day.

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All India Radio

All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1956 as Ākāshvāṇī ("Voice from the Sky") is the national public radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati.

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AM broadcasting

AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.

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Amplitude modulation

Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.

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Analog television

Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.

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Automatic transmission system

An automatic transmission system (or occasionally automated transmission system, to avoid confusion with the automatic transmission of an automobile) is an automated system designed to keep a radio transmitter and antenna system running without direct human oversight or attention for long periods.

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Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim Mindanao, الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu; abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan (except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC One

BBC One is the flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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BBC Radio

BBC Radio is an operational business division and service of the British Broadcasting Corporation (which has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a Royal Charter since 1927).

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BBC Two

BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Brand

A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.

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Breakfast television

Breakfast television (Australia, Ireland, New Zealand and United Kingdom) or morning show (Canada and United States) is a type of infotainment television program, which broadcasts live in the morning (typically scheduled between 6 and 10am, or if it is a local programme, as early as 4am).

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Broadcast automation

Broadcast automation incorporates the use of broadcast programming technology to automate broadcasting operations.

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Broadcast relay station

A broadcast relay station, satellite station, relay transmitter, broadcast translator (U.S.), rebroadcaster (Canada), repeater (two-way radio), or complementary station (Mexico) is a broadcast transmitter which repeats, or transponds, the signal of another radio station or television station usually to an area not covered by the signal of the originating station.

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Brunei

Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

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Cable television headend

A cable television headend is a master facility for receiving television signals for processing and distribution over a cable television system.

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Call sign

In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also known as a call name or call letters—and historically as a call signal—or abbreviated as a call) is a unique designation for a transmitter station.

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Campus radio

Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station that is run by the students of a college, university or other educational institution.

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Catholic Media Network

Catholic Media Network, also known as CMN, is a Catholic radio network in the Philippines.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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City of license

In American, Canadian and Philippine broadcasting, a city of license or community of license is the community that a radio station or television station is officially licensed to serve by that country's broadcast regulator.

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Clock ident

A clock ident is a form of television ident in which a clock is displayed, reading the current time, and usually alongside the logo of that particular television station.

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Cockfight

A cockfight is a blood sport between two cocks, or gamecocks, held in a ring called a cockpit.

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Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters

The Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters, also known as the Television Code, was a set of ethical standards adopted by the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) for television.

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Copyright

Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.

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Cover charge

A cover charge is an entrance fee sometimes charged at bars, nightclubs, or restaurants.

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Dark (broadcasting)

In the broadcasting industry, a dark television or silent radio station is one that has gone off the air for an indefinite period of time.

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Digital subchannel

In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a method of transmitting more than one independent program stream simultaneously from the same digital radio or television station on the same radio frequency channel.

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Digital television

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.

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Digital television transition in the United States

The DTV (an abbreviation of digital television, also called digital broadcast) transition in the United States was the switchover from analog (the traditional method of transmitting television signals) to exclusively digital broadcasting of free over-the-air television programming.

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Disclaimer

A disclaimer is generally any statement intended to specify or delimit the scope of rights and obligations that may be exercised and enforced by parties in a legally recognized relationship.

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Doordarshan

Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.

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Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is an in-band telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.

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Easter

Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electronic program guide

Electronic program guides (EPGs) and interactive program guides (IPGs) are menu-based systems that provide users of television, radio and other media applications with continuously updated menus displaying broadcast programming (TV listings in the UK) or scheduling information for current and upcoming programming.

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Engineer

Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.

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Fajr prayer

The Fajr prayer (صلاة الفجر, "dawn prayer") is the 2 raka'at obligatory prayer ('Subuh' prayer) of the five daily prayers offered by practising Muslims.

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Federal Communications Commission

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.

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Film

A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.

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Folk hero

A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythological – with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name, personality and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people.

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Frequency modulation

In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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GMA Network

GMA Network (Global Media Arts or simply GMA) is a major national commercial broadcast television and radio network in the Philippines.

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Goodnight Kiwi

The Goodnight Kiwi is an animated short which has been used to signal the end of nightly broadcasts on Television New Zealand channels.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Holy Wednesday

In Christianity, Holy Wednesday, also called Spy Wednesday, or Good Wednesday (in Western Christianity), and Holy and Great Wednesday (in the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches), is the Wednesday of Holy Week, the week before Easter.

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Holy Week in the Philippines

Holy Week in the Philippines (Mahal na Araw; Semana Santa) is a significant religious observance for the country’s Roman Catholic majority and most Protestant groups.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Horse racing

Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.

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Hymn

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian-head test pattern

The Indian-head test pattern is a black and white television test pattern which was introduced in 1939 by RCA of Harrison, New Jersey as a part of the RCA TK-1 monoscope.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Infomercial

An infomercial is a form of television commercial, which generally includes a toll-free telephone number or website.

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Infotainment

Infotainment (a portmanteau of information and entertainment), also called soft news, is a type of media, usually television, that provides a combination of information and entertainment.

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Interval signal

An interval signal, or tuning signal, is a characteristic sound or musical phrase used in international broadcasting, numbers stations, and by some domestic broadcasters, played before commencement or during breaks in transmission, but most commonly between programmes in different languages.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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ITV (TV network)

ITV is a British commercial TV network.

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ITV Nightscreen

ITV Nightscreen is a scheduled programme on the United Kingdom's ITV television network, consisting of a sequence of animated pages of information about ITV's upcoming programmes, features and special events, with an easy listening music soundtrack.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jewish prayer

Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

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Jingle

A jingle is a short song or tune used in advertising, podcasts and for other commercial uses.

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Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas

The Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (KBP; Association of Broadcasters of the Philippines) is a broadcast media organization in the Philippines which provides its members broadcasting standards.

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Lent

Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.

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Macau

Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Maundy Thursday

Maundy Thursday (also known as Holy Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Great and Holy Thursday, Sheer Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, among other names) is the Christian holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Montage (filmmaking)

Montage is a technique in film editing in which a series of short shots are edited into a sequence to condense space, time, and information.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Nagano, Nagano

is the capital city of Nagano Prefecture in the Chūbu region of Japan.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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National Association of Broadcasters

The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a trade association and lobby group representing the interests of commercial and non-commercial over-the-air radio and television broadcasters in the United States.

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National flag

A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country.

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National symbol

A national symbol is a symbol of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community: the sovereign states but also nations and countries in a state of colonial or other dependence, (con)federal integration, or even an ethnocultural community considered a 'nationality' despite having no political autonomy.

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National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines)

The Philippines' National Telecommunications Commission (Pambansáng Komisyón sa Telekomunikasyón), abbreviated as NTC, is an attached agency of the Department of Information and Communications Technology responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all telecommunications services throughout the country.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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News broadcasting

News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism.

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Niger

Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Noise (radio)

In radio reception, noise is the superposition of white noise and other disturbing influences on the signal, caused either by thermal noise and other electronic noise from receiver input circuits or by interference from radiated electromagnetic noise picked up by the receiver's antenna.

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Noise (video)

Noise, in analog video and television, is a random dot pixel pattern of static displayed when no transmission signal is obtained by the antenna receiver of television sets and other display devices.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Off-the-air

In telecommunication, the term off-air or off-the-air has the following meanings.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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Palm Sunday

Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter.

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Paschal Triduum

Easter Triduum (Latin: Triduum Paschale), Holy Triduum (Latin: Triduum Sacrum), or Paschal Triduum, or The Three Days, is the period of three days that begins with the liturgy on the evening of Maundy Thursday, reaches its high point in the Easter Vigil, and closes with evening prayer on Easter Sunday.

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Philippine Standard Time

Philippine Standard Time (Pamantayang Oras ng Pilipinas, abbreviated PST or PhST), also known as Philippine Time (PHT), is the official name for the time in the Philippines.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Prayer

Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship, typically a deity, through deliberate communication.

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Psalms

The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.

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Public service announcement

A public service announcement (PSA), or public service ad, is a message in the public interest disseminated without charge, with the objective of raising awareness, changing public attitudes and behavior towards a social issue.

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Quran

The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Radio network

There are two types of radio networks currently in use around the world: the one-to-many broadcast network commonly used for public information and mass media entertainment; and the two-way radio type used more commonly for public safety and public services such as police, fire, taxicabs, and delivery services.

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Radio station

A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.

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Radio Televisyen Malaysia

Radio Televisyen Malaysia is a Malaysian public broadcaster.

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Ramadan

Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Religious broadcasting

Religious broadcasting is broadcasting by religious organizations, usually with a religious message.

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Remote control

In electronics, a remote control or clicker is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Salah

Salah ("worship",; pl.; also salat), or namāz (نَماز) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Sermonette

Sermonette (i.e., a small sermon) is a generic term for short, locally produced religious messages that were aired by many U.S. television stations during their sign-on and sign-off periods.

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Short-term Analog Flash and Emergency Readiness Act

The Short-term Analog Flash and Emergency Readiness Act, or SAFER Act, is a U.S. law that required the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to allow the continuation of full-power analog TV transmissions in 2009 for an additional 30 days for the purpose of broadcasting public service announcements regarding the DTV transition in the United States and emergency information.

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Shortwave radio

Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.

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Sign off routines in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, closedowns originally took place frequently during the daytime, and sometimes only for a few hours at a time.

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Slogan

A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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State ownership

State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Station identification

Station identification (ident, network ID or channel ID) is the practice of radio or television stations or networks identifying themselves on-air, typically by means of a call sign or brand name (sometimes known, particularly in the United States, as a "sounder" or "stinger", more generally as a station or network ID).

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Studio/transmitter link

A studio/transmitter link (or STL) sends a radio station's or television station's audio and video from the broadcast studio or origination facility to a radio transmitter, television transmitter or uplink facility in another location.

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Television advertisement

A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.

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Television channel

A television channel is a broadcast frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed.

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Television network

A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers.

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Television show

A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.

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Television station

A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth.

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Test card

A test card, also known as a test pattern or start-up/closedown test, is a television test signal, typically broadcast at times when the transmitter is active but no program is being broadcast (often at sign-on and sign-off).

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Thailand

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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Theocracy

Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.

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Toyama, Toyama

is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan, located on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the Chūbu region on central Honshū, about north of the city of Nagoya and northwest of Tokyo.

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Trailer (promotion)

A trailer (also known as a preview or coming attraction) is a commercial advertisement for a feature film that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema, the result of creative and technical work.

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Transmitter

In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.

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Transmitter power output

In radio transmission, transmitter power output (TPO) is the actual amount of power (in watts) of radio frequency (RF) energy that a transmitter produces at its output.

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TV1 (Malaysia)

TV1 is a Malaysian public, free-to-air television channel owned and operated by Radio Televisyen Malaysia.

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TV2 (Malaysia)

TV2 is a free-to-air Malaysian television channel owned and operated by the Radio Television Malaysia, a division of the Malaysian Government.

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TVARK

TVARK is a website that archives images, sound and video clips which illustrate British television presentation history.

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Ultra high frequency

Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Video clip

Video clips are short clips of video, usually part of a longer recording.

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Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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Weather forecasting

Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.

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Weather radio

A weather radio is a specialized radio receiver that is designed to receive a public broadcast service, typically from government-owned radio stations, dedicated to airing weather reports on a continual basis, with the routine weather reports being interrupted by emergency weather reports whenever needed.

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White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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2000 Today

2000 Today was an internationally broadcast television special commemorating the beginning of the Year 2000.

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2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom.

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24/7 service

In commerce and industry, 24/7 or 24-7 service (usually pronounced "twenty-four seven") is service that is available any time and, usually, every day.

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3rd millennium

In contemporary history, the third millennium is a period of time that started on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000 of the Gregorian calendar.

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Redirects here:

Close down, Closedown, Indian Lord's Prayer, Sign off, Sign on, Sign-off, Sign-off (broadcast), Sign-on, Sign-on & sign-off, Sign-on (broadcast), Signoff, Signon.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sign-on_and_sign-off

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