291 relations: Adam Kendon, Adamorobe Sign Language, Adjective, Adverb, Agglutination, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, American Annals of the Deaf, American English, American School for the Deaf, American Sign Language, Animal language, Arab sign-language family, Arapaho, Arbitrariness, Areal feature, Armenian Sign Language, Arrernte people, Artificial intelligence, ASCII, ASL-phabet, AT&T Corporation, Augmentative and alternative communication, Auslan, Australian Aboriginal sign languages, Austrian Sign Language, Avoidance speech, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Baby sign language, Bali, Bamako Sign Language, BANZSL, Body language, Braille, Brazilian Sign Language, British Sign Language, Broadcasting, Bulgarian Sign Language, Cardinal number (linguistics), Carol Padden, Catalan Sign Language, Categorical perception, Ceil Lucas, Charles-Michel de l'Épée, Cherology, Cheyenne, Chinese number gestures, Chinese Sign Language, Classifier (linguistics), Clayton Valli, Closed captioning, ..., Cognitive grammar, Cognitive linguistics, Common chimpanzee, Communications Act 2003, Computer science, Construals, Contact sign, Conversation analysis, Cratylus (dialogue), Creole language, Creolization, Crow Nation, Czech Sign Language, Danish Sign Language, David J. Peterson, David Premack, Deaf culture, Deaf-community sign language, Deaflympics, Deep learning, Discourse, Diyari, Double articulation, Dutch Sign Language, Ecuadorian Sign Language, Edward Klima, Edward Miner Gallaudet, Edward Sapir, Endangered language, Enga Province, English language, Ethnologue, Expression (sign language), Facial expression, Fingerspelling, Finnish Sign Language, Flemish Sign Language, Florida, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, French Sign Language, French Sign Language family, Gallaudet University, Gallaudet University Press, Gang signal, George Dalgarno, German Sign Language, German Sign Language family, Gesture, Ghana, Gorilla, Grammar, Great Plains, Hamburg Notation System, Handshape, Hawai'i Sign Language, Hearing loss, Henri Wittmann, Hockett's design features, Home sign, Homograph, Hungarian Sign Language, Icelandic Sign Language, Iconicity, Ideogram, Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, Inflection, Intercultural competence, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, International Sign, Irish Sign Language, ISO 639-3, Israel, Israeli Sign Language, Italian Sign Language, Japanese grammar, Japanese Sign Language, Japanese Sign Language family, John Benjamins Publishing Company, John Bulwer, Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, Juan Pablo Bonet, Judy Shepard-Kegl, Ka'apor Sign Language, Karen Nakamura, Kata Kolok, Kaytetye, Kenyan Sign Language, Koko (gorilla), Korean Sign Language, Language, Language contact, Language shift, Laurent Clerc, Legal recognition of sign languages, Levantine Arabic Sign Language, Lexical item, Linguistic Bibliography, Linguistics, List of international common standards, List of sign languages, List of video telecommunication services and product brands, Location (sign language), Logogram, Loulis (chimpanzee), Malaysian Sign Language, Manual communication, Manually Coded Malay, Margalit Fox, Maritime Sign Language, Martha's Vineyard Sign Language, Mayan Sign Language, Mayor of New York City, Meta-communication, Metaphor, Mexican Sign Language, Mexico, Michael (gorilla), Mime artist, Mixed language, Modern Sign Language communication, Mofu-Gudur language, Monastic sign languages, Morpheme, Morphology (linguistics), Mouthing, Movement (sign language), Mudra, Mutual intelligibility, Native Americans in the United States, Natural language, Nepali Sign Language, New Zealand Sign Language, News conference, Nicaraguan Sign Language, Nim Chimpsky, Nonverbal communication, North America, Norwegian Sign Language, Ogham, Oliver Sacks, Onomatopoeia, Orangutan, Orientation (sign language), Origin of language, Origin of speech, Oxford University Press, Paddy Ladd, Papua New Guinea, Pedro Ponce de León, Penang Sign Language, Peruvian Sign Language, Philippine Sign Language, Phoneme, Pidgin, Plains Indian Sign Language, Plato, Polish Sign Language, Portuguese Sign Language, Prague, Primate, Productivity (linguistics), Project Gutenberg, Prosody (linguistics), Providence Island Sign Language, Quebec Sign Language, Relexification, Rennellese Sign Language, Roger Brown (psychologist), Romanian Sign Language, Russian Sign Language, Salvadoran Sign Language, Samuel James Supalla, Saudi Sign Language, Seeing Voices, Semanticity, Semantics, Si5s, Sign language, Sign language glove, Sign language in the brain, Sign Language Studies, Sign name, Sign-language media, SignWriting, SIL International, Simon & Schuster, Slovak Sign Language, Smíchov, Smithsonian Institution, Sociolinguistics of sign languages, Socrates, South Africa, South African Sign Language, Spanish Sign Language, Sprachbund, Spurious languages, Sri Lankan sign languages, Stokoe notation, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Subtitle (captioning), Swedish Sign Language, Syntax, Tactile signing, Taiwanese Sign Language, Telecommunication, Television, Television show, Thai Sign Language, The Mind of an Ape, The New York Times, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, Tom Humphries, Tonkawa, Topic-prominent language, Traditional transmission, Trans-cultural diffusion, Turkish Sign Language, Two-handed manual alphabets, Ugandan Sign Language, Ukrainian Sign Language, United Kingdom, United States, University at Buffalo, Ursula Bellugi, Varieties of American Sign Language, Venezuelan Sign Language, Video relay service, Video remote interpreting, Videotelephony, Village sign language, Vowel, Warlmanpa language, Warlpiri Sign Language, Warumungu, Washoe (chimpanzee), Webcam, William Stokoe, World Federation of the Deaf, Yolŋu Sign Language, 1964 New York World's Fair. 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Adam Kendon (born in London, son of Frank Kendon) is one of the world's foremost authorities on the topic of gesture.
Adamorobe Sign Language or Adasl is a village sign language used in Adamorobe, an Akan village in eastern Ghana.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL) is a village sign language used by about 150 deaf and many hearing members of the al-Sayyid Bedouin tribe in the Negev desert of southern Israel.
The American Annals of the Deaf is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly with one annual reference issue.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American School for the Deaf (ASD) is the oldest permanent school for the deaf in the United States.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
Animal languages are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.
The Arab sign-language family is a family of sign languages spread across the Arab Mideast.
The Arapaho (in French: Arapahos, Gens de Vache) are a tribe of Native Americans historically living on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming.
Arbitrariness is the quality of being "determined by chance, whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle".
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
Armenian Sign Language is the deaf sign language of Armenia.
The Arrernte people, sometimes referred to as the Aranda, Arunta, or Arrarnta are an Aboriginal Australian people who live in the Arrernte lands, at Mparntwe (Alice Springs) and surrounding areas of the Central Australia region of the Northern Territory. Some Aranda live in other areas far from their homeland, including the major Australian cities and overseas. Aranda mythology and spirituality focuses on the landscape and the Dreamtime. Altjira is the creator being of the Inapertwa that became all living creatures. Tjurunga are objects of religious significance. The Arrernte Council is the representative and administrative body for the Aranda Lands and is part of the Central Land Council. Tourism is important to the economy of Alice Springs and surrounding communities.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
ASL-phabet, or the ASL Alphabet, is a writing system developed by Samuel Supalla for American Sign Language (ASL).
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) is an umbrella term that encompasses the communication methods used to supplement or replace speech or writing for those with impairments in the production or comprehension of spoken or written language.
Auslan is the sign language of the Australian Deaf community.
Many Australian Aboriginal cultures have or traditionally had a manually coded language, a signed counterpart of their oral language.
Austrian Sign Language, or Österreichische Gebärdensprache (ÖGS), is the sign language used by the Austrian Deaf community—approximately 10,000 people (see Krausneker 2006).
Avoidance speech is a group of sociolinguistic phenomena in which a special restricted speech style must be used in the presence of or in reference to certain relatives.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, 1488/1490/1492"Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1492?-1559?)." American Eras. Vol. 1: Early American Civilizations and Exploration to 1600. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 50-51. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 Dec. 2014.Seville, 1557/1558/1559/1560"Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 08 Dec. 2014.) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition.
Baby sign language is the use of manual signing allowing infants and toddlers to communicate emotions, desires, and objects prior to spoken language development.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
Bamako Sign Language, also known as Malian Sign Language, or LaSiMa (Langue des Signes Malienne), is a sign language that developed outside the Malian educational system, in the urban tea-circles of Bamako where deaf men gathered after work.
BANZSL, or British, Australian and New Zealand Sign Language, is the language of which British Sign Language (BSL), Auslan and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) may be considered dialects.
Body language is a type of nonverbal communication in which physical behavior, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
Brazilian Sign Language (BSL) is the sign language used by Deaf communities of urban Brazil.
British Sign Language (BSL) is a sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of some deaf people in the UK; there are 125,000 deaf adults in the UK who use BSL plus an estimated 20,000 children.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Bulgarian Sign Language (in Bulgarian: "български жестомимичен език (БЖЕ)") is the language, or perhaps languages, of the deaf community in Bulgaria.
In linguistics, more precisely in traditional grammar, a cardinal number or cardinal numeral (or just cardinal) is a part of speech used to count, such as the English words one, two, three, but also compounds, e.g. three hundred and forty-two (Commonwealth English) or three hundred forty-two (American English).
Carol A. Padden (born 1955 in Washington, D.C.) is an American academic, author, and lecturer.
Catalan Sign Language (Llengua de signes catalana, LSC) is a sign language used by around 18,000 people in different regions of Spain including Barcelona and Catalonia.
Categorical perception is a phenomenon of perception of distinct categories when there is a gradual change in a variable along a continuum.
Ceil Lucas (born March 19, 1951) is an American linguist.
The Abbé Charles-Michel de l'Épée (24 November 1712, Versailles - 23 December 1789, Paris) was a philanthropic educator of 18th-century France who has become known as the "Father of the Deaf".
Cherology and chereme (from "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages.
The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous peoples of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family.
Chinese number gestures are a method to signify the natural numbers one through ten using one hand only, when Western number gestures are limited to five with one hand.
Modern Chinese Sign Language (or CSL or ZGS) is the deaf sign language of the People's Republic of China.
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
Clayton Valli (1951–2003) was a prominent deaf linguist and American Sign Language (ASL) poet whose work helped further to legitimize ASL and introduce people to the richness of American Sign Language literature.
Closed captioning (CC) and subtitling are both processes of displaying text on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information.
Cognitive grammar is a cognitive approach to language developed by Ronald Langacker, which considers the basic units of language to be symbols or conventional pairings of a semantic structure with a phonological label.
Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.
The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.
The Communications Act 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
In social psychology, construals are how individuals perceive, comprehend, and interpret the world around them, particularly the behavior or action of others towards themselves.
A contact sign language, or contact sign, is a variety or style of language that arises from contact between a deaf sign language and an oral language (or the written or manually coded form of the oral language).
Conversation analysis (CA) is an approach to the study of social interaction, embracing both verbal and non-verbal conduct, in situations of everyday life.
Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Creolization is the process in which Creole cultures emerge in the New World.
The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including the Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River.
Czech Sign Language is the sign language of the deaf community in the Czech Republic.
Danish Sign Language (Dansk tegnsprog, DTS) is the sign language used in Denmark.
David Joshua Peterson (born January 20, 1981) is an American language creator, writer and artist who constructs artificial languages for TV and movies, including Dothraki and Valyrian for the television series Game of Thrones.
David Premack (October 26, 1925 – June 11, 2015) was Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, United States.
Deaf culture is the set of social beliefs, behaviors, art, literary traditions, history, values, and shared institutions of communities that are influenced by deafness and which use sign languages as the main means of communication.
A deaf-community sign language is a sign language that emerges when deaf people who do not have a common language come together and form a community.
The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an International Olympic Committee (IOC)-sanctioned event at which deaf athletes compete at an elite level.
Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
The Diyari, alternatively transcribed as Dieri, is an Indigenous Australian group and language of the South Australian desert originating in and around the delta of Cooper Creek to the east of Lake Eyre.
Double articulation, or duality of patterning is a concept used in linguistics and semiotics.
Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT; Sign Language of the Netherlands or SLN) is the sign language used by deaf people in the Netherlands and is not officially recognized.
Ecuadorian Sign Language is the deaf sign language of Ecuador.
Edward S. Klima (June 21, 1931 – September 25, 2008) was an eminent linguist who specialized in the study of sign languages.
Edward Miner Gallaudet (February 5, 1837 – September 26, 1917), son of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Sophia Fowler Gallaudet, was a famous early educator of the deaf in Washington, DC.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
Enga is one of the provinces in Papua New Guinea (PNG).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
In sign languages, expressions are the distinctive body postures and facial expressions that accompany signing, and which are necessary to properly form words.
A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles beneath the skin of the face.
Fingerspelling (or dactylology) is the representation of the letters of a writing system, and sometimes numeral systems, using only the hands.
Finnish Sign Language (suomalainen viittomakieli in Finnish) is the sign language most commonly used in Finland.
Flemish Sign Language (Vlaamse Gebarentaal, VGT) is the deaf sign language of Belgium, a country in Western Europe.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (1510 – 22 September 1554) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who led a large expedition from Mexico to present-day Kansas through parts of the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
French Sign Language (langue des signes française, LSF) is the sign language of the deaf in France and French-speaking parts of Switzerland.
The French Sign Language (LSF) or Francosign family is a language family of sign languages which includes French Sign Language and American Sign Language.
Gallaudet University is a federally chartered private university for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing.
Gallaudet University Press (GUPress) is a publisher that focuses on issues relating to deafness and sign language.
A gang signal is a visual or verbal way gang members identify their affiliation.
George Dalgarno (c. 1616 – 1687) was a Scottish intellectual interested in linguistic problems.
German Sign Language or Deutsche Gebärdensprache is the sign language of the deaf community in Germany and in the German-speaking community of Belgium.
The German Sign Language family is a small language family of sign languages, including German Sign Language, Polish Sign Language and probably Israeli Sign Language.
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
The Hamburg Sign Language Notation System, or HamNoSys,is a direct correspondence between symbols and sound transcription system for all sign languages not only ASL, comparable to the IPA for oral languages.
In sign languages, handshape, or dez, refers to the distinctive configurations that the hands take as they are used to form words.
Hawaiʻi Sign Language (HSL), also known as Old Hawaiʻi Sign Language and Pidgin Sign Language (PSL), is an indigenous sign language used in Hawaiʻi.
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
Henri Wittmann (born 1937) is a Canadian linguist from Quebec.
In the 1960s, linguistic anthropologist Charles F. Hockett defined a set of features that characterize human language and set it apart from animal communication.
Home sign (or kitchen sign) is the gestural communication system developed by a deaf child who lacks input from a language model in the family.
A homograph (from the ὁμός, homós, "same" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning.
Hungarian Sign Language is the sign language of Deaf people in Hungary.
Icelandic Sign Language (íslenskt táknmál) is the sign language of the deaf community in Iceland.
In functional-cognitive linguistics, as well as in semiotics, iconicity is the conceived similarity or analogy between the form of a sign (linguistic or otherwise) and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
Indo-Pakistani Sign Language (IPSL) is the predominant sign language in South Asia, used by at least several hundred thousand deaf signers (2003).
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
U.S. Military Academy Center for Languages, Cultures, and Regional Studies.
The International Journal of the Sociology of Language is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of sociology of language.
International Sign (IS) is a contact variety of sign language used in a variety of different contexts, particularly at international meetings such as the World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) congress, events such as the Deaflympics, in video clips produced by Deaf people and watched by other Deaf people from around the world, and informally when travelling and socialising.
Irish Sign Language (ISL, Teanga Chomharthaíochta na hÉireann) is the sign language of Ireland, used primarily in the Republic of Ireland.
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israeli Sign Language, or ISL, is the most commonly used sign language in the deaf community of Israel.
Italian Sign Language or LIS (Lingua dei Segni Italiana) is the visual language used by deaf people in Italy.
Japanese is a synthetic language with a regular agglutinative subject-object-verb (SOV) morphology, with both productive and fixed elements.
, also known by the acronym JSL, is the dominant sign language in Japan.
The Japanese Sign Language (JSL) family is a language family of three sign languages: Japanese Sign Language (JSL), Korean Sign Language (KSL), and Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL).
John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent academic publisher in social sciences and humanities with its head office in Amsterdam.
John Bulwer (baptised 16 May 1606 – buried 16 October 1656) was an English physician and early Baconian natural philosopher who wrote five works exploring the Body and human communication, particularly by gesture.
The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering basic and applied research relating to individuals who are deaf, including developmental, cultural, educational, and linguistic topics.
Juan Pablo Bonet (c.1573–1633) was a Spanish priest and pioneer of education for the deaf.
Judy Shepard-Kegl received her Ph.D. in linguistics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1985, has worked and written extensively within her field and is best known for her work and multiple academic publishings on the Nicaraguan Sign Language (or ISN, Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua or Idioma de Signos Nicaragüense), a sign language spontaneously developed by deaf children in a number of schools in western Nicaragua in the 1970s and 1980s.
Ka'apor Sign Language (also known as Urubu Sign Language or Urubu–Ka'apor Sign Language, although these are pejorative) was a village sign language used by the small community of Ka'apor people in the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
Karen Nakamura (born October 23, 1970) is an American academic, author, filmmaker, photographer and the Robert and Colleen Haas Distinguished Chair of Disability Studies and Professor of Anthropology at University of California, Berkeley.
Kata Kolok (literally "deaf talk"), also known as Benkala Sign Language and Balinese Sign Language, is a village sign language which is indigenous to two neighbouring villages in northern Bali, Indonesia.
The Kaytetye, otherwise written Kaititya, and pronounced kay-ditch, are an Indigenous Australian people who live around Barrow Creek and Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory.
Kenyan Sign Language (English: KSL, Swahili: LAK) is a sign language used by the deaf community in Kenya.
Hanabiko "Koko" (July 4, 1971 – June 19, 2018) was a female western lowland gorilla who was known for having learned a large number of hand signs from a modified version of American Sign Language (ASL).
Korean Sign Language or KSL (Korean: 한국 수화 언어 韓國手話言語 Hanguk Suhwa Eoneo or 한국 수어 韓國手語 Hanguk Sueo) is the deaf sign language of South Korea.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Louis Laurent Marie Clerc (26 December 1785 – 18 July 1869) was a French teacher called "The Apostle of the Deaf in America" by generations of American Deaf people.
The legal recognition of sign languages differs widely.
Levantine Arabic Sign Language, also known as Syro-Palestinian Sign Language, is the deaf sign language of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon.
In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.
The Linguistic Bibliography / Bibliographie Linguistique is an annual publication which first appeared in 1949.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A list of common and basic information standards, that are related by their frequent and widespread use, and which are conventionally used internationally by industry and organizations.
There are perhaps three hundred sign languages in use around the world today.
This list of video telecommunication services and product brands is for groupings of notable video telecommunication services, brands of videophones, webcams and video conferencing hardware and systems, all related to videotelephony for two-way communications with live video and audio.
In sign languages, location, or tab, refers to specific places that the hands occupy as they are used to form words.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Loulis (born May 10, 1978) is a chimpanzee who has learned to communicate in American Sign Language.
Malaysian Sign Language (Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia, or BIM) is the principal language of the deaf community of Malaysia.
Manual communication systems use articulation of the hands (hand signs, gestures) to mediate a message between persons.
Kod Tangan Bahasa Malaysia (KTBM), or Manually Coded Malay, is the only form of sign language recognized by the government in Malaysia as the language of communication for the Deaf.
Margalit Fox (born 1961) is an American writer for The New York Times, and other publications, and is a book author.
Maritime Sign Language (MSL), is a sign language descended from British Sign Language and used in Canada's Atlantic provinces.
Martha's Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL) was a village sign language that was once widely used on the island of Martha's Vineyard off the coast of Massachusetts, U.S., from the early 18th century to 1952.
Mayan Sign Language is a sign language used in Mexico and Guatemala by Mayan communities with unusually high numbers of deaf inhabitants.
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of New York City's government.
Meta-communication - (Etymology: Gk, meta + L, communicare, to inform), or metacommunication, is a secondary communication (including indirect cues) about how a piece of information is meant to be interpreted.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Mexican Sign Language (“lengua de señas mexicana” or LSM, also known by several other names), is the language of the Deaf community in the urban regions of Mexico.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael (March 17, 1973, Cameroon – April 19, 2000) was the first male 'talking' gorilla.
A mime or mime artist (from Greek μῖμος, mimos, "imitator, actor") is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
Sign Language communication is a system of communication using visual gestures and signs, as used by deaf people.
Mofu-Gudur, or South Mofu, is an Chadic language spoken in northern Cameroon.
Monastic sign languages have been used in Europe from at least the 10th century by Christian monks, and some, such as Cistercian and Trappist sign, are still in use today—not only in Europe but also in Japan, China and the USA.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In sign language, mouthing is the production of visual syllables with the mouth while signing.
In sign languages, movement, or sig, refers to the distinctive hand actions that form words.
A mudra (Sanskrit "seal", "mark", or "gesture") is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Nepalese Sign Language or Nepali Sign Language is the main deaf sign language of Nepal.
New Zealand Sign Language or NZSL (Te Reo Rotarota) is the main language of the Deaf community in New Zealand.
A news conference or press conference is a media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and, most often, ask questions.
Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN; Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua) is a sign language that was largely spontaneously developed by deaf children in a number of schools in western Nicaragua in the 1970s and 1980s.
Nim Chimpsky (November 19, 1973 – March 10, 2000) was a chimpanzee who was the subject of an extended study of animal language acquisition (codenamed 6.001) at Columbia University, led by Herbert S. Terrace; the linguistic analysis was led by the psycholinguist Thomas Bever.
Nonverbal communication (NVC) between people is communication through sending and receiving wordless cues.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Norwegian Sign Language, or NSL (Norwegian: norsk tegnspråk, NTS), is the principal sign language in Norway.
Ogham (Modern Irish or; ogam) is an Early Medieval alphabet used to write the early Irish language (in the "orthodox" inscriptions, 1st to 6th centuries AD), and later the Old Irish language (scholastic ogham, 6th to 9th centuries).
Oliver Wolf Sacks, (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist, historian of science, and author.
An onomatopoeia (from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία; ὄνομα for "name" and ποιέω for "I make", adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
In sign languages, orientation is the distinctive relative degree of rotation of the hand when signing.
The evolutionary emergence of language in the human species has been a subject of speculation for several centuries.
The origin of speech refers to the more general problem of the origin of language in the context of the physiological development of the human speech organs such as the tongue, lips and vocal organs used to produce phonological units in all human languages.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Dom Pedro Ponce de Leon, O.S.B., (1520–1584) was a Spanish Benedictine monk who is often credited as being "the first teacher for the deaf".
Penang Sign Language was developed in Malaysia by deaf children, outside the classroom, when oralism was predominant.
Peruvian Sign Language (PRL) is the deaf sign language of Peru.
Philippine Sign Language, or Filipino Sign Language (FSL), is the national deaf sign language of the Philippines.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL), also known as Plains Sign Talk, Plains Sign Language and First Nation Sign Language, is a trade language (or international auxiliary language), formerly trade pidgin, that was once the lingua franca across central Canada, central and western United States and northern Mexico, used among the various Plains Nations.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Polish Sign Language ("Polski Język Migowy", PJM) is the language of the Deaf community in Poland.
Portuguese Sign language is a sign language used mainly by Deaf people in Portugal.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Providence Island Sign Language (also known as Provisle or "Providencia Sign Language") is a village sign language of the small island community of Providence Island in the Western Caribbean, off the coast of Nicaragua but belonging to Colombia.
Quebec Sign Language, known in French as Langue des signes québécoise or Langue des signes du Québec (LSQ), is the predominant sign language of deaf communities used in francophone Canada, primarily in Quebec.
In linguistics, relexification is a mechanism of language change by which one language changes much or all of its lexicon, including basic vocabulary, with the lexicon of another language, without drastically changing the relexified language's grammar.
Rennellese Sign Language is an extinct form of home sign documented from Rennell Island in 1974.
Roger William Brown (April 14, 1925 – December 11, 1997), an American social psychologist, was born in Detroit.
Romanian Sign Language is the sign language used by deaf people in Romania.
Russian Sign Language is the sign language of the Deaf community in Russia.
Salvadoran Sign language is a language used by the deaf community in El Salvador.
Samuel James Supalla was born in Pasco, Washington, on December 4, 1957.
Saudi Sign Language is the deaf sign language of Saudi Arabia.
Seeing Voices: A Journey Into the World of the Deaf is a 1989 book by neurologist Oliver Sacks.
Semanticity is one of Charles Hockett's 16 design features of language.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
si5s is a writing system for American Sign Language that resembles a handwritten form of SignWriting.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
A sign language glove is an electronic device which converts the complex motions of a sign language into written or spoken words.
Sign language refers to a mode of communication, distinct from spoken languages, which uses visual gestures with the hands accompanied by body language to express meaning.
Sign Language Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering basic and applied research relating to sign languages used throughout the world founded by American linguist William Stokoe.
In Deaf culture and sign language, a sign name (or a name sign) is a special sign that is used to uniquely identify a person, just like a name.
Sign-language media are media based on a media system for sign languages.
Sutton SignWriting, or simply, SignWriting, is a system of writing sign languages.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Slovak Sign Language is the sign language of the deaf community in Slovakia.
Smíchov is (since 1909) a district of Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic, and is part of Prague 5.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The sociolinguistics of sign languages is the application of sociolinguistic principles to the study of sign languages.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African Sign Language (SASL) is the primary sign language spoken by Deaf in South Africa.
Spanish Sign Language (Lengua de Signos Española, LSE) is a sign language used mainly by deaf people in Spain and the people who live with them.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Spurious languages are languages that have been reported as existing in reputable works, while other research has reported that the language in question did not exist.
Sri Lankan Sign Language is a visual language used by deaf people in Sri Lanka and has regional variations stemming from the 25 Deaf schools in Sri Lanka.
Stokoe notation is the first phonemic script used for sign languages.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Subtitles are text derived from either a transcript or screenplay of the dialog or commentary in films, television programs, video games, and the like, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen, but can also be at the top of the screen if there is already text at the bottom of the screen.
Swedish Sign Language (Svenskt teckenspråk or STS) is the sign language used in Sweden.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Tactile signing is a common means of communication used by people with both a sight and hearing impairment (see Deafblindness), which is based on a sign language or other system of manual communication.
Taiwanese Sign Language or TSL is the deaf sign language most commonly used in Taiwan.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.
Thai Sign Language (TSL) or Modern Standard Thai Sign Language (MSTSL), is the national sign language of Thailand's deaf community and is used in most parts of the country by the 20 percent of the estimated 56,000 pre-linguistically deaf people who go to school.
The Mind of an Ape is a 1983 book by David Premack and his wife Ann James Premack.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Reverend Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, LL.D., (December 10, 1787 – September 10, 1851) was an American deaf educator.
Tom Humphries is a convicted child molester and former sports journalist and columnist who wrote for The Irish Times.
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas.
A topic-prominent language is a language that organizes its syntax to emphasize the topic–comment structure of the sentence.
Traditional transmission (also called cultural transmission) is a design feature of language that the anthropologist Charles F. Hockett developed to distinguish the features of human language from those of animal communication.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
Turkish Sign Language (Türk İşaret Dili, TİD) is the language used by the deaf community in Turkey.
Several manual alphabets in use around the world employ two hands to represent some or all of the letters of an alphabet, usually as a part of a deaf sign language.
Ugandan Sign Language (USL) is the deaf sign language of Uganda.
Ukrainian Sign Language (USL) (Українська жестова мова (УЖМ)) is the sign language of the deaf community of Ukraine.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States.
Ursula Bellugi is a Professor and Director of the Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California.
American Sign Language (ASL) developed in the United States and Canada, but has spread around the world.
Venezuelan Sign language or VSL (Lengua de señas venezolana or LSV) is the national deaf sign language of Venezuela.
A video relay service (VRS), also sometimes known as a video interpreting service (VIS), is a video telecommunication service that allows deaf, hard-of-hearing and speech-impaired (D-HOH-SI) individuals to communicate over video telephones and similar technologies with hearing people in real-time, via a sign language interpreter.
Video remote interpreting (VRI) is a videotelecommunication service that uses devices such as web cameras or videophones to provide sign language or spoken language interpreting services.
Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.
A village sign language, or village sign, is a local indigenous sign language in an area with a high incidence of congenital deafness.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Warlmanpa (also Walmala) is a nearly extinct Australian Aboriginal language.
Warlpiri Sign Language, also known as Rdaka-rdaka (hand signs), is a sign language used by the Warlpiri, an Aboriginal community in the central desert region of Australia.
The Warumungu (or Warramunga) are a group of Indigenous Australians of the Northern Territory.
Washoe (c. September 1965 – October 30, 2007) was a female common chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn to communicate using American Sign Language as part of a research experiment on animal language acquisition.
A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network.
William C. Stokoe, Jr. (July 21, 1919 in New Hampshire – April 4, 2000 in Chevy Chase, Maryland), a long-time professor at Gallaudet University, was an American linguist.
The World Federation of the Deaf (WFD) is an international non-governmental organization that acts as a peak body for national associations of Deaf people, with a focus on Deaf people who use sign language and their family and friends.
Yolŋu (Yolngu) or Murngin Sign Language is a ritual sign language used by the Yolngu, an Aboriginal community in the Arnhem Land region of Australia.
The 1964/1965 New York World's Fair held over 140 pavilions, 110 restaurants, for 80 nations (hosted by 37), 24 US states, and over 45 corporations to build exhibits or attractions at Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, NY.
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