103 relations: Active filter, Adaptive filter, Alan V. Oppenheim, Analog delay line, Analog feedback shift register, Analog signal processing, Analog-to-digital converter, Application-specific integrated circuit, Array processing, Audio filter, Audio signal processing, Bifurcation theory, Calculus, Chaos theory, Circular buffer, Companding, Computer, Computer vision, Control system, Current loop, Data acquisition, Data compression, Data link layer, Data mining, Detection theory, Differential equation, Digital image processing, Digital signal processing, Digital signal processor, Discrete time and continuous time, Dynamic range compression, Echo suppression and cancellation, Electronic mixer, Equalization (communications), Estimation theory, Fast Fourier transform, Feature extraction, Field-programmable gate array, Filter (signal processing), Financial signal processing, Finite impulse response, Fixed-point arithmetic, Floating-point arithmetic, Forward error correction, Fourier transform, Frequency domain, Frequency mixer, Functional analysis, Genomics, Harmonic, ..., Image compression, Image editing, Infinite impulse response, Information theory, Integrator, Kalman filter, Limiter, Linear algebra, Linear time-invariant theory, Lookup table, Mathematical optimization, Modulation, Multiplexer, Multiplexing, Noise gate, Noise reduction, Numerical analysis, OSI model, Passivity (engineering), Phase-locked loop, Physical layer, Prentice Hall, Presentation layer, Probability, Process control, Quantization (signal processing), Recurrence relation, Reverberation, Ronald W. Schafer, S-plane, Sample and hold, Sampling (signal processing), Seismology, Signal, Spectral density estimation, Speech processing, Speech recognition, Statistical signal processing, Stochastic control, Stochastic process, System identification, Time domain, Time series, Time–frequency analysis, Transform theory, Undertone series, Variable-gain amplifier, Vector space, Video processing, Voltage-controlled filter, Voltage-controlled oscillator, Wiener filter, Wireless. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
An active filter is a type of analog circuit implementing an electronic filter using active components, typically an amplifier.
An adaptive filter is a system with a linear filter that has a transfer function controlled by variable parameters and a means to adjust those parameters according to an optimization algorithm.
Alan Victor Oppenheim as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering and Computer Science & Engineering for innovative research, writing of pioneering textbooks, and inspired teaching in the field of digital signal processing.
An analog delay line is a network of electrical components connected in cascade, where each individual element creates a time difference or phase change between its input signal and its output signal.
An analog feedback shift register (AFSR) is a generalization of the (binary, digital) linear-feedback shift register (LFSR).
Analog signal processing is a type of signal processing conducted on continuous analog signals by some analog means (as opposed to the discrete Digital Signal Processing where the signal processing is carried out by a digital process).
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
Array processing: signal processing is a wide area of research that extends from the simplest form of 1-D signal processing to the complex form of M-D and array signal processing.
An audio filter is a frequency dependent amplifier circuit, working in the audio frequency range, 0 Hz to beyond 20 kHz.
Audio signal processing or audio processing is the intentional alteration of audio signals often through an audio effect or effects unit.
Bifurcation theory is the mathematical study of changes in the qualitative or topological structure of a given family, such as the integral curves of a family of vector fields, and the solutions of a family of differential equations.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
A circular buffer, circular queue, cyclic buffer or ring buffer is a data structure that uses a single, fixed-size buffer as if it were connected end-to-end.
In telecommunication and signal processing companding (occasionally called compansion) is a method of mitigating the detrimental effects of a channel with limited dynamic range.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
In electrical signalling an analog current loop is used where a device must be monitored or controlled remotely over a pair of conductors.
Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
The data link layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
Detection theory or signal detection theory is a means to measure the ability to differentiate between information-bearing patterns (called stimulus in living organisms, signal in machines) and random patterns that distract from the information (called noise, consisting of background stimuli and random activity of the detection machine and of the nervous system of the operator).
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block), with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.
In mathematics and in particular mathematical dynamics, discrete time and continuous time are two alternative frameworks within which to model variables that evolve over time.
Dynamic range compression (DRC) or simply compression is an audio signal processing operation that reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds thus reducing or compressing an audio signal's dynamic range.
Echo suppression and echo cancellation are methods used in telephony to improve voice quality by preventing echo from being created or removing it after it is already present.
An electronic mixer is a device that combines two or more electrical or electronic signals into one or two composite output signals.
In telecommunication, equalization is the reversal of distortion incurred by a signal transmitted through a channel.
Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component.
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.
In machine learning, pattern recognition and in image processing, feature extraction starts from an initial set of measured data and builds derived values (features) intended to be informative and non-redundant, facilitating the subsequent learning and generalization steps, and in some cases leading to better human interpretations.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
In signal processing, a filter is a device or process that removes some unwanted components or features from a signal.
Financial signal processing is a branch of signal processing technologies which applies to financial signals.
In signal processing, a finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a filter whose impulse response (or response to any finite length input) is of finite duration, because it settles to zero in finite time.
In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.
In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series.
Image compression is a type of data compression applied to digital images, to reduce their cost for storage or transmission.
Image editing encompasses the processes of altering images, whether they are digital photographs, traditional photo-chemical photographs, or illustrations.
Infinite impulse response (IIR) is a property applying to many linear time-invariant systems.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
An integrator in measurement and control applications is an element whose output signal is the time integral of its input signal.
Kalman filtering, also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing statistical noise and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more accurate than those based on a single measurement alone, by estimating a joint probability distribution over the variables for each timeframe.
In electronics, a limiter is a circuit that allows signals below a specified input power or level to pass unaffected while attenuating (lowering) the peaks of stronger signals that exceed this threshold.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.
Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.
In computer science, a lookup table is an array that replaces runtime computation with a simpler array indexing operation.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
A noise gate or gate is an electronic device or software that is used to control the volume of an audio signal.
Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
Passivity is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems.
A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop abbreviated as PLL is a control system that generates an output signal whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
Automatic process control in continuous production processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety which could not be achieved purely by human manual control.
Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.
In mathematics, a recurrence relation is an equation that recursively defines a sequence or multidimensional array of values, once one or more initial terms are given: each further term of the sequence or array is defined as a function of the preceding terms.
Reverberation, in psychoacoustics and acoustics, is a persistence of sound after the sound is produced.
Ronald W. Schafer (born February 17, 1938) is an electrical engineer notable for his contributions to digital signal processing.
In mathematics and engineering, the s-plane is the complex plane on which Laplace transforms are graphed.
In electronics, a sample and hold (S/H, also "follow-and-hold"Horowitz and Hill, p. 220.) circuit is an analog device that samples (captures, takes) the voltage of a continuously varying analog signal and holds (locks, freezes) its value at a constant level for a specified minimum period of time.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
In statistical signal processing, the goal of spectral density estimation (SDE) is to estimate the spectral density (also known as the power spectral density) of a random signal from a sequence of time samples of the signal.
Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Statistical signal processing is an approach to signal processing which treats signals as stochastic processes, utilizing their statistical properties to perform signal processing tasks.
Stochastic control or stochastic optimal control is a subfield of control theory that deals with the existence of uncertainty either in observations or in the noise that drives the evolution of the system.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
The field of system identification uses statistical methods to build mathematical models of dynamical systems from measured data.
Time domain is the analysis of mathematical functions, physical signals or time series of economic or environmental data, with respect to time.
A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.
In signal processing, time–frequency analysis comprises those techniques that study a signal in both the time and frequency domains simultaneously, using various time–frequency representations.
In mathematics, transform theory is the study of transforms.
In music, the undertone series or subharmonic series is a sequence of notes that results from inverting the intervals of the overtone series.
A variable-gain or voltage-controlled amplifier is an electronic amplifier that varies its gain depending on a control voltage (often abbreviated CV).
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
In electronics engineering, video processing is a particular case of signal processing, which often employs video filters and where the input and output signals are video files or video streams.
A voltage-controlled filter (VCF) is a processor, a filter whose operating characteristics (primarily cutoff frequency) can be controlled by means of a control voltage applied to control inputs.
A microwave (12–18nbspGHz) voltage-controlled oscillator A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is an electronic oscillator whose oscillation frequency is controlled by a voltage input.
In signal processing, the Wiener filter is a filter used to produce an estimate of a desired or target random process by linear time-invariant (LTI) filtering of an observed noisy process, assuming known stationary signal and noise spectra, and additive noise.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.