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# Signed zero

Signed zero is zero with an associated sign. 

## Arithmetic underflow

The term arithmetic underflow (or "floating point underflow", or just "underflow") is a condition in a computer program where the result of a calculation is a number of smaller absolute value than the computer can actually represent in memory on its CPU.

## Bit field

A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.

## C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

## Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

## Charles Kittel

Charles Kittel (born July 18, 1916) is an American physicist.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

## Division (mathematics)

Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.

## Division by zero

In mathematics, division by zero is division where the divisor (denominator) is zero.

## Exception handling

Exception handling is the process of responding to the occurrence, during computation, of exceptions – anomalous or exceptional conditions requiring special processing – often changing the normal flow of program execution.

## Extended real number line

In mathematics, the affinely extended real number system is obtained from the real number system by adding two elements: and (read as positive infinity and negative infinity respectively).

## Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

## Fortran

Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

## Herbert Kroemer

Herbert Kroemer (born August 25, 1928), a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara, received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics in 1952 from the University of Göttingen, Germany, with a dissertation on hot electron effects in the then-new transistor, setting the stage for a career in research on the physics of semiconductor devices.

## IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

## IEEE 754

The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

## IEEE 754 revision

IEEE 754-2008 (previously known as IEEE 754r) was published in August 2008 and is a significant revision to, and replaces, the IEEE 754-1985 floating point standard.

## Indeterminate form

In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, limits involving an algebraic combination of functions in an independent variable may often be evaluated by replacing these functions by their limits; if the expression obtained after this substitution does not give enough information to determine the original limit, it is said to take on an indeterminate form.

## Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

## Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

## Java virtual machine

A Java virtual machine (JVM) is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages and compiled to Java bytecode.

## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

## Microsoft Developer Network

Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is the portion of Microsoft responsible for managing the firm's relationship with developers and testers, such as hardware developers interested in the operating system (OS), and software developers developing on the various OS platforms or using the API or scripting languages of Microsoft's applications.

## NaN

In computing, NaN, standing for not a number, is a numeric data type value representing an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations.

## Negative temperature

In physics, certain systems can achieve negative temperature; that is, their thermodynamic temperature can be expressed as a negative quantity on the Kelvin or Rankine scales.

## Non-Hausdorff manifold

In geometry and topology, it is a usual axiom of a manifold to be a Hausdorff space.

## One-sided limit

In calculus, a one-sided limit is either of the two limits of a function f(x) of a real variable x as x approaches a specified point either from below or from above.

## Ones' complement

The ones' complement of a binary number is defined as the value obtained by inverting all the bits in the binary representation of the number (swapping 0s for 1s and vice versa).

## Plus and minus signs

The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.

## Plus-minus sign

The plus-minus sign (±) is a mathematical symbol with multiple meanings.

## Population inversion

In science, specifically statistical mechanics, a population inversion occurs while a system (such as a group of atoms or molecules) exists in a state in which more members of the system are in higher, excited states than in lower, unexcited energy states.

## Rounding

Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing \$ with \$, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression with.

## Signed number representations

In computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers in binary number systems.

## Significand

The significand (also mantissa or coefficient) is part of a number in scientific notation or a floating-point number, consisting of its significant digits.

## Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

## Two's complement

Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.

## Type conversion

In computer science, type conversion, type casting, and type coercion are different ways of changing an entity of one data type into another.

## Type punning

In computer science, type punning is a common term for any programming technique that subverts or circumvents the type system of a programming language in order to achieve an effect that would be difficult or impossible to achieve within the bounds of the formal language.

## UNIVAC

UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.

## William Kahan

William "Velvel" Morton Kahan (born June 5, 1933) is a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1989 for "his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis", was named an ACM Fellow in 1994, and inducted into the National Academy of Engineering in 2005.

## 0

0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

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## References

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