302 relations: -stan, Afghan, Afghan–Sikh Wars, Agriculture, Ahluwalia, Akal Takht, Akali movement, Akali Phula Singh, Al-Qaeda, All India Sikh Students Federation, Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Anglo-Iraqi War, Arabic, Arain, Arjan Singh, Arora, Arun Shridhar Vaidya, Assam, Assassination of Indira Gandhi, Bairagi, Baluster, Basith, Battle honour, Bazigar, Bhabra, Bhai Mardana, Bhangra (dance), Bhatra, Bob Singh Dhillon, Bowling (cricket), British Empire, British Indian Army, British Raj, Buckingham Palace, Burma Campaign, California, Canada, Canada Post, Chamar, Chanan Singh Dhillon, Chandigarh, Chhimba, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, Constitution Hill, London, Dal Khalsa (International), Dalit, Damdami Taksal, Dara Singh, Dastar, ..., Delhi, Demographics of Punjab, India, Dhobi, Dhoti, Durrani, East Africa, Electrification, Esha Deol, Española, New Mexico, Esraj, Ethnic group, Everest (Indian TV series), Far East, Frank Messervy, Gallipoli, Ganga Sagar (urn), George Cross, Giddha, Golden Temple, Government of India, Green Revolution, Green Revolution in India, Gul Panag, Guler State, Gurdwara, Gurinder Chadha, Gurjar, Gurkha, Guru Arjan, Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Hargobind, Guru Nanak, Harbhajan Singh, Harcharan Singh Longowal, Hari Singh Nalwa, Harmony, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Hindu, Hola Mohalla, Horticulture, Idi Amin, India, Indian Army, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian independence movement, Indian National Congress, Indian Order of Merit, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Indian subcontinent, Indira Gandhi, Indo-Canadians, Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Infantry, Intensive farming, Iraq War, Ishtiaq Ahmed (political scientist), Italian Campaign (World War II), Italy, Jagjit Singh Chauhan, Jammu and Kashmir, Janamsakhis, Japji Sahib, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, Jat people, Jat Regiment, Jat Sikh, Jawaharlal Nehru, Jews, Jhinwar, K. R. Narayanan, Kacchera, Kahar, Kalwar, Rajasthan, Kamboj, Kangha (Sikhism), Kangra Fort, Kangra painting, Kara (Sikhism), Kashmir, Kashyap (caste), Kaur, Kennedy Trevaskis, Kesh (Sikhism), Keshdhari Hindus, Khalistan movement, Khalsa, Khalsa Diwan Society Vancouver, Khalsa Raj Party, Khanda (Sikh symbol), Khatri, Khushwant Singh, Khyber Pass, Kirpan, Kirti Chakra, Kuldip Singh Brar, Kumhar, Labana, Ladakh, Lahore, Lahore Resolution, Langar (Sikhism), List of Sikh soldiers, List of Sikhs, Lohar, London, Los Angeles, Ludhiana district, Madhya Pradesh, Maha Vir Chakra, Maharashtra, Mahi Gill, Mahtam, Malaysia, Manhattan Project, Maratha Light Infantry, Mata Tripta, Mazhabi Sikh, Mechanization, Meghwal, Mehta Kalu, Memorial Gates, London, Microsoft Word, Middle East, Milkha Singh, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Mirasi, Misl, Mochi, Mohyal (caste), Mona Singh, Monty Panesar, Mughal Empire, Mughal-Sikh Wars, Murder of Balbir Singh Sodhi, Muslim, Nai (caste), Namrata Singh Gujral, Nankana Sahib, Narinder Singh Kapany, Navjot Singh Sidhu, Neetu Singh, New Look (company), Nihang, Nikki Haley, Nishan Sahib, North America, Nuclear physics, Off spin, Operation Blue Star, Optical fiber, Oregon, Panj Pyare, Param Vir Chakra, Parminder Nagra, Partition of India, Peshawar, Physicist, Piara Singh Gill, Poonam Dhillon, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Punjab, Punjab insurgency, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi language, Punjabi Suba movement, Raga, Rajasthan, Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi, Rajput, Ramgarhia, Ranbaxy Laboratories, Ranjit Singh, Rapprochement, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Ravidassia religion, Reggio Emilia, Regiment, Religious pluralism, Saini, Sansi people, Sanskrit, Sarangi, Sarbat Khalsa, Sarinda, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Second Battle of El Alamein, Seni rebab, September 11 attacks, Shabda, Shiromani Akali Dal, Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar), Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund, Sikh architecture, Sikh diaspora, Sikh Empire, Sikh gurus, Sikh Khalsa Army, Sikh music, Sikh Rajputs, Sikh Reference Library, Sikh Regiment, Sikh Rehat Maryada, Sikh Youth Symposium, Sikhism, Sikhism in Australia, Sikhism in the United Kingdom, Simon Singh, Singapore, Singh, Singh Sabha Movement, Socioeconomics, States Reorganisation Act, 1956, Stockton, California, Sudh, Tara Singh (activist), Tarkhan (Punjab), Taus (instrument), Thailand, The Emergency (India), The Five Ks, The New York Times, Theocracy, Turban, Turban training centre, Union territory, United Kingdom, United Sikhs, United States, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Vaisakhi, Vaishya, Vancouver, Vandana Shiva, Vicenza, Victoria Cross, Vir Chakra, Waheguru, Wealth, West Bengal, Western world, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, 1984 anti-Sikh riots, 3HO. Expand index (252 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -stan (ـستان|translit.
Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/افغان; see etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country.
The Afghan–Sikh wars were a series of wars between the Afghan Pashtuns Durrani Empire, and the Sikh Empire.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahluwalia is a Sikh clan from Punjab, India.
The Akal Takht (ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs.
The Akali movement, also called the Gurdwara Reform Movement, was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras (the Sikh places of worship) in India during the early 1920s.
Akali Phula Singh (1 January 1761 – 14 March 1823) was a Akali Nihang Sikh leader.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The All India Sikh Students Federation (AISSF), is a Sikh student organisation and political organisation in India.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Anandpur Sahib, sometimes referred to simply as Anandpur (lit. "city of bliss"), is a city in Rupnagar district (Ropar), on the edge of Shivalik Hills, in the state of Punjab, India.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arain (آرائیں) are a Pakistani tribe who are found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh.
Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh, DFC (16 April 1919 – 16 September 2017) was an Indian Air Force marshal who served as Chief of the Air Staff from 1964 to 1969.
The Arora is a community of the Punjab region closely related to the Khatri community.
General Arun Shridhar Vaidya PVSM, MVC and Bar, AVSM (27 January 1926 – 10 August 1986) was the 13th Chief of Army Staff (COAS) of the Indian Army.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Indira Gandhi, the 3rd Prime Minister of India, was assassinated at 9:20 a.m. on 31 October 1984, at her Safdarjung Road, New Delhi residence.
Bairagi, also known as Bairagi bhairav, is a Hindustani classical raga.
A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal, standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.
The Basith are a Caste caste found in the Jammu and Kashmir and have been granted Scheduled Caste status.
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags ("colours"), uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible.
Bazigar are the descendants of Bhai Lehna Ji (also known as the second guru of Sikhs Shri Guru Angad Dev Ji).
Bhabra or Bhabhra is an ancient merchant community from Punjab region which mainly follows Jainism.
He originally belonged to the religion of Islam.
The term Bhaṅgṛā (ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); pronounced) refers to the traditional dance from the Indian subcontinent originating in the Majha area of the Punjab region.
The Bhat, Bhatt, Bhatta, Bhatra, Bhatrai community, refers to a priest, bard, scribe in Sanskrit, a title given to learned Hindu Brahmins, Sikhs and Muslims with Saraswat Brahmin heritage.
Bob Dhillon is the founder, president and CEO of Mainstreet Equity Corp (MEQ).
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the monarch of the United Kingdom.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canada Post Corporation (Société Canadienne des Postes), known more simply as Canada Post (Postes Canada), is a Crown corporation which functions as the primary postal operator in Canada.
Chamar is one of the untouchable communities, or dalits, who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination.
Lieutenant-Colonel Chanan Singh Dhillon (1920–September 13, 2011) was a famous Punjabi Indian Sikh World War II hero and veteran.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
The Chhimba are a Sikh clan.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
Constitution Hill is a road in the City of Westminster in London.
Dal Khalsa is a Sikh organisation, based in the city of Amritsar.
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.
The Damdami Taksal (ਦਮਦਮੀ ਟਕਸਾਲ) is a Sikh educational organization in India.
Dara Singh Randhawa (19 November 1928 – 12 July 2012) was an Indian professional wrestler, actor and politician.
A Dastaar (ਦਸਤਾਰ, dastāar, from دستار) or pagṛi (ਪਗੜੀ) or pagg (ਪੱਗ), is an item of headgear associated with Sikhism and is an important part of the Sikh culture.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
According to the 2011 Census of India, Punjab has a population of around 27.7 million.
Dhobi ("washerman") is a caste group of India.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Durrani (دراني) or Abdali (ابدالي) is the name of a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribal confederation in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and, in many contexts, the introduction of such power by changing over from an earlier power source.
Esha Deol (born 2 November 1981) is an Indian film actress and model who predominantly appears in Hindi films.
Española is a city primarily in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, in the United States.
Esraj is an Indian stringed instrument found in two forms throughout the Indian subcontinent.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Everest is a Hindi language Indian telenovela which began airing on STAR Plus on 3 November 2014.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
General Sir Frank Walter Messervy & Bar (9 December 1893 – 2 February 1974) was a British Indian Army officer in both the First and Second World Wars. Following its independence, he was the first Commander of the Pakistan Army (15 August 1947 – 10 February 1948) Previously, he had become a Lieutenant-General in 1945; a General in 1947; General Officer Commanding in Chief or (GOC-in-C) Northern Command, India in 1946 and 1947.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
Ganga Sagar (ਗੰਗਾ ਸਾਗਰ), is the name given to the sacred relic which belonged to the tenth master of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh.
The George Cross (GC) is the second highest award of the United Kingdom honours system.
Giddha (گدها) is a popular folk dance of women in Punjab region of India and Pakistan.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
The Green Revolution in India refers to a period of time when agriculture in India changed to an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, pump sets, etc.
Gul Panag (born Gulkirat Kaur Panag, 3 January 1979; Chandigarh, India) is an Indian actress, voice actress, model, and former beauty queen who competed in the Miss Universe pageant.
Guler was a small precolonial Indian hill state in the Lower Himalayas.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
Gurinder Chadha, (born 10 January 1960) is an English film director of Kenyan Asian origin.
Gurjar or Gujjar are a pastoral agricultural ethnic group with populations in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and a small number in northeastern Afghanistan.
The Gurkhas or Gorkhas with endonym Gorkhali (गोरखाली) are the soldiers of Nepalese nationality and ethnic Indian Gorkhas recruited in the British Army, Nepalese Army, Indian Army, Gurkha Contingent Singapore, Gurkha Reserve Unit Brunei, UN Peace Keeping force, and war zones around the world.
Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.
Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Hargobind (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644), revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Harbhajan Singh Plaha (born 3 July 1980 in Jalandhar, Punjab, India), commonly known as Harbhajan Singh or simply Harbhajan, is an Indian international cricketer, who plays all forms of the game cricket.
Harchand Singh Longowal (2 January 1932 − 20 August 1985) was the President of the Akali Dal during the Punjab insurgency of the 1980s.
Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire.
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hola Mohalla (ਹੋਲਾ ਮਹੱਲਾ, होला मोहल्ला), also called Hola, is a one-day Sikh festival which most often falls in March and takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chett, a day after the Hindu spring festival Holi but sometimes coincides with Holi.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Order of Merit (IOM) was a military and civilian decoration of British India.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
Indo-Canadians or Indian Canadians are Canadian citizens whose heritage is fully or partially Indian Subcontinent (including Indian and other origins), children of persons who immigrated from India and/or Indian Subcontinent to Canada, or persons of Indian/Indian Subcontinent origin who have Canadian citizenship.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Ishtiaq Ahmed (اشتیاق احمد; born 24 February 1947) is a Swedish political scientist and author of Pakistani descent.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
The Janamsakhis (ਜਨਮਸਾਖੀ, janamsākhī), literally birth stories, are writings which profess to be biographies of the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak.
Jap ji is a prayer at the beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, considered the holy scripture of sikhs.
Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (born Jarnail Singh Brar) (2 June 1947 – 6 June 1984) was a leader of the Sikh organization Damdami Taksal, and a notable supporter of the Anandpur Resolution.
Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (1 May 1718 – 1783) was a prominent Sikh leader during the period of the Sikh Confederacy.
The Jat people (also spelled Jatt and Jaat) are a traditionally agricultural community in Northern India and Pakistan.
The Jat Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
Jat Sikh is a sub-group of the Jat people and the Sikh community, from the Indian subcontinent.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
The Jhinwar is a caste found in the states of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh in India.
Kocheril Raman Narayanan (4 February 1921 – 9 November 2005) was the tenth President of India.
Kachera (ਕਛੈਰਾ) are specially designed, shalwar- undergarments with a tie-knot ("naala".
The Kahars are an Indian community.
Kalwar (Post Office Kalwad) is a village in Jhotwara Mandal in Jaipur District, Rajasthan, India.
The Kamboj (کمبوہ ALA-LC:, ਕੰਬੋ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan.
A kanga is a small wooden comb that Sikhs usually use twice a day.
The Kangra Fort is located 20 kilometers from the town of Dharamsala on the outskirts of the town of Kangra, India.
Kangra painting is the pictorial art of Kangra, named after Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, a former princely state, which patronized the art.
A kara (کڑا (Shahmukhi) कड़ा (Devanagari)) is a steel or iron (sarb loh) bracelet, worn by all initiated Sikhs.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashyap are a caste in India.
Kaur (ਕੌਰ) (کَور), in Sikhism is used as a last name by Sikh women.
Sir Gerald Kennedy Nicholas Trevaskis, (1 January 1915 – 14 March 1990), known as Sir Kennedy Trevaskis, was a British colonial official and army officer.
In Sikhism, Kesh (sometimes Kes) is the practice of allowing one's hair to grow naturally as a symbol of respect for the perfection of God's creation.
Keshdhari Hindus means "Hindus with long hairs".
The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān (ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ, "The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia to serve as a homeland for Sikhs.
Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.
The Khalsa Diwan Society Vancouver (Gurmukhi: ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ ਦਿਵਾਨ ਸੋਸਾਇਟੀ ਵੈਨਕੂਵਰ Khālsā Divān Sosāiṭī Vainkūvar) is a Sikh society based at a gurdwara in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
The Khalsa Raj Party is a political party in Punjab.
The Khanda (ਖੰਡਾ) is the symbol of the Sikh faith, that attained its current form around the first decade of the 20th century.
Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.
Khushwant Singh (born Khushal Singh, 15 August 1915 – 20 March 2014) was an Indian author, lawyer, diplomat, journalist and politician.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
The kirpan is a sword or small dagger carried by Sikhs.
The Kirti Chakra is an Indian military decoration awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the field of battle.
Kuldip Singh Brar (born 1934) is a retired Indian Army officer, who was involved in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
Kumhar is a caste or community in India and Pakistan.
Labana (sometimes also Lubana, Lavana) is a social and ethnic group in India.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
The Lahore Resolution (قرارداد لاہور, Karardad-e-Lahore; Bengali: লাহোর প্রস্তাব, Lahor Prostab),was a declaration written by Muhammad Zafarullah Khan and others and presented by A. K. Fazl ul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal, was a formal political statement adopted by the All-India Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session in Lahore on 22–24 March 1940.
Langar (ਲੰਗਰ) (kitchen) is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, caste, gender, economic status or ethnicity.
Sikh (or; ਸਿੱਖ) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism.
Sikh (or; ਸਿੱਖ) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism.
Lohar are considered to be a sub-caste among Hindus and Sikhs and a clan among Muslims in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and Nepal.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Ludhiana District is one of the 22 districts in the state of Punjab in northwest India.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
The Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) (literally great warrior medal) is the second highest military decoration in India, after the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Rimpy Kaur Gill (born December 19, 1975) commonly known as Mahi Gill is an Indian actress, working in the Hindi and Panjabi film industry.
The Mahtam are a clan found among the Punjabis of India and Pakistan.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The Maratha Light Infantry is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army.
Mata Tripta (Punjabi: ਮਾਤਾ ਤ੍ਰਿਪਤਾ) was the mother of Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of Sikhism.
Mazhabi Sikhs (also known as Mazbhabi, Mazbhi, majbi, Majhabhi or Majabhi) are members of an untouchable caste who have rejected Hinduism in favour of the Sikh faith.
Mechanization or mechanisation (British English) is the process of changing from working largely or exclusively by hand or with animals to doing that work with machinery.
The Meghwal (or Megh, Meghwar) people live primarily in northwest India, with a small population in Pakistan.
Mehta kalu (formally Kalyan Chand Das Bedi was the father of Guru Nanak Dev (1469–1539), the founder and first guru of Sikhs. He was born a Hindu. A Khatri by caste of the Bedi clan, he served as the patwari (accountant) of crop revenue for the village of Talwandi in the employment of a Muslim landlord of that area, Rai Bular Bhatti. Guru Nanak’s mother was Tripta Devi and he had one elder sister, Bebe Nanaki who became a spiritual figure in her own right. Mehta kalu later became a disciple of the Guru, also his son.
The Memorial Gates are a war memorial located at the Hyde Park Corner end of Constitution Hill in London.
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milkha Singh (born between 1929 and 1935), also known as The Flying Sikh, is an Indian former track and field sprinter who was introduced to the sport while serving in the Indian Army.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
The Mirasi community of India and Pakistan are the genealogists and traditional singers and dancers of a number of communities.The word " mirasi" is derived from the Arabic word (ميراث) mirasi, which means inheritance or sometimes heritage.
Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent after the collapse of the Mughal Empire.
is Japanese rice cake made of mochigome, a short-grain japonica glutinous rice.
Mohyal Brahmins or Mohyal is caste of Hindu Brahmin community in India.
Mona Singh (born 8 October 1981) is an Indian actress and television presenter.
Mudhsuden Singh Panesar (born 25 April 1982), known as Monty Panesar, is an English international cricketer who is currently unattached to any County.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The following is a list of battles between the Mughals and Sikhs.
Balbir Singh Sodhi (1949 – September 15, 2001), a Sikh-American gas station owner in Mesa, Arizona, was murdered in a hate crime in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nai (also known as Nayee, and as Valand in Gujarat) is a caste originating in India.
Namrata Singh Gujral (born February 26, 1976) is an American director, producer and actor.
Nankana Sahib (Punjabi and ننكانہ صاحِب) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.
Narinder Singh Kapany (ਨਰਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ) (born 31 October 1926) is an Indian-born American physicist known for his work in fibre optics.
Navjot Singh Sidhu (born 20 October 1963) is an Indian politician, television personality and former cricketer.
Neetu Singh (born 8 July 1958), also known by her marriage name Neetu Kapoor, is an Indian film actress who appears in Hindi films.
New Look is a British global fashion retailer with a chain of high street shops.
The Nihang (ਨਿਹੰਗ) are an armed Sikh warrior order.
Nimrata "Nikki" Haley (née Randhawa, born January 20, 1972) is an American politician who is currently the 29th United States Ambassador to the United Nations.
The Nishan Sahib is a Sikh triangular flag made of cotton or silk cloth, with a tassel at its end.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Off spin is a type of finger spin bowling in the sport of cricket.
Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Panj Pyare (ਪੰਜ ਪਿਆਰੇ,, literally the five beloved ones), is the name collectively given to the five Sikh men, Bhai Dhaya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan Anandpur Sahib on 14 April 1699.
The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India's highest military decoration, awarded for displaying distinguished acts of valour during wartime.
Parminder Kaur Nagra (born 5 October 1975) is an English film and television actress, known for playing Jess Bhamra in the 2002 film Bend It Like Beckham and Dr. Neela Rasgotra in the NBC medical drama series ER from 2003 to 2009.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Piara Singh Gill (28October 1911 – 23March 2002) was an Indian nuclear physicist who was a pioneer in cosmic ray nuclear physics and worked on the American Manhattan project.
Poonam Dhillon (born 18 April 1962) is an Indian Hindi film, theatre and TV actress.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
The insurgency in Punjab originated in the late 1970s, as some Sikhs, including Khalistan proponents, turned to militancy.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Punjabi Suba movement aimed at creation of a Punjabi-majority subah ("province") in the erstwhile East Punjab state of India in the 1950s.
A raga or raaga (IAST: rāga; also raag or ragam; literally "coloring, tingeing, dyeing") is a melodic framework for improvisation akin to a melodic mode in Indian classical music.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi (born Inderjeet Singh Judge, 2 April 1926 - 11 May 1984), was a celebrated patriotic poet, Bollywood lyricist, and author.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
The Ramgarhia are a community of Sikhs from the Punjab region of northwestern India, encompassing members of the Lohar and Tarkhan subgroups.
Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited was an Indian pharmaceutical company that was incorporated in India in 1961.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries.
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, abbreviated as RSS (Rāṣṭrīya Svayamsēvaka Saṅgha, IPA:, lit. "National Volunteer Organisation" or "National Patriotic Organisation"), is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation that is widely regarded as the parent organisation of the ruling party of India, the Bharatiya Janata Party.
The Ravidassia religion (also Ravidassia Dharam is a Dharmic religion, founded in the 21st-century out of Sikhism, and is based on the teachings of the 14th century Indian guru Ravidass, revered as a satguru. Historically Ravidassia represented a range of beliefs in South Asia, with some devotees of Ravidass counting themselves as Ravidassia Sikhs, but there is evidence that Ravidassia Dera first formed in the early 20th-century in colonial British India.Paramjit Judge (2014), Mapping Social Exclusion in India: Caste, Religion and Borderlands, Cambridge University Press,, pages 179-182 The Ravidassia community began to take on more cohesion following 1947, and the establishment of successful Ravidassia communities in the diaspora. Ravidassias, states Ronki Ram, accept present Sants of Ravidass Deras as Guru (saint) whereas the Sikhs do not. A new Ravidassia religion was launched following the murder of their cleric Ramanand Dass in Vienna in 2009 by some radical, where the movement declared itself to be a religion fully separated from Sikhism. Prior to their break from Sikhism, the Dera Bhallan revered and recited the Guru Granth Sahib of Sikhism in Dera Bhallan. However, following their split from mainstream Sikhism, the Dera Bhallan compiled their own holy book based exclusively on Ravidass teachings, the Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji, and these Dera Bhallan Ravidassia temples now use this book in place of the Guru Granth Sahib.
Reggio Emilia (also; Rèz, Regium Lepidi) is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.
A regiment is a military unit.
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
Saini is a caste of North India who were traditionally landowners (zamindars) and farmers.
Sansi is a nomadic tribe, originally located in the Rajasthan area of northwestern India, but expelled in the 13th century by Muslim invaders and now spread to states of Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab as well as scattered throughout India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The sārangī (Hindi: सारंगी, Punjabi: ਸਾਰੰਗੀ, سارنگی, Nepali: सारङ्गी) is a bowed, short-necked string instrument from India as well as Nepal and Pakistan which is used in Hindustani classical music.
Sarbat Khalsa from sarbat, a Punjabi word meaning all or everything, was a biannual deliberative assembly (on the same lines as a Parliament in a Direct Democracy) of the entire Khalsa held at Amritsar in Panjab during the 18th century.
A sarinda is a stringed Indian and Nepali folk musical instrument similar to lutes or fiddles.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.
The Seni rebab (Punjabi: ਸੇਨੀ ਰੱਬਾਬ) is a plucked string instrument said to have been developed by, and to have taken its name from, the notable musician Tansen in the time of the emperor Akbar the Great.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Shabda, or, is the Sanskrit word for "speech sound".
The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India.
Shiromani Akali Dal (Amritsar), registered with the Election Commission of India as Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann), is a splinter group, led by Simranjit Singh Mann, of the Shiromani Akali Dal.
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.
Founded as the Sikh Mediawatch and Resource Task Force (SMART) in 1996, the Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund (SALDEF) is a national civil rights and educational organization in the United States.
Sikh Architecture is a style of architecture that is characterized with values of progressiveness, exquisite intricacy, austere beauty and logical flowing lines.
The Sikh diaspora is the modern Punjabi Sikh migration from the traditional area of the Punjab region.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.
The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Phauj), Persian:سیک ارتش خالصا-ارتش لاهور), also known as the Army of Lahore, Punjab Army, Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Sikh Empire, formed in 1799 with the capture of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. From then on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles. It was divided in three wings: the Fauj-i-Khas (elites), Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars). Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia. Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganized responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasize steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.
Sikh music or Shabad kirtan is Kirtan-style singing of hymns or Shabad from the Guru Granth Sahib, the central text of Sikhism.
Sikh Rajputs are followers of Sikhism belonging to the Rajput caste.
The Sikh Reference Library was a repository of over 1,500 rare manuscripts located in the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) at Amritsar, Punjab which was destroyed by India during Operation Blue Star.
The Sikh Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army that recruits from the Sikh community.
The Sikh Rehat Maryada (Punjabi (Gurmukhi): ਸਿੱਖ ਰਹਿਤ ਮਰਯਾਦਾ, Sikkh Rahit Maryādā) (alternate transcription Sikh Reht Maryada) is a code of conduct and conventions for Sikhism, approved by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar in 1945.
The Sikh Youth Symposium is an annual public speaking and debate competition held for the Sikh youth across the United States of America and Canada, encouraging them to reconnect with their cultural foundations and religious roots.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sikhism is a small but growing minority religion in Australia, that can trace its origins in the nation to the 1830s.
Sikhism was recorded as the religion of 420,196 people resident in England at the 2011 Census, along with 2,962 people in Wales, 9,055 in Scotland and 216 in Northern Ireland, making for a total Sikh population of 432,429.
Simon Lehna Singh, (born 19 September 1964) is a British popular science author, theoretical and particle physicist whose works largely contain a strong mathematical element.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singh (IPA), is a title, middle name, or surname which originated in India.
The Singh Sabha Movement was a Sikh movement that began in Punjab in the 1870s in reaction to the proselytising activities of Christians, Brahmo Samajis, Arya Samaj, Muslim Aligarh movement and Ahmadiyah.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
Stockton is a city in and the county seat of San Joaquin County in the Central Valley of the U.S. state of California.
Sudh is a village in Dhofar Governorate, in southwestern Oman.
Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, in Rawalpindi, Punjab – 22 November 1967, in Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century.
The Taus is a bowed string instrument from the north Indian region of Punjab.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
In India, "the Emergency" refers to a 21-month period from 1975 to 1977 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a state of emergency declared across the country.
In Sikhism, the Five Ks (ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ Pañj Kakār) are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
A turban (from Persian دولبند, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding.
Turban Training Centre or Turban Tying Centre or Dastar Academy (ਦਸਤਾਰ ਸਿਖਲਾਈ ਕੇਂਦਰ) (दस्तार सिखलाई केंद्र) (پگڑی تربیتی مرکز) are training-cum-tying institutes opened by professionals, who train Sikhs, in tying Dastar on their heads.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
UNITED SIKHS is a civil rights and humanitarian non profit organization which is also U.N. (United Nations) affiliated group.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.
Vaishya is one of the four varnas of the Hindu social order in Nepal and India.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Vandana Shiva (born 5 November 1952) is an Indian scholar, environmental activist, food sovereignty advocate, and alter-globalization author.
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.
Vir Chakra is an Indian gallantry award presented for acts of bravery on the battlefield.
Waheguru (ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ) is a name given to God in Sikhism.
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1984 anti-Sikh riots, also known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India by anti-Sikh mobs (notably Congress Party members and temporarily released convicts) in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.
3HO (Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization) is a sect of Sikhism that started about 1970.