142 relations: Afghan–Sikh Wars, Afghanistan, Agra, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Akal Takht, Akbar, Amarinder Singh, Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Anglo-Sikh wars, Artillery, Aurangzeb, Babur, Badshahi Mosque, Bahadur Shah I, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bannu, Battle of Attock, Battle of Bhangani, Battle of Ferozeshah, Battle of Jamrud, Battle of Muktsar, Battle of Multan, Battle of Nowshera, Battle of Shopian, Cattle, Chand Kaur, Charat Singh, Charles von Hügel, Coin, Dal Khalsa (Sikh Army), Dara Shukoh, Deg Tegh Fateh, Delhi, Demography, Dogri language, Duleep Singh, Durrani Empire, East India Company, Federal monarchy, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, First Anglo-Sikh War, Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Golden Temple, Guerrilla warfare, Gujranwala, Gulab Singh, Guru Amar Das, Guru Arjan, ..., Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Har Rai, Guru Hargobind, Guru Nanak, Guru Tegh Bahadur, Gwalior, Hari Singh Nalwa, Himachal Pradesh, Himalayas, Hinduism, History of Afghanistan, History of India, History of Pakistan, History of Telangana, History of the Punjab, Indian subcontinent, Islam, Jahangir, James Hope Grant, James Skinner (East India Company officer), Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu Division, Jamrud, Kapurthala State, Kashi Vishwanath Temple, Kashmir, Kashmiri language, Kashmiri Pandit, Khalsa, Kharak Singh, Khusrau Mirza, Khyber Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Khyber Pass, Ladakh, Lahore, Langar (Sikhism), Lohgarh, M. A. Sherring, Maha Singh, Maharaja, Maharaja Ranjit Singh's throne, Maratha Empire, Martyr, Misl, Mithankot, Mughal Empire, Multan, Nanded, Nau Nihal Singh, Paonta Sahib, Pashto, Pashtuns, Persian language, Peshawar, Princely state, Punjab, Punjab Province (British India), Punjab, India, Punjab, Pakistan, Punjabi language, Ramraiya, Ranjit Singh, Regent, Routledge, Rupee, Sadaura, Samadhi of Ranjit Singh, Samana, Punjab, Second Anglo-Sikh War, Secularity, Shah Jahan, Sher Singh, Sikh gurus, Sikh Khalsa Army, Sikhism, Sindh, Sino-Sikh War, Sirhind-Fategarh, Sivalik Hills, Sovereignty, Sukerchakia Misl, Sutlej, The Crown, Third Battle of Panipat, Tibet, Timur Shah Durrani, Vizier, Wazir Khan (Sirhind), Yamuna, Zaman Shah Durrani. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
The Afghan–Sikh wars were a series of wars between the Afghan Pashtuns Durrani Empire, and the Sikh Empire.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan.
The Akal Takht (ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Captain Amarinder Singh (born 11 March 1942) is an Indian politician, who is currently the 26th Chief Minister of Punjab.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Anandpur Sahib, sometimes referred to simply as Anandpur (lit. "city of bliss"), is a city in Rupnagar district (Ropar), on the edge of Shivalik Hills, in the state of Punjab, India.
The Anglo-Sikh wars were a series of 1840s conflicts between the British East India Trading Company and the Sikh Empire.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
The Badshahi Mosque (Punjabi and بادشاہی مسجد, or "Imperial Mosque") is a Mughal era mosque in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.
Bahadur Shah (بہادر شاه اول—) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.
Banda Singh Bahadur (born Lachman Dev) (27 October 1670 – 9 June 1716, Delhi), was a Sikh military commander who established a Sikh state with capital at Lohgarh (Haryana).
Banū or Bannu (باني ګل / بنو, بنوں) is the principal city of the Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
The Battle of Attock (also known as the Battle of Chuch or the Battle of Haidru) took place on 13 July 1813 between the Sikh Empire and the Durrani Empire.
The Battle of Bhangani (ਭੰਗਾਣੀ ਦਾ ਯੁੱਧ) was fought between Guru Gobind Singh's army and the combined forces of many Rajas of the Sivalik Hills (pahari rajas), on 18 September 1686, at Bhangani near Paonta Sahib.
The Battle of Ferozeshah was fought on 21 December and 22 December 1845 between the British and the Sikhs, at the village of Ferozeshah in Punjab.
The Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Sikh Empire on 30 April 1837.
The Battle of Muktsar or Battle of Khidrāne Dee Dhāb took place on 8 May 1705, (21 Vaisakh 1762 Bikrami calendar) following the siege of Anandpur.
The Battle of Multan was a battle between a Vizier of the Durrani Empire and the Sikh Empire that started in March 1818 and ended on 2 June 1818.
The Battle of Nowshera was fought in March 1823 between the forces of Pashtun tribesmen with support from Azim Khan Barakzai, Durrani governor against the Sikh Khalsa Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The Battle of Shopian took place on 3 July 1819 between an expeditionary force from the Sikh Empire and Jabbar Khan, the governor of the Durrani Empire province of Kashmir.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Maharani Chand Kaur (1802 – 11 June 1842) was briefly regent of the Sikh Empire.
Charat Singh (died 1774) was the eldest son of Naudh Singh, the father of Maha Singh, and the grandfather of Ranjit Singh.
Charles von Hügel (born Carl Alexander Anselm Baron von Hügel; 25 April 1795 – 2 June 1870) was an Austrian noble, army officer, diplomat, botanist, and explorer, now primarily remembered for his travels in northern India during the 1830s.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Dal Khalsa was the name of the Sikh army that operated in the 18th century (1747–1780) in the Punjab region.
Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (دارا شِکوہ), (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Deg Tegh Fateh (ਦੇਗ ਤੇਗ਼ ਫ਼ਤਿਹ, or Victory to Charity and Arms) is a Sikh slogan in the Punjabi language that signifies the dual responsibility of the Khalsa: to provide food and protection for the needy and oppressed.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
Maharaja Duleep Singh, GCSI (6 September 1838 – 22 October 1893), also known as Dalip Singh and later in life nicknamed the Black Prince of Perthshire, was the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.
The Durrani Empire (د درانیانو واکمني), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; قبایلي سیمې، منځنۍ پښتونخوا; وفاقی منتظم شدہ قبائیلی علاقہ جات) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018.
The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company between 1845 and 1846.
Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gujranwala (Punjabi, گوجرانوالا) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, that is located north of the nearby provincial capital of Lahore.
Gulab Singh (1792–1857) was the founder of royal Dogra dynasty and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War.
Guru Amar Das (5 May 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73.
Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.
Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Har Rai (16 January 1630 – 6 October 1661) revered as the seventh Nanak, was the seventh of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Hargobind (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644), revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Guru Tegh Bahadur (1 April 1621 – 24 November 1675), revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.
Gwalior is a major and the northern-most city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities.
Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Pakistan encompasses the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan.
The history of Telangana, located in the Deccan region, includes its governance by many rulers.
The History of the Punjab concerns the history of the Punjab region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent that straddles the modern day countries of India and Pakistan.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
General Sir James Hope Grant, GCB (22 July 1808 – 7 March 1875), was a British Army officer.
Colonel James Skinner CB (1778 – 4 December 1841) was an Anglo-Indian military adventurer in India, who became known as Sikandar Sahib later in life, and is most known for two cavalry regiments he raised for the British, later known as 1st Skinner's Horse and 3rd Skinner's Horse (formerly 2nd Skinner's Horse) at Hansi in 1803, which still are a part of the Indian Army He was a fluent writer in Persian, the court and intellectual language of India in his day, and wrote several books in Persian, including "Kitab-i tasrih al-aqvam" (History of the Origin and Distinguishing Marks of the Different Castes of India), now with the Library of Congress.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jammu is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India.
Jamrūd (Pashto/جمرود) or Jam (جم) is a town located in the Khyber Agency, within Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan.
Kapurthala State, with its capital at Kapurthala, was a former Princely state of Punjab, spread across.
Kashi Vishvanath Temple is one of the most famous Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Shiva.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are a Saraswat Brahmin community from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.
Maharaja Kharak Singh (22 February 1801 – 5 November 1840), was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab and the Sikh Empire.
Khusrau Mirza (Urdu:; 16August 1587 – 26 January 1622) or Prince Khusrau was the eldest son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.
Khyber (خېبر قبايلي سيمه; خیبر) is a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (abbreviated as KP; خیبر پختونخوا; خیبر پښتونخوا) is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan.
The Khyber Pass (د خیبر درہ, درۂ خیبر) (elevation) is a mountain pass in the north of Pakistan, close to the border with Afghanistan.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Langar (ਲੰਗਰ) (kitchen) is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, caste, gender, economic status or ethnicity.
Lohgarh is a village in Notified Area Committee of Zirakpur in district Mohali in state of Punjab in India.
Matthew Atmore Sherring (1826–1880), usually cited as M.A. Sherring, was a Protestant missionary in India who was also an Indologist and wrote a number of works related to India.
Maha Singh (Punjabi: ਮਹਾਂ ਸਿੰਘ) (alternatively Mahan Singh)(1756– April 1792) was ruler of Sukerchakia Misl of Punjab.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Maharaja Ranjit Singh's throne was made by the goldsmith Hafez Muhammad Multani about 1820 to 1830.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent after the collapse of the Mughal Empire.
Mithankot (مِٹھّن کوٹ), is a city in southern Punjab, Pakistan (Rajanpur District).
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India.
Kanvar (Prince) Nau Nihal Singh (9 March 1821 – 6 November 1840) was a Jat Sikh ruler of the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Paonta Sahib (पांवटा साहिब, ਪਾਂਉਟਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is one of the major industrial towns of Himachal Pradesh in India.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peshawar (پېښور; پشاور; پشور) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi:, panj-āb, "five waters") is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and its most populous province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Ramraiyas, also referred to as Ram Raiyas, have been a Sikh sect who follow Baba Ram Rai, the excommunicated eldest son of Guru Har Rai (1630–61).
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Bhutan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, and formerly those of Afghanistan, Tibet, Burma and British East Africa, German East Africa and Trucial States.
Sadhaura is a city and a Gram Sabha in Yamunanagar district in the Indian state of Haryana.
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh (رنجیت سنگھ دی سمادھی) is a 19th-century building in Lahore, Pakistan that houses the funerary urns of the Jat Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh (1780 - 1839).
Samana is a city and a municipal council in Patiala district in the Indian state of Punjab.
The Second Anglo-Sikh War was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Maharaja Sher Singh (4 December 1807 – 15 September 1843) was a son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.
The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Phauj), Persian:سیک ارتش خالصا-ارتش لاهور), also known as the Army of Lahore, Punjab Army, Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Sikh Empire, formed in 1799 with the capture of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. From then on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles. It was divided in three wings: the Fauj-i-Khas (elites), Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars). Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia. Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganized responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasize steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sindh (سنڌ; سِندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country.
The Sino-Sikh War (also referred to as the Invasion of Tibet or the Dogra War) was fought from May 1841 to August 1842, between the forces of Qing China and the Sikh Empire after General Zorawar Singh Kahluria invaded western Tibet.
Sirhind-Fatehgarh (ਸਰਹਿੰਦ-ਫ਼ਤਿਹਗੜ੍ਹ) is a city and a municipal council in Fatehgarh Sahib district in the Indian state of Punjab.
The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Sukerchakia Misl was one of 12 Sikh Misls in Punjab during the 18th century concentrated in Gujranwala and Hafizabad district in Western Punjab (in modern-Pakistan) and ruled from (1752-1801).It was a Sandhawalia Jat sikh Misl.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Najib-ud-daulah Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Timur Shah Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic:; 1748 – May 18, 1793) was the second ruler of the Durrani Empire, from October 16, 1772 until his death in 1793.
A vizier (rarely; وزير wazīr; وازیر vazīr; vezir; Chinese: 宰相 zǎixiàng; উজির ujira; Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu): वज़ीर or وزیر vazeer; Punjabi: ਵਜ਼ੀਰ or وزير vazīra, sometimes spelt vazir, vizir, vasir, wazir, vesir or vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister.
Wazir Khan (died 1710, real name Mirza Askari) was Governor of Sirhind, administering a territory of the Mughal Empire between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
Shah Zaman Durrani, (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, Arabic), (c. 1770 – 1844) was ruler of the Durrani Empire from 1793 until 1800.