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Index Sikhism

Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page. [1]

274 relations: A & C Black, Aarti, ABC-CLIO, Afghanistan, Ahluwalia, Akal, Akal Takht, Alakh Niranjan, Amrit Sanchar, Amritsar, Anand Karaj, Anandpur Sahib, Anandpur Sahib Resolution, Andhra Pradesh, Antam Sanskar, Ardās, Arora, Arya Samaj, Assam, Assassination of Indira Gandhi, Aurangzeb, Australia, Śāradā script, Baba Dyal Singh, Baghdad, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bandi Chhor Divas, BBC, Bebe Nanaki, Bengal, Bhagat, Bhagat Beni, Bhagat Bhikhan, Bhagat Dhanna, Bhagat Parmanand, Bhagat Pipa, Bhagat Sadhana, Bhagat Sain, Bhagat Trilochan, Bhai Gurdas, Bhakti, Bhakti movement, Bibliolatry, Bihar, Brahmo Samaj, Brampton, British Columbia, Canada, Chaupai (Sikhism), China, ..., Christian, Dalit, Dasam Granth, Dehradun, Delhi, Devanagari, Dhabihah, Dharma, Diocese, Diwali, Duleep Singh, Durga, East Africa, Encyclopædia Britannica, Exsanguination, Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Farrukhsiyar, Fiji, Five Banis, Five Thieves, Five Virtues, God in Sikhism, Goindval, Golden Temple, Granthi, Gurbani, Gurdwara, Gurmata, Gurmukhi script, Gurpurb, Guru, Guru Amar Das, Guru Angad, Guru Arjan, Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Har Krishan, Guru Har Rai, Guru Hargobind, Guru Maneyo Granth, Guru Nanak, Guru Ram Das, Guru Tegh Bahadur, Gwalior Fort, Hagiography, Halal, Hankaar, Hari Singh Nalwa, Haumai, Hindi, Hindu, Hola Mohalla, Holi, Hukamnama, Ik Onkar, Indian religions, Indian subcontinent, Indira Gandhi, Indo-Canadians, Interfaith dialogue, Iraq, Islam, ISO 15919, Jaap Sahib, Jagir, Jahangir, Janamsakhis, Japji Sahib, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, Jat Sikh, Jayadeva, Jhatka, Jivanmukta, Journal of Contemporary Religion, Kaam, Kabir, Kacchera, Kali Yuga, Kamboj, Kangha (Sikhism), Kara (Sikhism), Karma, Kartarpur, Pakistan, Kashmir, Kaur, Kesh (Sikhism), Khalistan movement, Khalsa, Khatri, Khem Singh Bedi, Khivi, Kirat Karo, Kirpan, Kirtan, Komagata Maru incident, Krodh, Kshatriya, Kumhar, Kutha meat, Laṇḍā scripts, Labana, Ladakh, Lahore, Langar (Sikhism), List of religious populations, Lobh, Maha Shivaratri, Maharashtra, Mai Bhago, Malaysia, Mantra, Mauritius, Maya (religion), Mazhabi Sikh, Meditation, Metaphysics, Middle East, Mina (Sikhism), Misl, Moh, Monism, Monotheism, Mount Meru, Mughal Empire, Mul Mantar, Muslim, Naam Japo, Nagar Kirtan, Namdev, Namdhari, Nanakshahi calendar, Nankana Sahib, Nastaʿlīq script, Nepal, Nihang, Nirankar, Nirankari, Nitnem, North India, Operation Blue Star, Oral tradition, Pakistan, Pandit, Panentheism, Panj Pyare, Para Brahman, Pashtuns, Philippines, Prime Minister of India, Proselytism, Puja (Hinduism), Punjab, Punjab, India, Punjabi language, Puranas, Raga, Ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib, Ramananda, Ramdasia, Ramgarhia, Ramraiya, Ranjit Singh, Ravi River, Ravidas, Reincarnation, Sach Khand, Saini, Salvation, Sanatan Sikh, Sangat (Sikhism), Sanskrit, Sant (religion), Sant Bhasha, Sarbat da bhala, Sarbat Khalsa, Sati (practice), Satsang, Sects of Sikhism, Self-ownership, Selfless service, Shabda, Shah Jahan, Shaheed Ganj Mosque, Shakti, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sikh, Sikh Empire, Sikh gurus, Sikh Khalsa Army, Sikh Rajputs, Simran, Singapore, Singh, Singh Sabha Movement, Southeast Asia, Sri Chand, Surdas, Surrey, British Columbia, Tamil Nadu, Tara Singh (activist), Tav-Prasad Savaiye, The Five Ks, Tibet, Transliteration, Turban training centre, Udasi, United Kingdom, United States, Vaisakhi, Vaishnavism, Vancouver, Vand Chhako, Vedas, Vikram Samvat, Waheguru, West Africa, Western Europe, Wiktionary, Women in the Guru Granth Sahib, Yajna, Yuba City, California, Zamindar, 1984 anti-Sikh riots, 3HO. Expand index (224 more) »

A & C Black

A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.

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Aarti also spelled arti, arati, arathi, aarthi (In Devanagari: आरती) is a Hindu religious ritual of worship, a part of puja, in which light from wicks soaked in ghee (purified butter) or camphor is offered to one or more deities.

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ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ahluwalia is a Sikh clan from Punjab, India.

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Akaal (or Akal) literally timeless, immortal, non-temporal, is a term integral to Sikh tradition and philosophy.

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Akal Takht

The Akal Takht (ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs.

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Alakh Niranjan

Alakh Niranjan is a term used by Nath Yogis as a synonym for Creator, and to describe the characteristics of God and the Self, known as the Atman.

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Amrit Sanchar

Amrit Sanchar (also called Khande di Pahul) is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism.

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Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

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Anand Karaj

Anand Karaj (ਅਨੰਦ ਕਾਰਜ) is the Sikh marriage ceremony, meaning "Blissful Union" or "Joyful Union", that was introduced by Guru Amar Das.

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Anandpur Sahib

Anandpur Sahib, sometimes referred to simply as Anandpur (lit. "city of bliss"), is a city in Rupnagar district (Ropar), on the edge of Shivalik Hills, in the state of Punjab, India.

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Anandpur Sahib Resolution

The Anandpur Sahib Resolution, described as "the most comprehensive charter of demands that was made by the Akalis, on behalf of the Sikhs" was a statement made by a Punjab political party, the Shiromani Akali Dal, in 1973.

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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Antam Sanskar

Antam Sanskar refers to the funeral rites in originally Hinduism and then later in Sikhism also.

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The Ardās (ਅਰਦਾਸ) is a set prayer in Sikhism.

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The Arora is a community of the Punjab region closely related to the Khatri community.

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Arya Samaj

Arya Samaj (Sanskrit: आर्य समाज "Noble Society" Hindi: आर्य समाज, Bengali: আর্য সমাজ, Punjabi: ਆਰੀਆ ਸਮਾਜ, Gujarati: આર્ય સમાજ) is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas.

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Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.

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Assassination of Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi, the 3rd Prime Minister of India, was assassinated at 9:20 a.m. on 31 October 1984, at her Safdarjung Road, New Delhi residence.

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Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگ‌زیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Śāradā script

The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.

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Baba Dyal Singh

Baba Dayal Singh (1783-1855) was a Sahajdhari Sikh whose main mission was to bring Sikhs back to the Adi Granth and simran.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Banda Singh Bahadur

Banda Singh Bahadur (born Lachman Dev) (27 October 1670 – 9 June 1716, Delhi), was a Sikh military commander who established a Sikh state with capital at Lohgarh (Haryana).

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Bandi Chhor Divas

Bandi Chhor Divas ("Day of Liberation") (ਬੰਦੀ ਛੋੜ ਦਿਵਸ) is a Sikh holiday which coincides with the day of Diwali.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bebe Nanaki

Bebe Nanaki (Punjabi: ਬੇਬੇ ਨਾਨਕੀ) (1464–1518) was the elder sister of Guru Nanak Dev, the founder and first Guru (teacher) of Sikhism.

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Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Bhagat is a Punjabi word derived from the Sanskrit word Bhagavata, which means: a devotee of the Lord (Bhagvan).

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Bhagat Beni

Bhagat Beni (ਭਗਤ ਬੈਣੀ) is one of the fifteen saints and Sufis, whose teachings have been incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib, it is believed he spent most of his time in prayer and meditation, who often neglected the household needs while in meditation and prayer.

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Bhagat Bhikhan

Bhagat Bhikhan (ਭਗਤ ਭੀਖਨ) (1480-1573), a medieval Indian saint two of whose hymns are included in the Guru Granth Sahib.

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Bhagat Dhanna

Dhanna Bhagat (born 1415) was a mystic poet and a Vaishnav devotee whose three hymns are present in Adi Granth.

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Bhagat Parmanand

Parmanand (ਭਗਤ ਪਰਮਾਨੰਦ) saint-poet, one of whose hymns is included in the Guru Granth Sahib.

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Bhagat Pipa

Bhagat Pipa, born in Malwa region of north India (east Rajasthan), was a Rajput king of Gagaraungarh, who abdicated and turned into a sant and Hindu mystic poet of the Bhakti movement.

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Bhagat Sadhana

Bhagat Sadhna, also called Sadhna Qasai, was a North Indian Muslim or Sikh poet, saint, mystic and one of the devotees whose hymn was incorporated in Guru Granth Sahib.

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Bhagat Sain

Bhagat Sain was a Sikh religious figure lived in the end of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century.

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Bhagat Trilochan

Trilochan was a celebrated medieval Indian saint and one of devotee whose hymns are present in Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of Sikhs.

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Bhai Gurdas

Bhai Gurdas (ਭਾਈ ਗੁਰਦਾਸ; 1551 – August 25, 1636) was an influential Sikh figure, writer, historian and preacher.

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Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".

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Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.

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Bibliolatry (from the Greek βιβλίον biblion, "book" and the suffix -λατρία -latria, "worship") is the worship of a book or the description of a deity found in a book.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Brahmo Samaj

Brahmo Samaj (Bengali: ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism, which began as a monotheistic reformist movement of the Hindu religion that appeared during the Bengal Renaissance.

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Brampton is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Chaupai (Sikhism)

Benti Chaupai (also referred to as Chaupai Sahib) is a hymn by Guru Gobind Singh.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.

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Dasam Granth

The Dasam Patishah Ji Da Granth (Gurmukhi: ਦਸਮ ਪਾਤਿਸ਼ਾਹ ਦਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ.

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Dehradun or Dehra Dun is the interim capital city of Uttarakhand, a state in the northern part of India.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.

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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.

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In Islamic law (or zabiha, ذَبِيْحَة, 'slaughter'(noun)) is the prescribed method of ritual slaughter of all lawful halal animals.

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Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

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The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".

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Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).

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Duleep Singh

Maharaja Duleep Singh, GCSI (6 September 1838 – 22 October 1893), also known as Dalip Singh and later in life nicknamed the Black Prince of Perthshire, was the last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.

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Durga, also identified as Adi Parashakti, Devī, Shakti, Bhavani, Parvati, Amba and by numerous other names, is a principal and popular form of Hindu goddess.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Exsanguination is the loss of blood to a degree sufficient to cause death.

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Fariduddin Ganjshakar

Farīd al-Dīn Masʿūd Ganj-i-Shakar (c. 1175-1266), known reverentially as Bābā Farīd or Shaykh Farīd by Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus of the Punjab Region, or simply as Farīduddīn Ganjshakar, was a 12th-century Punjabi Muslim preacher and mystic who went on to become "one of the most revered and distinguished...

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Abu'l Muzaffar Muin ud-din Muhammad Shah Farrukh-siyar Alim Akbar Sani Wala Shan Padshah-i-bahr-u-bar (Shahid-i-Mazlum), or Farrukhsiyar (20 August 1685 – 19 April 1719), was the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahandar Shah.

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Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

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Five Banis

The initiated Sikh is asked by the Panj Piare during the Amrit Sanchar ceremony to recite the following five banis every morning as a commitment to the Sikh Gurus and Waheguru.

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Five Thieves

In Sikhi, the Five Thieves (Panj Dosh or Panj Vikar) are the five major weaknesses of the human personality at variance with its spiritual essence, and are known as "thieves" because they steal a person's common sense.

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Five Virtues

In Sikhism, the Five Virtues are fundamental qualities which one should develop in order to reach Mukti, or to reunite or merge with God.

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God in Sikhism

Sikhism is a monotheistic religion and hence, believes that "God" is One, and prevails in everything, as symbolized by the symbol Ik Onkar (one all pervading spirit).

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Goindwal (ਗੋਇੰਦਵਾਲ), also known as Goindwal Sahib, is located in Taran Taran district in the Majha region of the state of Punjab in India about 23 km from Tarn Taran Sahib.

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Golden Temple

Sri Harmandir Sahib ("The abode of God"), also known as Darbar Sahib,, informally referred to as the Golden Temple, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.

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A Granthi (ਗ੍ਰੰਥੀ) is a person, female or male, of the Sikh religion who is a ceremonial reader of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, which is the Holy Book in Sikhism, often read to worshipers at Sikh temples called a Gurudwara.

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Gurbani (ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ) is a Sikh term, very commonly used by Sikhs to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib.

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A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.

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A Gurmata (literally, guru's intention) is an order paon a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh religion and is binding upon all Sikhs.

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Gurmukhi script

Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).

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A Gurpurab ((Punjabi: ਗੁਰਪੁਰਬ)) in Sikh tradition is a celebration of an anniversary of a Guru's birth marked by the holding of a festival.

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Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.

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Guru Amar Das

Guru Amar Das (5 May 1479 – 1 September 1574) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at age 73.

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Guru Angad

Guru Angad (31 March 1504 – 29 March 1552) was the second of the ten Sikh Gurus.

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Guru Arjan

Guru Arjan (ਗੁਰੂ ਅਰਜੁਨ Guru Arjan) 15 April 1563 – 30 May 1606) was the first of the two Gurus martyred in the Sikh faith and the fifth of the ten total Sikh Gurus. He compiled the first official edition of the Sikh scripture called the Adi Granth, which later expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib. He was born in Goindval, in the Punjab, the youngest son of Bhai Jetha, who later became Guru Ram Das, and Mata Bhani, the daughter of Guru Amar Das. He was the first Guru in Sikhism to be born into a Sikh family. Guru Arjan led Sikhism for a quarter of a century. He completed the construction of Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, after the fourth Sikh Guru founded the town and built a pool. Guru Arjan compiled the hymns of previous Gurus and of other saints into Adi Granth, the first edition of the Sikh scripture, and installed it in the Harimandir Sahib. Guru Arjan reorganized the Masands system initiated by Guru Ram Das, by suggesting that the Sikhs donate, if possible, one tenth of their income, goods or service to the Sikh organization (dasvand). The Masand not only collected these funds but also taught tenets of Sikhism and settled civil disputes in their region. The dasvand financed the building of gurdwaras and langars (shared communal kitchens). Guru Arjan was arrested under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and asked to convert to Islam. He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606 CE. Historical records and the Sikh tradition are unclear whether Guru Arjan was executed by drowning or died during torture. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism. It is remembered as Shaheedi Divas of Guru Arjan in May or June according to the Nanakshahi calendar released by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee in 2003.

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Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.

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Guru Granth Sahib

Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Har Krishan

Guru Har Krishan (7 July 1656 – 30 March 1664) revered as the eighth Nanak, was the eighth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Har Rai

Guru Har Rai (16 January 1630 – 6 October 1661) revered as the seventh Nanak, was the seventh of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Hargobind

Guru Hargobind (19 June 1595 - 3 March 1644), revered as the sixth Nanak, was the sixth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Guru Maneyo Granth

"Guru Maneyo Granth" (English: Granth Be Thy Guru), refers to the historic statement of the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708), shortly before his demise, on affirming the sacred scripture Adi Granth as his successor, thus terminating the line of human Gurus.

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Guru Nanak

Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.

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Guru Ram Das

Guru Ram Das (1534–1581) was the fourth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism.

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Guru Tegh Bahadur

Guru Tegh Bahadur (1 April 1621 – 24 November 1675), revered as the ninth Nanak, was the ninth of ten Gurus of the Sikh religion.

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Gwalior Fort

Gwalior Fort (ग्वालियर क़िला Gwalior Qila) is a hill fort near Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, central India.

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A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.

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Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.

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Hankār is the Gurmukhi word originated from a Sanskrit word Ahankāra (Hindi or Sanskrit: अहंकार) which translates to mean ego or excessive pride due to one's possessions, material wealth, spirituality, beauty, talents, physical strength, intelligence, authoritative powers, charity work etc.

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Hari Singh Nalwa

Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire.

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Haumai (Punjabi: ਹਉਮੈ) is the concept of self-centeredness (egoism or Ahankar) in Sikhism.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hola Mohalla

Hola Mohalla (ਹੋਲਾ ਮਹੱਲਾ, होला मोहल्ला), also called Hola, is a one-day Sikh festival which most often falls in March and takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chett, a day after the Hindu spring festival Holi but sometimes coincides with Holi.

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Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.

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A Hukamnama refers to a hymn from the Guru Granth Sahib which is given as an order to Sikhs or a historical order given by one of the Gurus of Sikhism.

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Ik Onkar

Ik Onkar (Gurmukhi:, ਇੱਕ ਓਅੰਕਾਰ) is the symbol that represents the One Supreme Reality and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy.

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Indian religions

Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indira Gandhi

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.

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Indo-Canadians or Indian Canadians are Canadian citizens whose heritage is fully or partially Indian Subcontinent (including Indian and other origins), children of persons who immigrated from India and/or Indian Subcontinent to Canada, or persons of Indian/Indian Subcontinent origin who have Canadian citizenship.

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Interfaith dialogue

Interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive, and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions (i.e., "faiths") and/or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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ISO 15919

ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization.

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Jaap Sahib

Jaap Sahib (or Japu Sahib) is the morning prayer of the Sikhs.

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A jagir (IAST: Jāgīr), also spelled as jageer, was a type of feudal land grant in South Asia at the foundation of its Jagirdar system.

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Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim مرزا نور الدین محمد خان سلیم, known by his imperial name (جہانگیر) Jahangir (31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

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The Janamsakhis (ਜਨਮਸਾਖੀ, janamsākhī), literally birth stories, are writings which profess to be biographies of the first Sikh guru, Guru Nanak.

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Japji Sahib

Jap ji is a prayer at the beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, considered the holy scripture of sikhs.

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Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale

Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (born Jarnail Singh Brar) (2 June 1947 – 6 June 1984) was a leader of the Sikh organization Damdami Taksal, and a notable supporter of the Anandpur Resolution.

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Jat Sikh

Jat Sikh is a sub-group of the Jat people and the Sikh community, from the Indian subcontinent.

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Jayadeva (b.), also known as Jaidev, was a Sanskrit poet during the 12th century.

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Jhatka, or Chatka, is meat from an animal killed instantaneously, such as by a single strike of a sword or axe to sever the head.

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A jivan mukta or mukta is someone who, in the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, has gained and assimilated self-knowledge, thus is liberated with an inner sense of freedom while living.

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Journal of Contemporary Religion

The Journal of Contemporary Religion is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal which covers anthropological, sociological, psychological, and philosophical aspects of religion.

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Kaam (from Sanskrit kama) meaning deep extensive desire, uncontrolled longing, concupiscence, sensuality or lasciviousness is counted among the five cardinal sins or sinful propensities in Sikhism.

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Kabir (कबीर, IAST: Kabīr) was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib.

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Kachera (ਕਛੈਰਾ) are specially designed, shalwar- undergarments with a tie-knot ("naala".

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Kali Yuga

Kali Yuga (Devanāgarī: कलियुग, lit. "age of Kali") is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. Mahayuga) described in the Sanskrit scriptures.

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The Kamboj (کمبوہ ALA-LC:, ਕੰਬੋ Kamboj), also Kamboh, is a community mainly in the Northern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Kangha (Sikhism)

A kanga is a small wooden comb that Sikhs usually use twice a day.

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Kara (Sikhism)

A kara (کڑا (Shahmukhi) कड़ा (Devanagari)) is a steel or iron (sarb loh) bracelet, worn by all initiated Sikhs.

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Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Kartarpur, Pakistan

Kartarpur (کرتارپور) is located in tehsil Shakargarh, Narowal District, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kaur (ਕੌਰ) (کَور), in Sikhism is used as a last name by Sikh women.

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Kesh (Sikhism)

In Sikhism, Kesh (sometimes Kes) is the practice of allowing one's hair to grow naturally as a symbol of respect for the perfection of God's creation.

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Khalistan movement

The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān (ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ, "The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia to serve as a homeland for Sikhs.

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Khalsa (Punjabi: "the pure") refers to both a special group of initiated Sikh warriors, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith.

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Khatri is a caste from the northern Indian subcontinent.

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Khem Singh Bedi

Khem Singh Bedi KCIE (21 February 183210 April 1905) claims he was a direct descendant of Guru Nanak, a leader, founder of the Singh Sabha in 1873, and a Sanatan Sikh who believed there were no essential differences between Sikhs and Hindus.

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Khivi (ਮਾਤਾ ਖੀਵੀ) (1506–1582) also referred to as Mata Khivi or Bibi Khivi was the wife of Guru Angad Dev, second Sikh guru.

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Kirat Karo

Kirat Karō is one of the Three pillars of Sikhism, the others being Naam Japo and Vaṇḍ chakkō.

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The kirpan is a sword or small dagger carried by Sikhs.

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Kirtan or Kirtana (कीर्तन) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.

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Komagata Maru incident

The Komagata Maru incident involved the Japanese steamship Komagata Maru on which a group of citizens of the British Raj attempted to emigrate to Canada in 1914 but were denied entry and on forced return to Calcutta (Present day Kolkata), India, they were fired upon by British police resulting in killing of 20 Sikhs.

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Krodh is derived from the Sanskrit word krodha, which means wrath or rage.

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Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.

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Kumhar is a caste or community in India and Pakistan.

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Kutha meat

Kutha (Kuttha) meat is defined as "meat of animal or fowl slaughtered slowly", as prescribed by the Muslim halal procedure.

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Laṇḍā scripts

The Laṇḍā scripts (also Lahnda, Landa), meaning "without a tail", is a Punjabi word used to refer to a writing system used in Panjab and nearby parts of North India.

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Labana (sometimes also Lubana, Lavana) is a social and ethnic group in India.

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Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.

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Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.

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Langar (Sikhism)

Langar (ਲੰਗਰ) (kitchen) is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, caste, gender, economic status or ethnicity.

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List of religious populations

This is a list of religious populations by number of adherents and countries.

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Lobh is a Gurmukhi word which translates in English to greed; it is a strong desire for worldly possessions and a constant focus on possessing material items, especially the urge to possess what rightfully belongs to others.

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Maha Shivaratri

Maha Shivaratri a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva.

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Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.

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Mai Bhago

Mai Bhago (Punjabi: ਮਾਈ ਭਾਗੋ) also known as Mai Bhag Kaur was a Sikh woman who led Sikh soldiers against the Mughals in 1705.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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A "mantra" ((Sanskrit: मन्त्र)) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.

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Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Maya (religion)

Maya (Devanagari: माया, IAST: māyā), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context.

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Mazhabi Sikh

Mazhabi Sikhs (also known as Mazbhabi, Mazbhi, majbi, Majhabhi or Majabhi) are members of an untouchable caste who have rejected Hinduism in favour of the Sikh faith.

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Meditation can be defined as a practice where an individual uses a technique, such as focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity, to achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm state.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Mina (Sikhism)

Minas (ਮੀਣੇ) is a term coined by orthodox Sikhs for a sect of Sikhism that followed Baba Prithi Chand (1558–1618), the eldest son of Guru Ram Das after the younger brother Guru Arjan was officially made the next Guru.

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Misl generally refers to the sovereign states of the Sikh Confederacy, that rose during the 18th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent after the collapse of the Mughal Empire.

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Moh (Sanskrit muh: “to become stupefied, to be bewildered or perplexed, to err, to be mistaken”) stands in ancient texts for perplexity or confusion as also for the cause of confusion, that is, avidya or ajnana (ignorance or illusion).

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Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.

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Mount Meru

Mount Meru (Sanskrit: मेरु, Tibetan: ཪི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རི་རབ་, Sumeru, Sineru or Mahameru) is the sacred five-peaked mountain of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Mul Mantar

The Mul Mantar (ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ,, pronounced Mool Mantar) is the first composition in the Sikh holy text and Great Living Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib, written in Punjabi.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Naam Japo

In Sikhism, Nām Japō (Gurmukhi ਨਾਮ ਜਪੋ), Naam Japna, or Naam Simran refers to the meditation, vocal singing of hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or contemplating the various Names of God (or qualities of God), especially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means "Wonderful Lord" representing the formless being, the creator of all the forms and the being omnipresent in all forms.

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Nagar Kirtan

Nagar Kirtan (ਨਗਰ ਕੀਰਤਨ) is a Sikh custom involving the processional singing of holy hymns throughout a community.

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Namdev, also transliterated as Namdeo and Namadeva, (traditionally) was a poet-saint from Maharashtra, India who is significant to the Varkari sect of Hinduism.

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Namdhari is an Indian religious group.

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Nanakshahi calendar

The Nanakshahi (ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ) calendar is a tropical solar calendar which is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ).

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Nankana Sahib

Nankana Sahib (Punjabi and ننكانہ صاحِب) is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

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Nastaʿlīq script

Nastaʿlīq (نستعلیق, from نسخ Naskh and تعلیق Taʿlīq) is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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The Nihang (ਨਿਹੰਗ) are an armed Sikh warrior order.

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Nirankar is one of the many attributes associated to God in Sikh philosophy and means The Formless One.

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Nirankari (ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰੀ, निरंकारी, English: Followers of the Formless One) is a reformist movement in Sikhism.

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Nitnem (Punjabi: ਨਿਤਨੇਮ) (literally Daily Routine) is a collection of Sikh hymns (Gurbani) to be read minimally 3 different times of the day.

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North India

North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.

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Operation Blue Star

Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to remove militant religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.

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Oral tradition

Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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A pandit (paṇḍita; also spelled pundit, pronounced; abbreviated as Pt. or Pdt.; Panditain or Punditain can refer to a female pundit or the wife of a pundit) is a Brahmin scholar or a teacher of any field of knowledge in Hinduism, particularly the Vedic scriptures, dharma, Hindu philosophy, or secular subjects such as music.

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Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.

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Panj Pyare

Panj Pyare (ਪੰਜ ਪਿਆਰੇ,, literally the five beloved ones), is the name collectively given to the five Sikh men, Bhai Dhaya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan Anandpur Sahib on 14 April 1699.

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Para Brahman

Para Brahman (Sanskrit:परब्रह्मन्) (IAST) is the "Highest Brahman" that which is beyond all descriptions and conceptualisations.

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The Pashtuns (or; پښتانه Pax̌tānə; singular masculine: پښتون Pax̌tūn, feminine: پښتنه Pax̌tana; also Pukhtuns), historically known as ethnic Afghans (افغان, Afğān) and Pathans (Hindustani: پٹھان, पठान, Paṭhān), are an Iranic ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.

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Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.

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Puja (Hinduism)

Pūjā or Poojan or Poosei (Thamizh) (Devanagari: पूजा) is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest, or one to spiritually celebrate an event.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab, India

Punjab is a state in northern India.

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Punjabi language

Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.

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A raga or raaga (IAST: rāga; also raag or ragam; literally "coloring, tingeing, dyeing") is a melodic framework for improvisation akin to a melodic mode in Indian classical music.

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Ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib

A raga is a complex structure of musical melody used in the Indian classical music.

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Ramananda (IAST: Rāmānanda) was a 14th-century Vaishnava devotional poet sant, in the Ganga river region of Northern India.

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The Ramdasia are a Sikh sub-group that has originated from the Hindu caste of weavers known as Julaha.

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The Ramgarhia are a community of Sikhs from the Punjab region of northwestern India, encompassing members of the Lohar and Tarkhan subgroups.

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Ramraiyas, also referred to as Ram Raiyas, have been a Sikh sect who follow Baba Ram Rai, the excommunicated eldest son of Guru Har Rai (1630–61).

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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

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Ravi River

The Ravi (ਰਾਵੀ, راوی, रावी) is a transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

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Guru Ravidas was a North Indian mystic poet-sant of the bhakti movement during the 15th to 16th century CE.

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Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.

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Sach Khand

Sach Khand is a term used in Sikhism to denote an individual's union with God.

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Saini is a caste of North India who were traditionally landowners (zamindars) and farmers.

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Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.

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Sanatan Sikh

Sanatan Sikh refers to conservative Sikhs who opposed the Tat Khalsa ("pure, true Khalsa") Sikhs in their interpretation of Sikhism, particularly during the Singh Sabha Movement.

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Sangat (Sikhism)

Sangat (Punjabi: ਸੰਗਤ) is a Sikh term with its origin in the Sanskrit word sangh, which means company, fellowship and association.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sant (religion)

In Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism, a sant is a human being revered for his or her knowledge of "self, truth, reality" and as a "truth-exemplar".

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Sant Bhasha

Sant Bhasha (Sant Bhāṣā), also known by its endonym Gurmukhi, is a language composed of common vocabulary from South Asian and Middle Eastern languages, which was extensively used by saints and poets to compose hymns.

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Sarbat da bhala

Sarbaht da bhala is the final term in the Sikh prayer called the Ardas.

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Sarbat Khalsa

Sarbat Khalsa from sarbat, a Punjabi word meaning all or everything, was a biannual deliberative assembly (on the same lines as a Parliament in a Direct Democracy) of the entire Khalsa held at Amritsar in Panjab during the 18th century.

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Sati (practice)

Sati or suttee is an obsolete funeral custom where a widow immolates herself on her husband's pyre or takes her own life in another fashion shortly after her husband's death.

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Satsang / Satsanga / Satsangam is a word which comes from Sanskrit, meaning "to associate with true people", to be in the company of true people - sitting with a sat guru, or in a group meeting seeking that association.

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Sects of Sikhism

Sects of Sikhism are sub-traditions within Sikhism that believe in an alternate lineage of Gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh scriptures, or believe in following a living guru, or other concepts that differ from the orthodox.

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Self-ownership (also known as sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the concept of property in one's own person, expressed as the moral or natural right of a person to have bodily integrity and be the exclusive controller of one's own body and life.

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Selfless service

Selfless service or Seva (ਸੇਵਾ) in Sikhism, its ordained philosophy, in Sikh scripture, the theology, and hermeneutics is a service which is performed without any expectation of result or award for performing it.

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Shabda, or, is the Sanskrit word for "speech sound".

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Shah Jahan

Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.

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Shaheed Ganj Mosque

Masjid Shaheed Ganj or Shahidganj Mosque (مسجد شَهيد گنج) was located in Naulakha Bazaar area of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Shakti (Devanagari: शक्ति, IAST: Śakti;.lit “power, ability, strength, might, effort, energy, capability”), is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe in Hinduism and Shaktism.

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Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee

The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.

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Sikh gurus

The Sikh gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469.

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Sikh Khalsa Army

The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਫੌਜ (Sikh Khalsa Phauj), Persian:سیک ارتش خالصا-ارتش لاهور), also known as the Army of Lahore, Punjab Army, Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Sikh Empire, formed in 1799 with the capture of Lahore by Ranjit Singh. From then on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles. It was divided in three wings: the Fauj-i-Khas (elites), Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars). Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia. Ranjit Singh changed and improved the training and organisation of his army. He reorganized responsibility and set performance standards in logistical efficiency in troop deployment, manoeuvre, and marksmanship. He reformed the staffing to emphasize steady fire over cavalry and guerrilla warfare, improved the equipment and methods of war. The military system of Ranjit Singh combined the best of both old and new ideas. He strengthened the infantry and the artillery. He paid the members of the standing army from treasury, instead of the Mughal method of paying an army with local feudal levies.

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Sikh Rajputs

Sikh Rajputs are followers of Sikhism belonging to the Rajput caste.

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Simran (ਸਿਮਰਨ, सिमरण, सिमरन) is a Punjabi word derived from the Sanskrit word स्मरण (smaraṇa, "the act of remembrance, reminiscence, and recollection") which leads to the realization of what may be the highest aspect and purpose in one's life.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Singh (IPA), is a title, middle name, or surname which originated in India.

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Singh Sabha Movement

The Singh Sabha Movement was a Sikh movement that began in Punjab in the 1870s in reaction to the proselytising activities of Christians, Brahmo Samajis, Arya Samaj, Muslim Aligarh movement and Ahmadiyah.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Sri Chand

Sri Chand Ji, also referred to as Baba Sri Chand (8 September 1494 – 13 January 1629), was the founder of the ascetic sect of Udasi and was the elder son of Guru Nanak, first Guru and founder of Sikhism.

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Surdas (IAST: Sūr, Devanagari: सूर) was a 16th-century blind Hindu devotional poet and singer, who was known for his lyrics written in praise of Krishna.

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Surrey, British Columbia

Surrey is a city in the province of British Columbia, Canada, located south of the Fraser River and north of the Canada–United States border. It is a member municipality of the Metro Vancouver regional district and metropolitan area. Mainly a suburban city, Surrey is the second-largest city by population after the city of Vancouver and the province's third largest city by area, after Abbotsford and Prince George. The six "town centres" the City of Surrey comprises are: Fleetwood, Whalley/City Centre, Guildford, Newton, Cloverdale, and South Surrey.

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Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.

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Tara Singh (activist)

Master Tara Singh (24 June 1885, in Rawalpindi, Punjab – 22 November 1967, in Chandigarh) was a prominent Sikh political and religious leader in the first half of the 20th century.

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Tav-Prasad Savaiye

Tav-Prasad Savaiye (ਤ੍ਵਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ਸ੍ਵਯੇ.) is a short composition of 10 stanzas which is part of daily liturgy among Sikhs (Nitnem).

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The Five Ks

In Sikhism, the Five Ks (ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ Pañj Kakār) are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Turban training centre

Turban Training Centre or Turban Tying Centre or Dastar Academy (ਦਸਤਾਰ ਸਿਖਲਾਈ ਕੇਂਦਰ) (दस्तार सिखलाई केंद्र) (پگڑی تربیتی مرکز) are training-cum-tying institutes opened by professionals, who train Sikhs, in tying Dastar on their heads.

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Udasi is a religious sect of ascetic sadhus centred in northern India.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

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Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.

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Vand Chhako

(ਵੰਡ ਛਕੋ) is one of the three main pillars of the teachings of Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikhism.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat (विक्रम सम्वत्, विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS))) (also called the Bikrami calendar or sometimes just Hindu calendar) is the historical Hindu calendar of India and Nepal. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. It is used as the official calendar in Nepal.

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Waheguru (ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ) is a name given to God in Sikhism.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.

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Women in the Guru Granth Sahib

The Guru Granth Sahib is the holy text of Sikhs.

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Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.

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Yuba City, California

Yuba City is a city in Northern California and the county seat of Sutter County, California, United States.

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A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.

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1984 anti-Sikh riots

The 1984 anti-Sikh riots, also known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India by anti-Sikh mobs (notably Congress Party members and temporarily released convicts) in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.

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3HO (Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization) is a sect of Sikhism that started about 1970.

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Baptized Sikh, Sikh Brahmins, Sikh Dharma, Sikh faith, Sikh literature, Sikh religion, Sikha Dharma, Sikhi, Sikhism Other Observations, Sikhsim, Sikism, Sikkhi, Ten gurus, The Sikh Religion, The Ten Gurus.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhism

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