216 relations: Aaron Karfunkel, Agriculture, Allies of World War II, Austrian Silesia, Łęknica, Ślęża, Ślęza, Świętochłowice, Świdnica, Żory, Bad Muskau, Barycz (river), Bóbr, Bielawa, Bielsko-Biała, Bohemia, Bolesławiec, Bruno Streckenbach, Brynica, Brzeg, Bytom, Carpathian Mountains, Catholic Church, Celts, Centennial Hall, Central Europe, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Chorzów, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Chrzanów, Churches of Peace, Cieszyn, Czech language, Czech Republic, Czech Silesia, Czechoslovakia, Czechowice-Dziedzice, Czechs, Dąbrowa Basin, Duchies of Silesia, Duchy of Bohemia, Duchy of Oświęcim, Duchy of Zator, Duke of Silesia, Dzierżoniów, Eastern Neisse, English language, Expulsion of Poles by Germany, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, ..., Feudalism, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Frýdek-Místek, Frederick the Great, Görlitz, Głogów, General Government, German Empire, German language, Germanic peoples, Germanisation, Germanische Altertumskunde Online, Germans, Germany, Gliwice, Great Moravia, Habsburg Monarchy, Havířov, Herbert Hupka, Historic Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry, History of Poland (1945–1989), History of Poland during the Piast dynasty, Holy Roman Empire, Hoyerswerda, Intelligenzaktion, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Jawor, Jelenia Góra, Jeseník District, Karpacz, Karviná, Kashubian language, Katowice, Kędzierzyn-Koźle, Kłodzko County, Kłodzko Land, Kingdom of Prussia, Knurów, Kresy, Krosno Odrzańskie, Kwisa, Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Landsmannschaft Schlesien, Latin, League of Nations, Legnica, Lesser Poland, Lignite, List of castles and palaces in Jelenia Góra valley, List of castles in Poland, List of people from Silesia, List of Polish monarchs, Lower Silesia, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Lower Sorbian language, Lubin, Lubusz Voivodeship, Lugii, Lusatia, Lusatian Neisse, Lutheranism, Lviv, Margraviate of Brandenburg, Marl, Mieszko I of Poland, Mikołów, Moravia, Moravian-Silesian Beskids, Moravian-Silesian Region, Moravians, Muskau Park, Mysłowice, Nation state, Nazism, Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis, Nowa Sól, Nysa, Poland, Oława, Oświęcim, Oder, Oder–Neisse line, Old European hydronymy, Old Polish language, Oleśnica, Olomouc Region, Opava, Opole, Opole Voivodeship, Ostrava, Ostsiedlung, Piast dynasty, Piekary Śląskie, Poland, Polans (western), Poles, Polish language, Polish United Workers' Party, Potsdam Agreement, Potsdam Conference, Pre-Indo-European languages, Protestantism, Province of Lower Silesia, Province of Silesia, Province of Upper Silesia, Racibórz, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kraków, Ruda Śląska, Ruhr, Rybnik, Saxony, Second Polish Republic, Seniorate Province, Siemianowice Śląskie, Siewierz, Silesian architecture, Silesian Beskids, Silesian cuisine, Silesian German, Silesian language, Silesian Przesieka, Silesian tribes, Silesian Uprisings, Silesian Voivodeship, Silesian Voivodeship (1920–39), Silesian Walls, Silesian Wars, Silesians, Silingi, Slavic studies, Slavs, Slezak, Slovak language, Soviet Union, Strzelin, Sudetenland, Sudetes, Suzerainty, Szczyrk, Tarnowskie Góry, Třinec, Treaty of Berlin (1742), Triple Entente, Tychy, Udo von Woyrsch, Upper Silesia, Upper Silesia plebiscite, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Upper Silesian metropolitan area, Upper Sorbian language, Uranium, Vistula, Vistulans, Wałbrzych, War of the Austrian Succession, Weimar Republic, Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, Wisła, Wodzisław Śląski, World War I, World War II, Wrocław, Zabrze, Zaolzie, Zgorzelec, Zielona Góra. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Karfunkel (also known as Aaron ben Judah; in Hebrew, Aharon ben Yehudah ha-Kohen; in Yiddish, Aaron Löb (died 1816) was a Bohemian rabbi of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After having successively filled the rabbinates of Gawartschew, Łask, Dasparschi, and Widowa, he was called in 1801 to Náchod, where he remained until 1806. From 1807–1816 he was chief rabbi of Silesia. Karfunkel was the author of She'eltot Abiyah, containing dissertations on Talmudic subjects, and divided into twelve parts, having for their respective titles the names of the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate. Of these parts only two have been published (Berlin, 1806). They are divided into "kelalim", subdivided into paragraphs, with glosses entitled Millu'at Eben and dissertations called Meshuah Milhamah. Karfunkel was the author also of Tzanif Tahor, a commentary on Ecclesiastes, a manuscript of which is in the British Museum.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
Łęknica (Lugknitz; Wjeska) is a border town in western Poland, one of the two gminas of Żary County in Lubusz Voivodeship.
The Ślęża (Zobten or Zobtenberg, later also Siling) is a mountain in the Sudeten Foreland (Polish: Przedgórze Sudeckie) in Lower Silesia, from Wrocław, southern Poland.
Ślęza (Polish; German Lohe) is a 78.6 km long river in Lower Silesia, southern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.
Świętochłowice (Schwientochlowitz; Śwjyntochlowicy) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Świdnica (Schweidnitz; Svídnice) is a city in southwestern Poland in the region of Silesia.
Not to be confused with the similarly-named town Żary (German: Sorau) in Silesian Voivodeship Żory (Sohrau) is a town and city county in Silesian Voivodeship, Poland with 58,672 inhabitants (2018).
Bad Muskau (formerly Muskau, Mužakow, Mużaków) is a spa town in the historic Upper Lusatia region in Germany at the border with Poland.
The Barycz (Bartsch) is a river in Greater Poland and Lower Silesian Voivodeships in western Poland.
Bóbr (Bobr, Bober) is a river which runs through the north of the Czech Republic and the southwest of Poland, a left tributary of the Oder.
Bielawa (Langenbielau; Bjelawa), population 31,988 (2010), is a town in southwestern Poland.
Bielsko-Biała (Bílsko-Bělá; Bielitz-Biala) is a city in Southern Poland with the population of approximately 174,000 (December 2013).
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolesławiec (Bunzlau; Bolesławjec) is a town located on the Bóbr River in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, with 40,837 inhabitants (2006).
Bruno Streckenbach (7 February 1902 – 28 October 1977) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.
Brynica (German: Brinitz) is a river in Silesia, Poland.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Bytom (Polish pronunciation:; Silesian: Bytůń, Beuthen O.S.) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Centennial Hall (Hala Stulecia; formerly Hala Ludowa, People's Hall, Jahrhunderthalle) is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Chorzów (Königshütte; Chorzůw) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
Chrzanów is a town in southern Poland with 39,704 inhabitants.
The Churches of Peace (Kościoły Pokoju, Friedenskirchen) in Jawor (German: Jauer) and Świdnica (German: Schweidnitz) in Silesia were named after the Peace of Westphalia of 1648.
Cieszyn (Těšín, Teschen, Tessin) is a border town in southern Poland on the east bank of the Olza River, and the administrative seat of Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Czechowice-Dziedzice (Czechowice-Dźydźice) is a town in Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland with 35,498 inhabitants (2012).
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
The Dąbrowa Basin (also, Dąbrowa Coal Basin) or Zagłębie Dąbrowskie is a geographical and historical region in southern Poland.
The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Duchy of Oświęcim (Księstwo Oświęcimskie), or the Duchy of Auschwitz (Herzogtum Auschwitz), was one of many Duchies of Silesia, formed in the aftermath of the fragmentation of Poland.
The Duchy of Zator was one of many Duchies of Silesia.
The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth.
Dzierżoniów (Reichenbach im Eulengebirge; from 1945-1946 Rychbach, Drobniszew) is a town located at the foot of the Owl Mountains in southwestern Poland, within the Lower Silesian Voivodeship (from 1975–1998 in the former Wałbrzych Voivodeship).
The Eastern Neisse, also known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka (Glatzer Neiße, Kladská Nisa), is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km (21st longest) and a basin area of 4,570 km² (3,742 in Poland).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Expulsion of Poles by Germany was a prolonged anti-Polish campaign of ethnic cleansing by violent and terror-inspiring means lasting nearly half a century.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
Frýdek-Místek (Frydek-Mistek; Friedeck-Mistek) is a city in Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Görlitz (Upper Lusatian dialect: Gerlz, Gerltz, and Gerltsch, Zgorzelec, Zhorjelc, Zgórjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in the German federal state of Saxony.
Głogów (Glogau, rarely Groß-Glogau, Hlohov) is a town in southwestern Poland.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germanische Altertumskunde Online, formerly called Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, is a German encyclopedia of the study of Germanic history and cultures, as well as the cultures that were in close contact with them.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gliwice (Gleiwitz) is a city in Upper Silesia, southern Poland, near Katowice.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Havířov (Hawierzów, Cieszyn Silesian) is a city in the Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
Herbert Hupka (August 15, 1915 – August 24, 2006) was a German-Jewish journalist, politician (SPD and later the CDU), and advocate for the Germans expelled from neighbouring countries after the Second World War.
The Historic Silver Mine, (Zabytkowa Kopalnia Srebra), is a mining museum in Tarnowskie Góry, in Silesia in Poland.
The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders.
The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of the Polish nation.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Hoyerswerda (Wojerecy) is a major district town in the district of Bautzen in the German state of Saxony.
Intelligenzaktion (Intelligentsia action) was a secret mass murder conducted by Nazi Germany against the Polish élites (the intelligentsia, teachers, priests, physicians, et al.) early in the Second World War (1939–45).
Jastrzębie-Zdrój (Bad Königsdorff-Jastrzemb, originally Jastrzemb, Jastrzymbje–Zdrůj) is a city in south Poland with 92,462 inhabitants (31.12.2010).
Jawor (Jauer) is a town in south-western Poland with 24,347 inhabitants (2006).
Jelenia Góra (Hirschberg im Riesengebirge; Exonym: Deer Mountain) is a city in Lower Silesia, south-western Poland.
Jeseník District (Okres Jeseník) is a district (okres) in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
Karpacz (German: Krummhübel) is a spa town and ski resort in Jelenia Góra County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland, and one of the most important centres for mountain hiking and skiing, including ski jumping.
Karviná (Karwina,, Karwin) is a city in Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic, on the Olza River.
Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa; język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński) is a West Slavic language belonging to the Lechitic subgroup along with Polish and Silesian.
Katowice (Katowicy; Kattowitz; officially Miasto Katowice) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of 297,197 and the center of the Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million.
Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Kandrzin-Cosel, 1934-45: Heydebreck O.S. and Cosel; Kandrzin-Koźle) is a town in southwestern Poland, the administrative centre of Kędzierzyn-Koźle County in Opole Voivodeship.
Kłodzko County (powiat kłodzki) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-western Poland.
Kłodzko Land (Kladsko; Glatzer Land; Ziemia kłodzka) is a historical region in southwestern Poland.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Knurów (Knurow; Knurůw) is a town near Katowice in Silesia, southern Poland.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Krosno Odrzańskie (Crossen an der Oder) is a city on the east bank of Oder River, at the confluence with the Bóbr.
The Kwisa (Queis) is a river in south-western Poland, a left tributary of the Bóbr, which itself is a left tributary of the Oder river.
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.
The Landsmannschaft Schlesien - Nieder- und Oberschlesien e.V. ("Territorial Association of Silesia - Lower and Upper Silesia", "Homeland Association of Silesia - Lower and Upper Silesia") is an organization of Germans born in the former Prussian provinces of Lower and Upper Silesia, and their descendants, who currently live in Germany.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Legnica (archaic Polish: Lignica, Liegnitz, Lehnice, Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
This is a list of castles, palaces and manors in Jelenia Góra valley and the surrounding area.
Below is the list of castles in Poland in alphabetical order, based on similar lists compiled by various sight-seeing societies.
This is a list of notable people from Silesia.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.
Lower Silesian Voivodeship, or Lower Silesia Province (''Polish'': województwo dolnośląskie), in southwestern Poland, is one of the 16 voivodeships (provinces) into which Poland is divided.
Lubin, (Lüben) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
Lubusz Voivodeship, or Lubusz Province (in Polish, województwo lubuskie), is a voivodeship (province) in western Poland.
The Lugii (or Lugi, Lygii, Ligii, Lugiones, Lygians, Ligians, Lugians, or Lougoi) were a large tribal confederation mentioned by Roman authors living in ca.
Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.
The Lusatian Neisse (Lužická Nisa; Lausitzer Neiße; Nysa Łużycka; Upper Sorbian: Łužiska Nysa; Lower Sorbian: Łužyska Nysa), or Western Neisse, is a long river in Central Europe.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
Mikołów (Nikolai, Mikołůw) is a town in Silesia, in southern Poland, near the city of Katowice.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Moravian–Silesian Beskids (Czech:, Slovak: Moravsko-sliezske Beskydy) is a mountain range in the Czech Republic with a small part reaching to Slovakia.
The Moravian-Silesian Region (Moravskoslezský kraj; Kraj morawsko-śląski; Moravsko-sliezsky kraj), is one of the 14 administrative Regions of the Czech Republic.
Moravians (Czech: Moravané or colloquially Moraváci) are a West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects of the Czech language or Common Czech or a mixed form of both.
Muskau Park (Muskauer Park, officially: Fürst-Pückler-Park Bad Muskau; Park Mużakowski) is a landscape park in the Upper Lusatia region of Germany and Poland.
Mysłowice (German Myslowitz) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis (German for district of Lower Silesian Upper Lusatia) was the easternmost Kreis (district) of the Free State of Saxony and Germany.
Nowa Sól (Neusalz an der Oder) is a town on the Oder River in Lubusz Voivodeship, western Poland.
Nysa (Neisse or Neiße) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river, situated in the Opole Voivodeship.
Oława is a town in south-western Poland with 32,674 inhabitants (2016).
Oświęcim (Auschwitz; אָשפּיצין Oshpitzin) is a town in the Lesser Poland (Małopolska) province of southern Poland, situated west of Cracow, near the confluence of the Vistula (Wisła) and Soła rivers.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
Old European (Alteuropäisch) is the term used by Hans Krahe (1964) for the language of the oldest reconstructed stratum of European hydronymy (river names) in Central and Western Europe.
Old Polish language (język staropolski) is the period in the history of the Polish language between the 9th and the 16th centuries, followed by the Middle Polish language.
Oleśnica (Oels) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland.
Olomouc Region (Olomoucký kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (Morava) and in a small part of the historical region of Czech Silesia (České Slezsko).
Opava (Troppau, Tropp, Opawa, Oppavia) is a city in the eastern Czech Republic on the river Opava, located to the north-west of Ostrava.
Opole (Oppeln, Silesian German: Uppeln, Uopole, Opolí) is a city located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.
Opole Voivodeship, or Opole Province (województwo opolskie, Woiwodschaft Oppeln), is the smallest and least populated voivodeship (province) of Poland.
Ostrava (Ostrawa, Ostrau or Mährisch Ostrau) is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
The Piast dynasty was the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland.
Piekary Śląskie (Deutsch Piekar; Pjekary) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians;, derived from Old Slavic pole, "field" or "plain", see polje) were a West Slavic tribe, part of the Lechitic group, inhabiting the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Province of Lower Silesia (Provinz Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Niederschläsing; Prowincja Dolny Śląsk; Prowincyjŏ Dolny Ślůnsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
The Province of Silesia (Provinz Schlesien; Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of the German Kingdom of Prussia, existing from 1815 to 1919, when it was divided into the Upper and Lower Silesia provinces, and briefly again from 1938 to 1941.
The Province of Upper Silesia (Provinz Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Oberschläsing; Prowincyjŏ Gōrny Ślōnsk; Prowincja Górny Śląsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945.
Racibórz (Ratibor, Ratiboř, Raćibůrz) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Archdiocese of Kraków (Cracovien(sis), Archidiecezja krakowska) is an archdiocese located in the city of Kraków in Poland.
Ruda Śląska (Ruda O.S.; Ślůnsko Ruda) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Rybnik (Rybnick, Rybńik) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the Silesian Voivodeship.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
Seniorate Province, also known as the Senioral Province (Dzielnica senioralna), Duchy of Kraków (Księstwo krakowskie), Duchy of Cracow, Principality of Cracow, Principality of Kraków, was the superior among the five provinces established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty.
Siemianowice Śląskie also known as Siemianowice (Siemianowitz-Laurahütte; Śymjanowicy) is a city in Upper Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice, in its central district in the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union - a metropolis with a population of 2 million people and is located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Brynica river (tributary of the Vistula).
Siewierz (Sewerien) is a town in the Silesian Voivodeship in Poland.
Silesian architecture is the name given to the constructions made in Silesia throughout time, and those by Silesian architects worldwide.
Silesian Beskids (Polish:, Czech:, Schlesische Beskiden) is one of the Beskids mountain ranges in Outer Western Carpathians in southern Silesian Voivodeship, Poland and the eastern Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic.
Silesian cuisine is an umbrella term for all dishes with a specific regional identity belonging to the region of Silesia.
Silesian German (Silesian German: Schläsche Sproache or Schläs'sche Sproche, Schlesisch) or Lower Silesian is a nearly extinct German dialect spoken in Silesia.
Silesian or Upper Silesian (Silesian: ślōnskŏ gŏdka, ślůnsko godka (Silesian pronunciation), Slezština, język śląski / etnolekt śląski, Wasserpolnisch) is a West Slavic lect, part of its Lechitic group.
Silesian Przesieka, literally Silesian Cutting (Przesieka Śląska or Oseg, Schlesischer Grenzwald, Hag or Preseka, Indago) was a densely forested, uninhabited and unpassable strip of land in the middle of Silesia, spreading from Golden Mountains in the south, along the Nysa Kłodzka to the Odra, and then along the Stobrawa, reaching the towns of Namysłów and Byczyna in northern Silesia.
The Silesian tribes (plemiona śląskie) is a term used to refer to tribes, or groups of West Slavs that lived in the territories of Silesia in the Early Middle Ages.
The Silesian Uprisings (Aufstände in Oberschlesien; Powstania śląskie) were a series of three armed uprisings of the Poles and Polish Silesians of Upper Silesia, from 1919 to 1921, against German rule; the resistance hoped to break away from Germany in order to join the Second Polish Republic, which had been established in the wake of World War I. In the latter-day history of Poland after World War II, the insurrections were celebrated as centrepieces of national pride.
Silesian Voivodeship, or Silesia Province (województwo śląskie), Woiwodschaft Schlesien) is a voivodeship, or province, in southern Poland, centered on the historic region known as Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk), with Katowice serving as its capital. Despite the Silesian Voivodeship's name, most of the historic Silesia region lies outside the present Silesian Voivodeship — divided among Lubusz, Lower Silesian, and Opole Voivodeships — while the eastern half of Silesian Voivodeship (and, notably, Częstochowa in the north) was historically part of Lesser Poland. The Voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Katowice, Częstochowa and Bielsko-Biała Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. It is the most densely populated voivodeship in Poland and within the area of 12,300 squared kilometres, there are almost 5 million inhabitants. It is also the largest urbanised area in Central and Eastern Europe. In relation to economy, over 13% of Poland’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is generated here, making the Silesian Voivodeship one of the wealthiest provinces in the country.
The Silesian Voivodeship (Województwo Śląskie) was an autonomous province (voivodeship) of the interwar Second Polish Republic.
The Silesian Walls (Wały Śląskie, Dreigräben) are a line of three (or sometimes fewer) parallel earthen ramparts and ditches that run through Lower Silesia in Poland, by the towns Szprotawa and Kożuchów.
The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Austria (under Empress Maria Theresa) for control of Silesia, all three of which ended in Prussian victory.
Silesians (Silesian: Ślůnzoki; Silesian German: Schläsinger; Ślązacy; Slezané; Schlesier) are the inhabitants of Silesia, a historical region in Central Europe divided by the current national boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Ancient Greek Σιλίγγαι – Silingai) were a Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandal group.
Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика or Polish slawistyka) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slezak is a Czech, Slovak and Polish surname, which originally meant a person from Silesia, derived from the Czech word slezsko.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Strzelin (Strehlen, Střelín) is a town in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
The Sudetes (also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Szczyrk (Schirk) is a town in the Beskid Śląski mountains of southern Poland, situated in the valley of the Żylica river.
Tarnowskie Góry (German: Tarnowitz, established in 1526; Tarnowske Gůry) is a town in Silesia (southern Poland), located in the Silesian Highlands near Katowice.
Třinec (Trzynietz) is a town in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.
The Treaty of Berlin between the Habsburg archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, who was also Queen of Bohemia, and the Prussian king Frederick the Great was signed on 28 July 1742 in Berlin.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Tychy (former Tichau) is a city in Silesia, Poland, approximately south of Katowice.
Udo von Woyrsch (24 July 1895 – 14 January 1983) was a high-ranking SS official in Nazi Germany who was responsible for implementing the regime's racial policies during World War II.
Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; Silesian Polish: Gůrny Ślůnsk; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.
The Upper Silesia plebiscite was a plebiscite mandated by the Versailles Treaty and carried out on 20 March 1921 to determine a section of the border between Weimar Germany and Poland.
Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe, GZW, Hornoslezská uhelná pánev) is a coal basin in Silesia in Poland and Czech Republic.
The Upper Silesian metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in southern Poland and northeast Czech Republic, centered on the cities of Katowice and Ostrava in Silesia.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
The Vistulans, or Vistulanians (Wiślanie), were an early medieval West Slavic tribe inhabiting western part of modern Lesser Poland.
Wałbrzych (German: Waldenburg; Lower Silesian: Walmbrig or Walmbrich; Valbřich or Valdenburk) is a city in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Wenceslaus II Přemyslid (Václav II.; Wacław II Czeski; 27 SeptemberK. Charvátová, Václav II. Král český a polský, Prague 2007, p. 18. 1271 – 21 June 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278–1305), Duke of Cracow (1291–1305), and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wisła (Weichsel, Visla) is a town in Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland, with a population of about 11,810 (2006), near the border with Czech Republic.
Wodzisław Śląski (Loslau, Vladislavia, Vladislav, Władźisłůw) is a town in Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland with 50,493 inhabitants (2007).
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Zabrze (German: 1915–1945: Hindenburg O.S., full form: Hindenburg in Oberschlesien, 1905–1915: Zabrze, Silesian: Zobrze) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Zgorzelec (Görlitz, Zhorjelc, Zhořelec) is a town in south-western Poland with 32,322 inhabitants (2012).
Zielona Góra (Grünberg in Schlesien) is the largest city in Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, with 138,512 inhabitants (2015).