430 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acetal, Acetone, Activation energy, Addition reaction, Adduct, Agate, Albert Ladenburg, Aldol reaction, Alfred Stock, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alkane, Alkene, Allotropes of phosphorus, Allotropy, Alpha process, Aluminium, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium fluoride, Aluminium oxide, Aluminosilicate, Amethyst, Amine, Ammonia, Amorphous silicon, Amphibole, Analytical chemistry, Antimony, Antoine Lavoisier, Aorta, Argon, Arsenic, Asbestos, Atomic number, Austin, Texas, Automotive industry, Avalanche breakdown, Benzophenone, Beryllium, Beta decay, Biogenic silica, Biotite, Bismuth, Black silicon, Bone density, Borane, Boric acid, Boride, ..., Boron, Boron group, Breast implant, Bristol, Bromine, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Buffer solution, Calcium hydroxide, California, Calque, Cambridge, Carbide, Carbon, Carbon group, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carbon–fluorine bond, Carbonyl group, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carnelian, Cast iron, Casting, Catenation, Caulking, Cementite, Ceramic, Chalcedony, Charles Friedel, Chemical affinity, Chemical element, Chemical Reviews, Chlorine, Chrysoprase, Clay, Close-packing of equal spheres, Coesite, Coke (fuel), Collagen, Colloid, Comproportionation, Concrete, Coordination number, Copper, Corundum, Covalent bond, Covalent superconductor, Cristobalite, Crust (geology), Crystal, Crystal chemistry, Cyclic compound, Czochralski process, D-block contraction, Decay product, Diagonal relationship, Diamond, Diamond cubic, Diatom, Diatomaceous earth, Dichloroethane, Diode, Disilane, Doping (semiconductor), Double bond rule, Dust, Edward Goodrich Acheson, Elastin, Elastomer, Electric arc furnace, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical steel, Electrolysis, Electron, Electron avalanche, Electron hole, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Electronegativity, Electronvolt, Emulsion, English language, Enthalpy of vaporization, Ester, Ethanol, Ethylene oxide, Eutectic system, Explosive material, Feldspar, Fermi level, Ferromagnetism, Ferrosilicon, Fiberglass, Finnish language, Fire brick, Flint, Fluoride, Fluorine, Fractional distillation, Frederick Kipping, Friedrich Wöhler, Fumed silica, Gallium, Garnet, Geochemistry, German language, Germanium, Glass, Glass fiber, Glass wool, Granite, Gravel, Greek language, Grignard reaction, Half-life, Haloalkane, Halogen, Heliotrope (mineral), Helium, Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri Moissan, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Hexamethyldisiloxane, Homologous series, Humphry Davy, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen halide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydroxide, Hypervalent molecule, Igneous rock, Imide, Imine, Inflammation, Integrated circuit, Intrinsic semiconductor, Inverse beta decay, Iodine, Iodosilane, Ionic bonding, Ionization energy, Iron, Isoelectronicity, Isotope, Iturup, James Crafts, Jasper, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Journal of Physics D, Kaolinite, Keatite, Kuril Islands, Lattice energy, Lawrence Bragg, Lead, Lechatelierite, Lewis acids and bases, Lightning, Linus Pauling, Liquid-crystal display, List of countries by silicon production, List of silicon producers, Lithium aluminium hydride, Louis Jacques Thénard, Lubricant, Lung, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium silicide, Mantle (geology), Mass number, Medvezhya, Mercury (element), Metal, Metal carbonyl, Metallic bonding, Metalloid, Metamorphism, Metasilicic acid, Methanol, Mexicali, Mica, Mineral (nutrient), Minor planet, Mohorovičić discontinuity, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molding (process), Molybdenum, Monocrystalline silicon, Mortar (masonry), Muscovite, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neon, Neutron activation, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nodule (medicine), Nonmetal, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleophile, Obsidian, Occupational lung disease, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Octet rule, Olivine, Onyx, Opal, Optical fiber, Orbital hybridisation, Oregon, Organic chemistry, Organoaluminium chemistry, Organolithium reagent, Organosilicon, Orthoclase, Orthosilicate, Orthosilicic acid, Osteoporosis, Oxocarbon, Oxygen, Oxygen-burning process, Pascal (unit), P–n junction, Periodic trends, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Phenakite, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, Phosphorus-32, Photodisintegration, Photovoltaics, Phytolith, Pi backbonding, Picometre, Planet, Planetary differentiation, Pnictogen, Polycrystalline silicon, Polymer, Polysilane, Polysilicon hydride, Porcelain, Portland cement, Post-transition metal, Potassium, Potassium hydroxide, Printed electronics, Properties of water, Proton, Protonolysis, Pyrolysis, Pyrotechnics, Pyroxene, Quartz, Quartzite, Radioactive decay, Radiolaria, Radionuclide, Raman laser, Recommended exposure limit, Reducing agent, Refractory, Release agent, Resin, Rice, Rock (geology), Roll-to-roll processing, Russian language, Salt Lake City, Samuel Smiles, Sand, Sand casting, Sandstone, Santa Clara Valley, Saponification, Sedimentary rock, Selenium, Semiconductor, Semiconductor detector, Semiconductor device, Semiconductor industry, Sigma bond, Silane, Silanes, Silene, Silica gel, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Silicene, Siliceous sponge, Silicic acid, Silicide, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Silicon disulfide, Silicon Fen, Silicon Forest, Silicon Glen, Silicon Gorge, Silicon Hills, Silicon nanowire, Silicon nitride, Silicon photonics, Silicon Saxony, Silicon Slopes, Silicon tetrachloride, Silicon tetrafluoride, Silicon tombac, Silicon Valley, Silicon Wadi, Silicon-burning process, Silicone, Silicone oil, Silicosis, Silly Putty, Siloxane, Silumin, Silver, Silyl enol ether, Silyl ether, Silylation, Smoky quartz, SN1 reaction, SN2 reaction, Soda–lime glass, Sodium, Sodium chloride, Sodium fluorosilicate, Sodium silicate, Solar cell, Solar System, Sponge, Standard enthalpy of formation, Steel, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stishovite, Structure of the Earth, Stucco, Sulfur, Superalloy, Tektite, Tetraethyl orthosilicate, Tetravalence, Thallium, Thermodynamics, Thiosilicate, Thomas Thomson (chemist), Tin, Tonne, Transistor, Trichlorosilane, Tridymite, Triflate, Trimethylamine, Trimethylsilyl, Trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, Triode, Truncated cuboctahedron, Tungsten, Tungsten hexachloride, Turkish language, Type II supernova, Ultramarine, Uranium, Valence (chemistry), Valence electron, Victor Goldschmidt, Vitrification, Wafer (electronics), Waterproofing, Weathering, X-ray crystallography, Zeolite, Zinc, Zircon, Zirconium dioxide, Zone melting. Expand index (380 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.
Albert Ladenburg (July 2, 1842August 15, 1911) was a German chemist.
The aldol reaction is a means of forming carbon–carbon bonds in organic chemistry.
Alfred Stock (July 16, 1876 – August 12, 1946) was a German inorganic chemist.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
The alpha process, also known as the alpha ladder, is one of two classes of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert helium into heavier elements, the other being the triple-alpha process.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
Aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is an inorganic compound used primarily in the production of aluminium.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and oxygen, plus countercations.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline form of silicon used for solar cells and thin-film transistors in LCDs.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.
The automotive industry is a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacturing, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles, some of them are called automakers.
Avalanche breakdown is a phenomenon that can occur in both insulating and semiconducting materials.
Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Biogenic silica (bSi), also referred to as opal, biogenic opal, or amorphous opaline silica, forms one of the most widespread biogenic minerals.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Black silicon is a semiconductor material, a surface modification of silicon with very low reflectivity and correspondingly high absorption of visible (and infrared) light.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
Borane (systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a woman’s breast.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
The carbon–fluorine bond is a polar covalent bond between carbon and fluorine that is a component of all organofluorine compounds.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.
Cementite (or iron carbide) is a compound of iron and carbon, more precisely an intermediate transition metal carbide with the formula Fe3C.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.
Charles Friedel (12 March 1832 – 20 April 1899) was a French chemist and mineralogist.
In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chrysoprase, chrysophrase or chrysoprasus is a gemstone variety of chalcedony (a cryptocrystalline form of silica) that contains small quantities of nickel.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide SiO2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature, are applied to quartz.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Comproportionation or synproportionation is a chemical reaction where two reactants, each containing the same element but with a different oxidation number, form a product in which the elements involved reach the same oxidation number.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Covalent superconductors are superconducting materials where the atoms are linked by covalent bonds.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystal chemistry is the study of the principles of chemistry behind crystals and their use in describing structure-property relations in solids.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.
The d-block contraction (sometimes called scandide contraction) is a term used in chemistry to describe the effect of having full d orbitals on the period 4 elements.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
A diagonal relationship is said to exist between certain pairs of diagonally adjacent elements in the second and third periods of the periodic table.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
The diamond cubic crystal structure is a repeating pattern of 8 atoms that certain materials may adopt as they solidify.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
Dichloroethane can refer to either of two isomeric organochlorides with the molecular formula C2H4Cl2.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
Disilane is a chemical compound with chemical formula Si2H6 that was identified in 1902 by Henri Moissan and Samuel Smiles (1877–1953).
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
The double bond rule states that chemical elements with a principal quantum number greater than 2 for their valence electrons (period 3 elements and lower) should not form multiple bonds (e.g. double bonds and triple bonds) with themselves or with other elements.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Edward Goodrich Acheson (March 9, 1856 – July 6, 1931) was an American chemist.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (i. e., both viscosity and elasticity) and very weak intermolecular forces, and generally low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical steel (lamination steel, silicon electrical steel, silicon steel, relay steel, transformer steel) is a special steel tailored to produce specific magnetic properties: small hysteresis area resulting in low power loss per cycle, low core loss, and high permeability.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron avalanche is a process in which a number of free electrons in a transmission medium are subjected to strong acceleration by an electric field and subsequently collide with other atoms of the medium, thereby ionizing them (impact ionization).
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
The Fermi level chemical potential for electrons (or electrochemical potential for electrons), usually denoted by µ or EF, of a body is a thermodynamic quantity, whose significance is the thermodynamic work required to add one electron to the body (not counting the work required to remove the electron from wherever it came from).
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
Ferrosilicon is an alloy of iron and silicon with an average silicon content between 15 and 90 weight percent.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces, kilns, fireboxes, and fireplaces.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Frederic Stanley Kipping FRS (16 August 1863 – 1 May 1949) was an English chemist.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Fumed silica (CAS number 112945-52-5), also known as pyrogenic silica because it is produced in a flame, consists of microscopic droplets of amorphous silica fused into branched, chainlike, three-dimensional secondary particles which then agglomerate into tertiary particles.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glass fiber (or glass fibre) is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.
Glass wool is an insulating material made from fibres of glass arranged using a binder into a texture similar to wool.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
The mineral aggregate heliotrope (from Greek ἥλιος, hḗlios “Sun”, τρέπειν, trépein “to turn”), also known as bloodstone, is a variety of jasper or chalcedony (which is a cryptocrystalline mixture of quartz).
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville (11 March 1818 – 1 July 1881) was a French chemist.
Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (28 September 1852 – 20 February 1907) was a French chemist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) is an organosilicon compound with the formula O2.
In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
A hypervalent molecule (the phenomenon is sometimes colloquially known as expanded octet) is a molecule that contains one or more main group elements apparently bearing more than eight electrons in their valence shells.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
In organic chemistry, an imide is a functional group consisting of two acyl groups bound to nitrogen.
An imine is a functional group or chemical compound containing a carbon–nitrogen double bond.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
An intrinsic(pure) semiconductor, also called an undoped semiconductor or i-type semiconductor, is a pure semiconductor without any significant dopant species present.
Inverse beta decay, commonly abbreviated to IBD, is a nuclear reaction involving electron antineutrino scattering off a proton, creating a positron and a neutron.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iodosilane is a chemical compound of silicon, hydrogen, and iodine.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Iturup (accessdate; Ainu: エﾂﾟヲロプシㇼ, Etuworop-sir; 択捉島, Etorofu-tō, historically also called Yetorup), is one of the Kuril Islands.
James Mason Crafts (March 8, 1839 – June 20, 1917) was an American chemist, mostly known for developing the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reactions with Charles Friedel in 1876.
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,Kostov, R. I. 2010.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing, a subsidiary of the Institute of Physics in the United Kingdom.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Keatite is a silicate mineral with the chemical formula SiO2 (silicon dioxide) that was discovered in nature in 2013.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.
Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lechatelierite is silica glass, amorphous SiO2, non-crystalline mineraloid.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
This is a list of countries by silicon production in 2016 based on USGS figures.
This is a list of silicon producers.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Magnesium silicide, Mg2Si, is an inorganic compound consisting of magnesium and silicon.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Medvezhya (Медве́жий; 茂世路岳, Moyoro-dake) is a volcanic complex located at the northern end of Iturup Island, Kuril Islands, Russia.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
Metasilicic acid is the chemical compound with formula, or; or any chain or cyclic polymers thereof, namely n or HOnH.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Mexicali is the capital city of the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the Municipality of Mexicali.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
The Mohorovičić discontinuity, usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monocrystalline silicon (also called "single-crystal silicon", "single-crystal Si", "mono c-Si", or mono-Si) is the base material for silicon chips used in virtually all electronic equipment today.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
In medicine, nodules are solid, elevated areas of tissue or fluid inside or under the skin with a diameter greater than 0.5 centimeters.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Occupational lung diseases are occupational, or work-related, lung conditions that have been caused or made worse by the materials a person is exposed to within the workplace.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Onyx is a banded variety of the oxide mineral chalcedony.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Organoaluminium chemistry is the study of compounds containing bonds between carbon and aluminium bond.
Organolithium reagents are organometallic compounds that contain carbon – lithium bonds.
Organosilicon compounds are organometallic compounds containing carbon–silicon bonds.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
In chemistry, orthosilicate is the anion, or any of its salts and esters.
Orthosilicic acid is the chemical compound with formula, or.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
An oxocarbon or oxide of carbon is a chemical compound consisting only of carbon and oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The oxygen-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Phenakite or phenacite is a fairly rare nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium orthosilicate, Be2SiO4.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus.
Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.
Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
π backbonding, also called π backdonation, is a concept from chemistry in which electrons move from an atomic orbital on one atom to an appropriate symmetry antibonding orbital on a π-acceptor ligand.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Polycrystalline silicon, also called polysilicon or poly-Si, is a high purity, polycrystalline form of silicon, used as a raw material by the solar photovoltaic and electronics industry.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysilanes are organosilicon compounds with the formula (R2Si)n.
Polysilicon hydrides are polymers containing only silicon and hydrogen.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Printed electronics is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Protonolysis is the cleavage of a chemical bond by acids.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A Raman laser is a specific type of laser in which the fundamental light-amplification mechanism is stimulated Raman scattering.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
A release agent (also mold release agent, release coating, or mold release coating) is a chemical used to prevent other materials from bonding to surfaces.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
In the field of electronic devices, Roll-to-roll processing, also known as web processing, reel-to-reel processing or R2R, is the process of creating electronic devices on a roll of flexible plastic or metal foil.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
Samuel Smiles (23 December 1812 – 16 April 1904), was a Scottish author and government reformer who campaigned on a Chartist platform.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
The Santa Clara Valley runs south-southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States.
Saponification is a process that produces soap.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
This article is about ionizing radiation detectors.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
The semiconductor industry is the aggregate collection of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices.
In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.
Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride.
Silanes are saturated chemical compounds consisting of one or multiple silicon atoms linked to each other or one or multiple atoms of other chemical elements as the tetrahedral centers of multiple single bonds.
Silene is a genus of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae.
Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon, with a hexagonal honeycomb structure similar to that of graphene.
The siliceous sponges form a major group of the phylum Porifera, consisting of classes Demospongiae and Hexactinellida.
Silicic acid is the general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups, with the general formula n or,equivalently, n. They are generally colorless and sparingly soluble in water.
A silicide is a compound that has silicon with (usually) more electropositive elements.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicon sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula SiS2.
Silicon Fen (sometimes known as the Cambridge Cluster) is the name given to the region around Cambridge, England, which is home to a large cluster of high-tech businesses focusing on software, electronics and biotechnology.
Silicon Forest is a nickname for the cluster of high-tech companies located in the Portland metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Oregon, and most frequently refers to the industrial corridor between Beaverton and Hillsboro in northwest Oregon.
Silicon Glen is a nickname for the high tech sector of Scotland, the name inspired by Silicon Valley in California.
The Silicon Gorge refers to the numerous high-tech and research companies, in the triangle of Bristol, Swindon and Gloucester, in England.
Silicon Hills is a nickname for the cluster of high-tech companies in the Austin metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Texas.
Silicon nanowires, also referred to as SiNWs, are a type of nanowire most often formed from a silicon precursor by etching of a solid or through catalyzed growth from a vapor or liquid phase.
Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.
Silicon photonics is the study and application of photonic systems which use silicon as an optical medium.
Silicon Saxony is a registered industry association of nearly 300 companies in the microelectronics and related sectors in Saxony, Germany, with around 40,000 employees.
Silicon Slopes refers to the metropolitan area that primarily originates in the Salt Lake City, Utah, metropolitan area but also includes Provo, Utah and Park City, Utah and surrounding areas.
Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4.
Silicon tetrafluoride or tetrafluorosilane is the chemical compound with the formula SiF4.
Silicon tombac (German word origin: Siliziumtombak) is an alloy made of copper (80%), zinc (16%) and silicon (4%).
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Silicon Wadi (סיליקון ואדי, lit: "Silicon Valley") is an area with a high concentration of high-technology companies on the coastal plain of Israel, similar to Silicon Valley in the U.S. state of California, and is the reason Israel is nicknamed the Start-Up Nation.
In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.
Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.
A silicone oil is any liquid polymerized siloxane with organic side chains.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Silly Putty is a toy based on silicone polymers that have unusual physical properties.
A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon chemistry with the Si–O–Si linkage.
Silumin is a group of lightweight, high-strength aluminium alloys based on an aluminum–silicon system.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silyl enol ethers in organic chemistry are a class of organic compounds that share a common functional group composed of an enolate bonded through its oxygen end to an organosilicon group.
Silyl ethers are a group of chemical compounds which contain a silicon atom covalently bonded to an alkoxy group.
Silylation is the introduction of a (usually) substituted silyl group (R3Si) to a molecule.
Smoky quartz is a grey, translucent variety of quartz that ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to an almost-opaque brownish-gray or black crystal.
The SN1 reaction is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry.
The SN2 reaction is a type of reaction mechanism that is common in organic chemistry.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium fluorosilicate is a compound with the chemical formula Na2.
Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Tektites (from Greek τηκτός tēktós, "molten") are gravel-sized bodies composed of black, green, brown, or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during meteorite impacts.
Tetraethyl orthosilicate, formally named tetraethoxysilane and abbreviated TEOS, is the chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4.
In chemistry, tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell, giving the atom a chemical valence of four.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
In chemistry and materials science, thiosilicate refers to materials containing anions of the formula SiS(2+n)2n-.
Thomas Thomson (12 April 1773 – 2 July 1852) was a British chemist and mineralogist whose writings contributed to the early spread of Dalton's atomic theory.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Trichlorosilane is an inorganic compound with the formula HSiCl3.
Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.
Triflate, also known by the systematic name trifluoromethanesulfonate, is a functional group with the formula CF3SO3−.
Trimethylamine (TMA) is an organic compound with the formula N(CH3)3.
A trimethylsilyl group (abbreviated TMS) is a functional group in organic chemistry.
Trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate is a trifluoromethanesulfonate derivate with a trimethylsilyl R-group.
A triode is an electronic amplifying vacuum tube (or valve in British English) consisting of three electrodes inside an evacuated glass envelope: a heated filament or cathode, a grid, and a plate (anode).
In geometry, the truncated cuboctahedron is an Archimedean solid, named by Kepler as a truncation of a cuboctahedron.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten hexachloride is the chemical compound of tungsten and chlorine with the formula WCl6.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Victor Moritz Goldschmidt (Zürich, January 27, 1888 – March 20, 1947, Oslo) was a Norwegian mineralogist considered (together with Vladimir Vernadsky) to be the founder of modern geochemistry and crystal chemistry, developer of the Goldschmidt Classification of elements.
Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.
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