150 relations: Abrasive blasting, Acta Crystallographica, Adsorption, Aerogel, Alkali metal, American Mineralogist, Amorphous solid, Animal, Autoimmune disease, Ångström, Birefringence, Blast furnace, Borosilicate glass, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Bronchitis, Calcium silicate, Carbon dioxide, Carbothermic reaction, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chaotropic agent, Chemical formula, Chemical vapor deposition, Clarification and stabilization of wine, Coesite, Colloid, Countertop, Cristobalite, Crystallinity, Cubic crystal system, Defoamer, Dementia, Diatom, Diatomaceous earth, Dicotyledon, DNA separation by silica adsorption, Earthenware, Electric arc furnace, Equisetaceae, Ethylene glycol, Faujasite, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Frustule, Fumed silica, Fused quartz, Geothermal heat pump, Germanium dioxide, Glass, Glass transition, Hexafluorosilicic acid, Hexagonal crystal family, ..., Hydrated silica, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrolysis, Hydrophobic silica, Hygroscopy, IEEE Spectrum, Inflammasome, Institute of Occupational Medicine, Insulator (electricity), Interleukin, Ion source, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Physics, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Keatite, Latin, Lead dioxide, Lead glass, Lead(II) oxide, Lung cancer, Melanophlogite, Mesoporous silica, Microelectronics, Microgram, Moganite, Monoclinic crystal system, Nanometre, Nature (journal), Nature Immunology, Nitrogen, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Optical fiber, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxide, Oxygen, Pearson symbol, Petrifaction, Philosophical Magazine, Phytolith, Polymorphism (materials science), Porcelain, Portland cement, Potassium oxide, Proinflammatory cytokine, Properties of water, Quartz, Quartz inversion, Radiolaria, Reflux, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rice hulls, RNA, Rutile, Sand, Sand casting, Sand mining, Seifertite, Shale gas, Silane, Silex, Silica fume, Silica gel, Silicate, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon disulfide, Silicon monoxide, Silicon tetrachloride, Silicosis, Slag, Soda–lime glass, Sodium oxide, Sodium silicate, Sol–gel process, Sponge, Stardust (spacecraft), Stishovite, Stoneware, Sulfuric acid, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Telecommunication, Test (biology), Tetraethyl orthosilicate, Tetragonal crystal system, Tetrahedral molecular geometry, Thermal cutoff, Thermal oxidation, Tight oil, Tin(IV) Oxide, Toothpaste, Tridymite, Ungulate, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Public Health Service, W. H. Freeman and Company, Wafer (electronics), Zeolite, Zinc oxide, 2D silica. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.
Acta Crystallographica is a series of peer-reviewed scientific journals, with articles centred on crystallography, published by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr).
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
American Mineralogist: An International Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the general fields of mineralogy, crystallography, geochemistry, and petrology.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbothermic reactions involve the reduction of substances, often metal oxides (O2^2-), using carbon as the reducing agent.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A chaotropic agent is a molecule in water solution that can disrupt the hydrogen bonding network between water molecules (i.e. exerts chaotropic activity).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
In winemaking, clarification and stabilization are the processes by which insoluble matter suspended in the wine is removed before bottling.
Coesite is a form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide SiO2 that is formed when very high pressure (2–3 gigapascals), and moderately high temperature, are applied to quartz.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
A countertop (also counter top, counter, benchtop, (British English) worktop, or (Australian English) kitchen bench) is a horizontal work surface in kitchens or other food preparation areas, bathrooms or lavatories, and workrooms in general.
The mineral cristobalite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica, meaning that it has the same chemical formula as quartz, SiO2, but a distinct crystal structure.
Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
DNA separation by silica adsorption is a method of DNA separation that is based on DNA molecules binding to silica surfaces in the presence of certain salts and under certain pH conditions.
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
Equisetaceae, sometimes called the horsetail family, is the only extant family of the order Equisetales, with one surviving genus, Equisetum, which comprises about twenty species.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
Faujasite is a mineral group in the zeolite family of silicate minerals.
Food and Chemical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of food safety, chemical safety, and other aspects of consumer product safety.
A frustule is the hard and porous cell wall or external layer of diatoms.
Fumed silica (CAS number 112945-52-5), also known as pyrogenic silica because it is produced in a flame, consists of microscopic droplets of amorphous silica fused into branched, chainlike, three-dimensional secondary particles which then agglomerate into tertiary particles.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.
A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a central heating and/or cooling system that transfers heat to or from the ground.
Germanium dioxide, also called germanium oxide and germania, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula GeO2.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.
Hexafluorosilicic acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a colorless liquid rarely encountered undiluted.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Hydrated silica is a form of silicon dioxide, which has a variable amount of water in the formula.
Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydrophobic silica is a form of silicon dioxide (commonly known as silica) that has hydrophobic groups chemically bonded to the surface.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
IEEE Spectrum is a magazine edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
The inflammasome is a multiprotein oligomer responsible for the activation of inflammatory responses.
The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
An ion source is a device that creates atomic and molecular ions.
The Journal of Animal Ecology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in all areas of animal ecology.
The Journal of Applied Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal with a focus on the physics of modern technology.
the Journal of the American Ceramic Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the American Ceramic Society by Wiley-Blackwell.
Keatite is a silicate mineral with the chemical formula SiO2 (silicon dioxide) that was discovered in nature in 2013.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.
Lead glass, commonly called crystal, is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of a typical potash glass.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Melanophlogite (MEP) is a rare silicate mineral and a polymorph of silica (SiO2).
Mesoporous silica is a mesoporous form of silica and a recent development in nanotechnology.
Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
Moganite is an oxide mineral with the chemical formula SiO2 (silicon dioxide) that was discovered in 1984.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Immunology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on immunology.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Pearson symbol, or Pearson notation, is used in crystallography as a means of describing a crystal structure, and was originated by W.B. Pearson.
In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material becomes a fossil through the replacement of the original material and the filling of the original pore spaces with minerals.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
A proinflammatory cytokine or more simply an inflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is excreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote inflammation.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The room-temperature form of quartz, α-quartz, undergoes a reversible change in crystal structure at 573 °C to form β-quartz.
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Rice hulls (or rice husks) are the hard protecting coverings of grains of rice.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.
Sand mining is the extraction of sand, mainly through an open pit but sometimes mined from beaches and inland dunes or dredged from ocean and river beds.
Seifertite is a silicate mineral with the formula SiO2 and is one of the densest polymorphs of silica.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.
Silane is an inorganic compound with chemical formula, SiH4, making it a group 14 hydride.
Silex is any of various forms of ground stone.
Silica fume, also known as microsilica, (CAS number 69012-64-2, EINECS number 273-761-1) is an amorphous (non-crystalline) polymorph of silicon dioxide, silica.
Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon sulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula SiS2.
Silicon monoxide is the chemical compound with the formula SiO where silicon is present in the oxidation state +2.
Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O.
Sodium silicate is a generic name for chemical compounds with the formula or ·, such as sodium metasilicate, sodium orthosilicate, and sodium pyrosilicate.
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal form (polymorph) of silicon dioxide.
--> Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
In biology, a test is the hard shell of some spherical marine animals, notably sea urchins and microorganisms such as testate foraminiferans, radiolarians, and testate amoebae.
Tetraethyl orthosilicate, formally named tetraethoxysilane and abbreviated TEOS, is the chemical compound with the formula Si(OC2H5)4.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
In a tetrahedral molecular geometry, a central atom is located at the center with four substituents that are located at the corners of a tetrahedron.
A thermal cutoff is an electrical safety device that interrupts electric current when heated to a specific temperature.
In microfabrication, thermal oxidation is a way to produce a thin layer of oxide (usually silicon dioxide) on the surface of a wafer.
Tight oil (also known as shale oil, shale-hosted oil or light tight oil, abbreviated LTO) is light crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability, often shale or tight sandstone.
Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.
Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth.
Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica and usually occurs as minute tabular white or colorless pseudo-hexagonal crystals, or scales, in cavities in felsic volcanic rocks.
Ungulates (pronounced) are any members of a diverse group of primarily large mammals that includes odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinoceroses, and even-toed ungulates such as cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, and hippopotami.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The Public Health Service Act of 1944 structured the United States Public Health Service (PHS), founded in 1798, as the primary division of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW; which was established in 1953), which later became the United States Department of Health and Human Services in 1979–1980 (when the Education agencies were separated into their own U.S. Department of Education).
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Two-dimensional silica (2D silica) is a layered polymorph of silicon dioxide.
Amorphous silica, Amorphous silicon dioxide, Crystalline silica, E551, Quartzose, SiO2, SiOx, Silica, Silica Mineral, Silica dioxide, Silica group of minerals, Silica minerals, Silicaceous, Siliceous, Silicious, Silicon Dioxide, Silicon(IV) oxide, Sio2.