249 relations: Absorption (chemistry), Adhesive, Ahimsa, Alanine, Alpujarras, Amino acid, Andhra Pradesh, Angle, Annual Reviews (publisher), Ant, Arabic, Arachnid, Aristotle, Arni, Tiruvannamalai, Art silk, Arthropod, Artillery, Ashmolean Museum, Asia, Assam, Assam silk, Augustan History, Ayot St Lawrence, Bedding, Bee, Beetle, Bengal, Beta sheet, Bhagalpur, Bhoodan Pochampally, Bible, Biodegradation, Blouse, Bombyx mori, Bulletproofing, Byzantine Empire, Calabria, Carding, Care2, Carpet, Catanzaro, Caterpillar, Cedar wood, Cellulose, Chanhudaro, Charmeuse, Chiffon (fabric), China, Chinese culture, City-state, ..., Coa vestis, Coimbatore, Collagen, Columbia Encyclopedia, Congleton, Constantinople, Cravat, Crêpe (textile), Cross section (geometry), Cyprus, Decorative arts, Demineralizing (silk worm cocoon), Dermatitis, Dharmapuri, Dharmavaram, Anantapur district, Dress, Dry cleaning, Dupioni, Egypt, Elagabalus, Elasticity (physics), Electricity, Embioptera, Emperor of China, Enzyme, Erode, Europe, Fiber, Fibroin, Flea, Florence, Fly, Folk costume, Formal wear, Gamma ray, Genetic engineering, Genoa, Glycine, Gobichettipalayam, Granada, Great Palace of Constantinople, Gryllacrididae, Gunpowder, Habutai, Hampton Court Palace, Han dynasty, Harappa, Hùng king, Henan, HMS Royal George (1756), Holometabolism, Horse-fly, Hyderabad, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen peroxide, Hymenoptera, Hyssopus officinalis, Iberian Peninsula, India, Indus Valley Civilisation, Industrial Revolution, Insect, Institut d'Estudis Catalans, International Year of Natural Fibres, Islam, James VI and I, Jammu and Kashmir, Jews, Jiahu, Jiangxi, Justinian I, Kanchipuram, Karnataka, Kimono, Kingdom of Khotan, Korea, Kos, Larva, Leafhopper, Leizu, Light, Linear density, Lingerie, Lining (sewing), List of mills in Stockport, Llotja de la Seda, Lullingstone Castle, Lyocell, Lyon, Macclesfield, Mahatma Gandhi, Malaysia, Manchester, Connecticut, Manchu language, Mawangdui, Mayfly, Metabolism, Metamorphosis, Microfibril, Middle East, Midge, Mineral acid, Mongolian language, Monopoly, Moors, Morus (plant), Mosquito, Moth, Mummy, Murshidabad, Muslim world, Mysore, Necktie, Neolithic, Neuroptera, Noil, North Africa, Nylon, Odysseus, Odyssey, Oxford University Press, Pajamas, Pakistan, Parachute, Paterson, New Jersey, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Percale, Phys.org, Piezoelectricity, Polyglycolide, Polylactic acid, Prism, Protein, Pupa, Rajshahi Division, Ramanagara, Rayon, Rebellion of the Alpujarras (1568–71), Reggio Calabria, Republic of Lucca, Robe, Roman Empire, Rutgers University Press, Saadia Gaon, Salem district, Sari, Sea silk, Seal script, Sericin, Sericulture, Serine, Shakers, Shantung (fabric), Shirt, Shrinkage (fabric), Silk comforter, Silk Road, Silk waste, Silverfish, Smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire, Songket, South Asia, Spider, Spider silk, Standard Chinese, Static cling, Stem cell, Sulfuric acid, Sumptuary law, Surgical suture, Synthetic fiber, Taffeta, Tamil Nadu, Terengganu, Textile, Thrips, Tiberius, Tire, Tiruppur, Tobacco, Torah, Trade, Triangle, Tussar silk, Units of textile measurement, Upholstery, Varanasi, Venice, Wasp, Weaving, West Bengal, Wild silk, Wiley-Blackwell, World War II, Xingyang, Xinru Liu, Yangshao culture, Za'atar, Zhou dynasty. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The Alpujarra is a natural and historical region in Andalusia, Spain, on the south slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the adjacent valley.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, Annual Reviews is a nonprofit publisher dedicated to synthesizing and integrating knowledge for the progress of science and the benefit of society.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arni is a town and a municipality in Tiruvanamalai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Artificial silk or art silk is any synthetic fiber which resembles silk, but typically costs less to produce.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden Muga, white Pat and warm Eri silk.
The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
Ayot St Lawrence is a small village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, between Harpenden and Welwyn.
Bedding, also known as bedclothes or bed linen, is the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for hygiene, warmth, protection of the mattress, and decorative effect.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Bhagalpur is a city of historical importance on the southern banks of the river Ganges in the Indian state of Bihar.
Bhoodan Pochampally is a census town in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district of the Indian state of Telangana.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
A blouse is a loose-fitting upper garment that was formerly worn by workmen, peasants, artists, women, and children.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Bulletproofing is the process of making something capable of stopping a bullet or similar high velocity projectiles e.g. shrapnel.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calabria (Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing.
Care2 is a social networking website that was founded by Randy Paynter in 1998.
A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.
Catanzaro (Catanzarese: Catanzaru;, or Κατασταρίοι Λοκροί, Katastarioi Lokroi; Catacium), also known as the city of the two seas, is an Italian city of 91,000 inhabitants (2013) and the capital of the Calabria region and of its province.
Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera (the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Cedar wood comes from several different trees known as cedars that grow in different parts of the world, and may have different uses.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Chanhudaro (also Chanhu Daro or Chanhu Dado) is an archaeological site belonging to the post-urban Jhukar phase of Indus valley civilization.
Charmeuse is a lightweight fabric woven with a satin weave, in which the warp threads cross over four or more of the backing (weft) threads.
Chiffon ((French cloth, or rag; Arabic شف transparent, diaphanous, translucent fabric, or gauze; (عن s.th.) to shimmer through, reveal) is a lightweight, balanced plain-woven sheer fabric, or gauze, woven of alternate S- and Z-twist crepe (high-twist) yarns.Kadolph, Sara J., ed.: Textiles, 10th edition, Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007,, p. 230. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel. Early chiffon was made purely from silk. In 1938, however, a nylon version of chiffon was invented, and in 1958 polyester chiffon was invented and became immensely popular due to its resilience and low cost. Under a magnifying glass chiffon resembles a fine net or mesh which gives it some transparency. Chiffon is most commonly used in evening wear, especially as an overlay, for giving an elegant and floating appearance to the gown. It is also a popular fabric used in blouses, ribbons, scarves and lingerie. Like other crêpe fabrics, chiffon can be difficult to work with because of its light and slippery texture. Due to this delicate nature, chiffon must be hand washed very gently. Since chiffon is a light-weight fabric that frays very easily, bound or French seams must be used to stop the fabric from fraying. Chiffon is smoother and more lustrous than the similar fabric georgette. In African countries, such as Eritrea and Ethiopia, traditional ankle-length gowns are often made of chiffon which comes in many different designs and colors.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Coa vestis is an ancient type of fabric named after its point of origin, the Greek island Kos.
Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Congleton is a town and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The cravat is a neckband, the forerunner of the modern tailored necktie and bow tie, originating from a style worn by members of the seventeenth-century military unit known as the Croats.
Crêpe, also spelt crepe or crape (from the Fr. crêpe), is a silk, wool, or synthetic fiber fabric with a distinctively crisp, crimped appearance.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Demineralizing has the potential to be used in the silk sector enabling wet reeling of Wild Silk moth cocoons by removing the mineral layer present in these cocoons.
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.
Dharmapuri is a City in Kongunadu region in the Western part of Tamil Nadu in South India.The town is located at 126km from Bangalore,200km from Coimbatore,260km from Mysore,300km from Chennai.
Dharmavaram is a city in Anantapur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
A dress (also known as a frock or a gown) is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice (or a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment).
Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using a chemical solvent other than water.
Dupioni (also referred to as Douppioni or Dupion) is a plain weave crisp type of silk fabric, produced by using fine thread in the warp and uneven thread reeled from two or more entangled cocoons in the weft.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The order Embioptera, commonly known as webspinners, are a small group of mostly tropical and subtropical insects, classified under the subclass Pterygota.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erode is the seventh largest urban agglomeration of the South Indian state, Tamil Nadu and serves as administrative headquarters of Erode District.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fibroin is an insoluble protein present in silk created by spiders, the larvae of Bombyx mori, other moth genera such as Antheraea, Cricula, Samia and Gonometa, and numerous other insects.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
A folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history.
Formal wear, formal attire or full dress is the traditional Western dress code category for the most formal clothing, such as for weddings, christenings, funerals, Easter and Christmas traditions, formal balls and banquets with dancing, as well as certain horse racing events.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Gobichettipalayam is a town and municipality in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Great Palace of Constantinople (Μέγα Παλάτιον, Méga Palátion; Latin: Palatium Magnum, Turkish: Büyük Saray), also known as the Sacred Palace (Ἱερὸν Παλάτιον, Hieròn Palátion; Latin: Sacrum Palatium), was the large Imperial Byzantine palace complex located in the south-eastern end of the peninsula now known as Old Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), in modern Turkey.
Gryllacrididae are a family of non-jumping insects in the suborder Ensifera occurring worldwide, known commonly as leaf-rolling crickets or raspy crickets.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Habutai or habotai (from the Japanese, literally "feather-two-layer") is one of the most basic plain weaves of silk fabric.
Hampton Court Palace is a royal palace in the borough of Richmond upon Thames, London, England, south west and upstream of central London on the River Thames.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
King Hùng (Hùng Vương (雄王) or vua Hùng (𤤰雄); both Vương and vua mean "king") is the title given in many modern discussions to the ancient Vietnamese rulers of the Hồng Bàng period.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
HMS Royal George was a 100-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built at Woolwich Dockyard and launched on 18 February 1756.
Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphosis, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages: egg, larva, pupa and imago or adult.
Horse-flies or horseflies (for other names, see common names) are true flies in the family Tabanidae in the insect order Diptera.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
Hyssopus officinalis or hyssop is a herbaceous plant of the genus Hyssopus native to Southern Europe, the Middle East, and the region surrounding the Caspian Sea.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The Institut d'Estudis Catalans (English: "Institute for Catalan Studies"), also known by the acronym IEC, is an academic institution which seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture".
The United Nations General Assembly declared 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fibres, as well as the International Year of Astronomy.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
The is a traditional Japanese garment.
The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Iranic Saka Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kos or Cos (Κως) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
A leafhopper is the common name for any species from the family Cicadellidae.
Leizu, also known as Xi Lingshi (Wade–Giles Hsi Ling-shih), was a legendary Chinese empress and wife of the Yellow Emperor.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length.
Lingerie is a category of women's clothing including at least undergarments, sleepwear and lightweight robes.
In sewing and tailoring, a lining is an inner layer of fabric, fur, or other material inserted into clothing, hats, luggage, curtains, handbags and similar items.
This list of mills in Stockport, lists textile factories that have existed in Stockport, Greater Manchester, England.
The Llotja de la Seda (Lonja de la Seda, English "Silk Exchange") is a late Valencian Gothic-style civil building in Valencia, Spain.
Lullingstone Castle is an historic manor house, set in an estate in the village of Lullingstone and the civil parish of Eynsford in the English county of Kent.
Lyocell is a form of rayon which consists of cellulose fibre made from dissolving pulp (bleached wood pulp) using dry jet-wet spinning.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Macclesfield is a market town and civil parish in Cheshire, England.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manchester is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.
Mayflies (also known as Canadian soldiers in the United States, and as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order Ephemeroptera.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
A microfibril is a very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Midges are a group of insects that include many kinds of small flies.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Murshidabad (Pron: ˈmʊəʃɪdəˌbɑ:d/bæd or ˈmɜ:ʃɪdəˌ) is a town in Murshidabad district of West Bengal state in India.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
A necktie, or simply a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn usually by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.
Noil is the short fiber left over from combing wool or spinning silk and used as a decorative additive for many spinning projects, like rovings and yarns.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, Ὀdysseús), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses (Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pajamas (US) or pyjamas, often shortened to PJs or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
Paterson is the largest city in and the county seat of Passaic County, New Jersey, United States.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president.
Percale is a closely woven plain-weave fabric often used for bed covers.
Phys.org is a science, research and technology news aggregator where much of the content is republished directly from press releases and news agencies-in a practice known as churnalism.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Polyglycolide or poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), also spelled as polyglycolic acid, is a biodegradable, thermoplastic polymer and the simplest linear, aliphatic polyester.
Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world).
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A pupa (pūpa, "doll"; plural: pūpae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages.
Rajshahi Division (রাজশাহী বিভাগ) is one of the eight first-level administrative divisions of Bangladesh.
Ramanagara is a town and a city municipal council in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Rayon is a manufactured fiber made from regenerated cellulose fiber.
The rebellion of the Alpujarras of 1568–71, sometimes called the War of the Alpujarras or the Morisco Revolt, was the second such revolt against the Castilian Crown in the mountainous Alpujarra region.
Reggio di Calabria (also; Reggino: Rìggiu, Bovesia Calabrian Greek: script; translit, Rhēgium), commonly known as Reggio Calabria or simply Reggio in Southern Italy, is the largest city and the most populated comune of Calabria, Southern Italy.
The Republic of Lucca was a historic state of Italy, which lasted from 1160 to 1805 on the central Italian peninsula.
A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Salem District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
Sea silk is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the long silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells (in particular Pinna nobilis).
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.
Sericin is a protein created by Bombyx mori (silkworms) in the production of silk.
Sericulture, or silk farming, is the cultivation of silkworms to produce silk.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, is a millenarian restorationist Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England.
Shantung is a type of silk fabric historically from the province of Shandong.
A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body (from the neck to the waist).
Shrinkage is the process in which a fabric becomes smaller than its original size, usually through the process of laundry.
A silk comforter (絲綿被) is a bed covering, most often used as a duvet, and also commonly referred to as a silk duvet, silk quilt, or silk blanket.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Silk waste includes all kinds of raw silk which may be unwindable, and therefore unsuited to the throwing process.
A silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) is a small, wingless insect in the order Zygentoma (formerly Thysanura).
In the mid-6th century AD, two monks, with the support of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, successfully smuggled silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire, which led to the establishment of an indigenous Byzantine silk industry.
Songket is a fabric that belongs to the brocade family of textiles of the Malay world (today Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Southern Thailand).
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
Spider silk is a protein fibre spun by spiders.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Static cling is the tendency for light objects to stick (cling) to other objects owing to static electricity.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.
Surgical suture is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
Taffeta (archaically spelled taffety) is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk or cuprammonium rayons.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Terengganu (Jawi:ترڠڬانو, Terengganu Malay: Tranung, Ganu, Teganu, Ganung, Teganung), formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu, is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thrips (order Thysanoptera) are minute (most are 1 mm long or less), slender insects with fringed wings and unique asymmetrical mouthparts.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.
Tiruppur or Tirupur is a city in the Kongu Nadu region of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.
Tussar silk (alternatively spelled as Tussah, Tushar, Tassar, Tussore, Tasar, Tussur, Tusser and also known as (Sanskrit) Kosa silk) is produced from larvae of several species of silkworms belonging to the moth genus Antheraea, including A. assamensis, A. mylitta, A. paphia, A. pernyi, A. roylei and A. yamamai.
Textile fibers, threads, yarns and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units.
Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
Wild silks have been known and used in many countries from early times, although the scale of production is far smaller than that from cultivated silkworms.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xingyang, is a county-level city under the jurisdiction of Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan Province, China.
Xinru Liu (born 1951) is an associate professor of early Indian history and world history at The College of New Jersey, and has held since 1993 a full professorship at the Institute of World History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China.
Za'atar (زَعْتَر) is a generic name for a family of related Middle Eastern herbs from the genera Origanum (oregano), Calamintha (basil thyme), Thymus (typically Thymus vulgaris, i.e., thyme), and Satureja (savory).
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
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