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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alashankou railway station, also known as Alataw Pass railway station (also spelt Alatau and Ala Tau), is a railway station in Börtala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alexandria Eschate or Alexandria Eskhata (Greek Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη), literally "Alexandria the Farthest", was a city founded by Alexander the Great, at the south-western end of the Fergana Valley (modern Tajikistan) in August 329 BCE.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
André de Longjumeau (also known as Andrew of Longjumeau in English) was a 13th-century Dominican missionary and diplomat and one of the most active Occidental diplomats in the East in the 13th century.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ἀνδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.
Ani (Անի; Ἄνιον, Ánion; Abnicum; ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.
Animal style art is an approach to decoration found from China to Northern Europe in the early Iron Age, and the barbarian art of the Migration Period, characterized by its emphasis on animal motifs.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
() is a county of the municipal region of Quanzhou, in southern Fujian province, People's Republic of China.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
Arghun Khan a.k.a. Argon (Mongolian Cyrillic: Аргун хан; c. 1258 – 7 March 1291) was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291.
The Arimaspi were a legendary tribe of one-eyed people of northern Scythia who lived in the foothills of the Riphean Mountains, variously identified with the Ural Mountains or the Carpathians.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
The Ashina (Middle Chinese: (Guangyun)), also known as Asen, Asena, or Açina, was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turkic peoples.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Astana (Астана, Astana) is the capital city of Kazakhstan.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Aswan (أسوان; ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ) is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Sir Marc Aurel Stein, KCIE, FRAS, FBA (Stein Márk Aurél; 26 November 1862 – 26 October 1943) was a Hungarian-born British archaeologist, primarily known for his explorations and archaeological discoveries in Central Asia.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.
Óc Eo (French, from អូរកែវ,: if the Khmer appears too small, kindly download better fonts--> O Keo, "Glass Canal") is an archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province, Vietnam, in the Mekong River Delta.
Ürümqi (yengi; from Oirat "beautiful pasture") is the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the far northwest of the People's Republic of China.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia.
Badakhshan (Pashto/بدخشان, Badaxšân; Бадахшон, Badaxşon;;, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bagram (بگرام) is a town and seat in Bagram District in Parwan Province of Afghanistan, about 60 kilometers north of the capital Kabul.
The Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia, also known as Bagratid Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Հայաստան Bagratunyats Hayastan or Բագրատունիների թագավորություն, Bagratunineri t’agavorut’yun, "kingdom of the Bagratunis"), was an independent state established by Ashot I Bagratuni in the early 880s following nearly two centuries of foreign domination of Greater Armenia under Arab Umayyad and Abbasid rule.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas River, or Battle of Artlakh (معركة نهر طلاس) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Benedict of Poland (Latin: Benedictus Polonus, Polish Benedykt Polak) (ca. 1200 – ca. 1280) was a Polish Franciscan friar, traveler, explorer, and interpreter.
Bharuch (Gujarati: ભરૂચ, Bharūca), formerly known as Broach, is a city at the mouth of the river Narmada in Gujarat in western India.
Bhitagarh (ভিটাগড় Bhiṭāgôṛ) is an ancient fort city built in sometime between sixth and seventh century.
Bikrampur ("City of Courage") is a pargana situated south of Dhaka, the modern capital city of Bangladesh.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
BMC Biology is an online open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research in all fields of biology, together with opinion and comment articles.
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhism in Central Asia refers to the forms of Buddhism that existed in Central Asia, which were historically especially prevalent along the Silk Road.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire (Byzantium) from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Caravan to Lhasa is a travel book and an account of the lives of expatriate Nepalese merchants in Lhasa from the 1920s to the 1960s.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
The Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh (سعد السلطنه) is a large Caravanserai located in the city of Qazvin in Qazvin Province of Iran.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Spasinu Charax, or Charax Spasinu, Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Σπασίνου Χάραξ), Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σουσιανῆς) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church, was an Eastern Christian Church with independent hierarchy from the Nestorian Schism (431–544), while tracing its history to the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan in the Parthian Empire.
This articles lists cities located along the Silk Road.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The conquest of the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, was a military campaign in 657 led by the Tang Dynasty general Su Dingfang against the Western Turkic Khaganate ruled by Ashina Helu.
Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II; Heraclius Constantinus Augustus or Flavius Constantinus Augustus; 7 November 630 – 15 September 668), also called Constantine the Bearded (Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος Kōnstantinos ho Pogonatos), was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Daniel C. Waugh is a historian based at the University of Washington.
Daqin (alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.
Daxia, Ta-Hsia, or Ta-Hia was apparently the name given in antiquity by the Han Chinese to Tukhara or Tokhara: the main part of Bactria, in what is now northern Afghanistan, and parts of southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
Dayuan (Ta-yuan; Old Chinese reconstructed pronunciation: /dhaːts ʔwan/; Middle Chinese reconstructed pronunciation according to Edwin G. Pulleyblank: /daj ʔuan/) was a country in Ferghana valley in Central Asia, described in the Chinese historical works of Records of the Grand Historian and the Book of Han.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
Dostyk (Достық) or Druzhba (Дружба) is a small town in Kazakhstan's Almaty Region, on the border with Xinjiang, China.
Duisburg (locally) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
Dushanbe (Душанбе) is the capital and largest city of Tajikistan.
The Kamboja–Dvaravati Route is an ancient land trade route that was an important branch of the Silk Road during antiquity and the early medieval era.
The Dzungarian Gate is a geographically and historically significant mountain pass between China and Central Asia.
The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.
East Turkestan (Uyghur: شەرقىي تۈركىستان, Шәрқий Түркистан, Shərqiy Türkistan) also known as Eastern Turkistan, Uyghurstan, Uyghuristan is a political term with multiple meanings depending on context and usage.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Emil Bretschneider (in Bankaushof (now Benkavas muiža, Saldus novads, Latvia) – in Saint Petersburg) was a sinologist of Baltic German ethnicity and a correspondent member of the Académie française.
Emperor Gaozong of Tang (21 July 628 – 27 December 683), personal name Li Zhi, was the third emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, ruling from 649 to 683 (although after January 665 much of the governance was in the hands of his second wife Empress Wu, later known as Wu Zetian).
Emperor Huan of Han (132 – 25 January 168) was the 27th emperor of the Han Dynasty after he was enthroned by the Empress Dowager and her brother Liang Ji on 1 August 146.
Emperor Ming of Han, (Wade-Giles: Han Ming-ti), (15 June 28 – 5 September 75) was the second emperor of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
Emperor Shenzong of Song (25 May 1048 – 1 April 1085), personal name Zhao Xu, was the sixth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
In the years following Tang Taizong's subjugation of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate, the emperor began to exert his military power toward the oasis city-states of the Tarim Basin (part of the area known in Chinese histories as the Western Regions).
Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), the second emperor of Tang China faced challenges throughout his reign from Tang's western neighbor, the state of Tuyuhun, whose Busabuo Khan Murong Fuyun constantly challenged Chinese authority in the border regions.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626—649), the second emperor of Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, early in his reign, had allied with Xueyantuo, a vassal of the powerful Eastern Tujue (Göktürk) Khanate, against Eastern Tujue, who Tang defeated in 630.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
Erzurum (Կարին) is a city in eastern Anatolia (Asian Turkey).
Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother";; Ασαρχαδδων; Asor Haddan) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eudoxus of Cyzicus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κυζικηνός, Eúdoxos ho Kyzikēnós; fl. c. 130 BC) was a Greek navigator who explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The Eurasian Land Bridge (Yevraziyskiy sukhoputniy most), sometimes called the New Silk Road (Новый шёлковый путь, Noviy shyolkoviy put'), or Belt and Road Initiative is the rail transport route for moving freight and passengers overland between Pacific seaports in the Russian Far East and China and seaports in Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China during the period of Mongol rule.
Euthydemus I (Greek: Εὐθύδημος Α΄; c. 260 BC – 200/195 BC) was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius; he is thought to have originally been a satrap of Sogdiana who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.
Baron Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen FRSFor HFRSE BGS (5 May 18336 October 1905), better known in English as was a German traveller, geographer, and scientist.
Fergana (Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; فرغانه Farġāna/Farqâna; Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan.
The Fergana Valley (alternatively Farghana or Ferghana; Farg‘ona vodiysi, Фарғона водийси, فەرغانە ۉادىيسى; Фергана өрөөнү, Ferğana öröönü, فەرعانا ۅرۅۅنۉ; Водии Фарғона, Vodiyi Farğona / Vodiji Farƣona; Ферганская долина, Ferganskaja dolina; وادی فرغانه., Vâdiye Ferqâna; Фыйрганна Пенды, Xiao'erjing: فِ عَر قًا نَ پٌ دِ) is a valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
The Four Garrisons of Anxi were Chinese military garrisons installed by the Tang dynasty between 648 and 658.
Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire in the 13th century.
Frankincense (also known as olibanum, לבונה, Arabic) is an aromatic resin used in incense and perfumes, obtained from trees of the genus Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. bhaw-dajiana), B. carterii33, B. frereana, B. serrata (B. thurifera, Indian frankincense), and B. papyrifera.
Friedrich Hirth, Ph.D. (16 April 1845 in Gräfentonna, Saxe-Gotha – 10 January 1927 in Munich) was a German-American sinologist.
Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.
Gan Ying, was a Chinese military ambassador who was sent on a mission to Rome in 97 CE by the Chinese general Ban Chao.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (also known as the Brahmaputra Delta, the Sunderbans Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the Bengal region of the South Asia, consisting of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gao Xianzhi, or Go Seonji, (died January 24, 756) was a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo descent.
The gastraphetes (from Ancient Greek γαστραφέτης, English translation: "belly-releaser") was a hand-held crossbow used by the Ancient Greeks.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
The Geography of Pakistan (جغرافیۂ پاکِستان) is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north.
The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.
The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BC.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gilgit (Shina:, Urdu), known locally as Gileet, is the capital city of the Gilgit-Baltistan region, an administrative territory of Pakistan.
Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, variously rendered in English as John of Pian de Carpine, John of Plano Carpini or Joannes de Plano (ca 1185 – 1 August 1252), was a medieval Italian diplomat, archbishop and explorer and one of the first Europeans to enter the court of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.
Giovanni de' Marignolli (Johannes Marignola;.), variously anglicized as John of Marignolli or John of Florence, was a notable 14th-century Catholic European traveller to medieval China.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The global silver trade between the Americas and Europe from the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries was a spillover of the Columbian Exchange which had a profound effect on the world economy.
Godavaya or Godawaya is a small fishing hamlet located at the mouth of the Walawe river, between Ambalantota and Hambantota in the Hambantota District in southern Sri Lanka.
Gomel (also Homieĺ, Homiel, Homel or Homyel’; Belarusian: Го́мель, Łacinka: Homiel,, Russian: Го́мель) is the administrative centre of Gomel Region and with 526,872 inhabitants (2015 census) the second-most populous city of Belarus.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greco-Buddhism, or Graeco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD in Bactria and the Indian subcontinent, corresponding to the territories of modern-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan, India, and Pakistan.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guiyi Circuit, also known as the Guiyi Army (848–1036 AD), was a regional regime nominally subordinate to the Chinese Tang dynasty and later on the Northern Song dynasty.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Gyeongju (경주), historically known as Seorabeol (서라벌), is a coastal city in the far southeastern corner of North Gyeongsang Province in South Korea.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
The Han–Xiongnu War,.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Helen Kay Wang (born 1965) is an English sinologist and translator.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Sir Henry Yule KCSI (1 May 1820 – 30 December 1889) was a Scottish Orientalist.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
Hexi Corridor (Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu province of China.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
The hippie trail (also the overland) is the name given to the overland journey taken by members of the hippie subculture and others from the mid-1950s to the late 1970s between Europe and South Asia, mainly through Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (including Jammu and Kashmir) and Nepal.
History Compass is a peer-reviewed online-only academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell.
The History of Ming or the Ming History (Míng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories.
The production of silk originates in China in the Neolithic (Yangshao culture, 4th millennium BC).
The History of Song or Song Shi (Sòng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279).
The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Hotan, also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
Hou Junji (died April 29, 643) was a Chinese general and official who served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Taizong in the Tang dynasty.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hyecho (704–787), Sanskrit: Prajñāvikrama; pinyin: Hui Chao, was a Buddhist monk from Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Incense trade route comprised a network of major ancient land and sea trading routes linking the Mediterranean world with Eastern and Southern sources of incense, spices and other luxury goods, stretching from Mediterranean ports across the Levant and Egypt through Northeastern Africa and Arabia to India and beyond.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Arts consists of a variety of art forms, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery sculpture), visual arts (e.g., paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk).
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Istämi (or Dizabul or Ishtemi Sir Yabghu Khagan) was the ruler of the western part of the Göktürks, which became the Western Turkic Khaganate and dominated the Sogdians.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the group of islands that forms the country of Japan, and extends roughly from northeast to southwest along the northeastern coast of the Eurasia mainland, washing upon the northwestern shores of the Pacific Ocean.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
János Harmatta (2 October 1917 – 24 July 2004) was a Hungarian linguist.
Jeanne Larsen (born 1950 in Washington, D.C.) is a poet, novelist, translator, and essayist.
Jerry Harrell Bentley (December 12, 1949 – July 15, 2012) was an American academic and professor of world history professor.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jiaozhi (Tai: kɛɛuA1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).
Jiaozhou (Giao Châu) was an imperial Chinese province under the Han and Jin dynasties.
Jingyuan County is a county in the east of Gansu Province.
John of Montecorvino or Giovanni da Montecorvino in Italian (1247–1328) was an Italian Franciscan missionary, traveller and statesman, founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking.
John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Ίωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος, Iōannēs V Palaiologos; 18 June 1332 – 16 February 1391) was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at age of eight.
The Journal of World History is a peer-reviewed academic journal that presents historical analysis from a global point of view, focusing especially on forces that cross the boundaries of cultures and civilizations, including large-scale population movements, economic fluctuations, transfers of technology, the spread of infectious diseases, long-distance trade, and the spread of religious faiths, ideas, and values.
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Justin II (Flavius Iustinus Iunior Augustus; Φλάβιος Ἰουστῖνος ὁ νεώτερος; c. 520 – 5 October 578) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 565 to 574.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Kangju was the Chinese name of an ancient kingdom in Central Asia which became for a couple of centuries the second greatest power in Transoxiana after the Yuezhi.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
The Karakoram, or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.
The N-35 or National Highway 35 (قومی شاہراہ 35), known more popularly as the Karakoram Highway (شاہراہ قراقرم) and China-Pakistan Friendship Highway, is a 1300 km national highway in Pakistan which extends from Hasan Abdal in Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara-Gum (Garagum,; kərɐˈkumɨ), is a desert in Central Asia.
Karasahr or Karashar (Chinese 焉耆), which was originally known, in the Tocharian languages as Ārśi (or Arshi) and Agni, or the Chinese derivative Yānqí 焉耆 (Wade–Giles Yen-ch’i), is an ancient town on the Silk Road and the capital of Yanqi Hui Autonomous County in the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, in northwestern China.
The Kārūn (کارون) is Iran's most effluent and only navigable river.
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet") is a literary and prose language on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Khanbaliq or Dadu was the capital of the Yuan dynasty, the main center of the Mongol Empire founded by Kublai Khan in what is now Beijing, also the capital of China today.
Khosrow I (also known as Chosroes I and Kisrā in classical sources; 501–579, most commonly known in Persian as Anushiruwān (انوشيروان, "the immortal soul"; also known as Anushiruwan the Just (انوشيروان دادگر, Anushiruwān-e Dādgar), was the King of Kings (Shahanshah) of the Sasanian Empire from 531 to 579. He was the successor of his father Kavadh I (488–531). Khosrow I was the twenty-second Sasanian Emperor of Persia, and one of its most celebrated emperors. He laid the foundations of many cities and opulent palaces, and oversaw the repair of trade roads as well as the building of numerous bridges and dams. His reign is furthermore marked by the numerous wars fought against the Sassanid's neighboring archrivals, the Roman-Byzantine Empire, as part of the already centuries-long lasting Roman-Persian Wars. The most important wars under his reign were the Lazic War which was fought over Colchis (western Georgia-Abkhazia) and the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591. During Khosrow's ambitious reign, art and science flourished in Persia and the Sasanian Empire reached its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule was preceded by his father's and succeeded by Hormizd IV. Khosrow Anushiruwan is one of the most popular emperors in Iranian culture and literature and, outside of Iran, his name became, like that of Caesar in the history of Rome, a designation of the Sasanian kings. He also introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Byzantines, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise king.
Kokand (Qo‘qon, Қўқон, قوقان; Xuqand; Chagatai: خوقند, Xuqand; Xökand) is a city in Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار, Куча,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu, Guizi from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Li Jing (571 – July 2, 649), courtesy name Yaoshi, posthumously known as Duke Jingwu of Wei (also spelled as Duke of Wey), was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty and was most active during the reign of Emperor Taizong.
Light cavalry comprises lightly armed and lightly armoured troops mounted on horses, as opposed to heavy cavalry, where the riders (and sometimes the horses) are heavily armored.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Asia.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lop Nur or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake") is a former salt lake in China, now largely dried-up, located between the Taklamakan and Kumtag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
Louis Malleret (1901–1970) was a French archaeologist.
Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.
Małaszewicze is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Terespol, within Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Maës Titianus was an ancient Roman traveler of Macedonian culture.
Mahasthangarh (মহাস্থানগড় Môhasthangôṛ) is one of the earliest urban archaeological sites so far discovered in Bangladesh.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Maritime Silk Road or Maritime Silk Route refer to the maritime section of historic Silk Road that connects China to Southeast Asia, Indonesian archipelago, Indian subcontinent, Arabian peninsula, Somalia and all the way to Egypt and finally Europe, that flourished between 2nd-century BCE and 15th-century CE.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.
A medal or medallion is a small portable artistic object, a thin disc, normally of metal, carrying a design, usually on both sides.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
According to research by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of China, nine major metropolitan regions are forming in China.
Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Starting in the 1240s, the Mongols made repeated invasions of Syria or attempts thereof.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mount Imeon is an ancient name for the Central Asian complex of mountain ranges comprising the present Hindu Kush, Pamir and Tian Shan, extending from the Zagros Mountains in the southwest to the Altay Mountains in the northeast, and linked to the Kunlun, Karakoram and Himalayas to the southeast.
Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Muslim conquest of Transoxiana or Arab conquest of Transoxiana were the 7th and 8th century conquests, by Umayyad and Abbasid Arabs, of Transoxiana; the land between the Oxus and Jaxartes rivers, a part of Central Asia that today includes all or parts of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Myos Hormos was a Red Sea port constructed by the Ptolemies around the 3rd century BC.
Myrrh (from Aramaic, but see § Etymology) is a natural gum or resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nephrite is a variety of the calcium, magnesium, and iron-rich amphibole minerals tremolite or actinolite (aggregates of which also make up one form of asbestos).
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1395–1469) was an Italian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia, and possibly to Southern China, during the early 15th century.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Odoric of Pordenone, ofm (1286–1331), also known as Odorico Mattiussi or Mattiuzzi, was an Italian late-medieval Franciscan friar and missionary explorer.
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
Olivier Weber (born 1958) is an award-winning French writer, novelist and reporter at large, known primarily for his coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) or the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road is a development strategy proposed by the Chinese government which focuses on connectivity and cooperation between Eurasian countries, primarily the People's Republic of China (PRC), the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) and the ocean-going Maritime Silk Road (MSR).
Orbelian's Caravanserai (Օրբելյանների Քարվանսարա; also known as Sulema Caravanserai and Selim Caravanserai, Սելիմ), is a caravanserai in the Vayots Dzor Province of Armenia.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the history of South Asia: History of South Asia – South Asia includes the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated islands, therefore, its history includes the histories of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bhutan, and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
The Pan-American Highway is a network of roads measuring about in total length.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
Pax Sinica (Latin for "Chinese peace") is a historiographical term, modeled after the original phrase Pax Romana, applied to the period of peace in East Asia, maintained by Chinese hegemony.
Pepe Escobar (born 1954) is a Brazilian journalist.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea (Περίπλους τῆς Ἐρυθράς Θαλάσσης, Periplus Maris Erythraei) is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and the Sindh and South western India.
Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peter Hopkirk (15 December 1930 – 22 August 2014) was a British journalist, author and historian who wrote six books about the British Empire, Russia and Central Asia.
Peter Valentinovich Turchin (Пётр Валенти́нович Турчи́н; born 1957) is a Russian-American scientist, specializing in cultural evolution and "cliodynamics" — mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of the dynamics of historical societies.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
Phaedra, is a Roman tragedy with Greek subject of c. 1280 lines of verse by philosopher and dramatist Lucius Annaeus Seneca, which tells the story of Phaedra, wife of King Theseus of Athens, and her consuming lust for her stepson, Hippolytus.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
Pope Nicholas IV (Nicolaus IV; 30 September 1227 – 4 April 1292), born Girolamo Masci, Pope from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
The Protectorate General to Pacify the West, Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West, or Anxi Protectorate (640–c.790) was a protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty in 640 to control the Tarim Basin.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Rabban Bar Ṣawma (1220–1294) (Syriac language: ܪܒܢ ܒܪ ܨܘܡܐ), also known as Rabban Ṣawma or Rabban Çauma,Mantran, p. 298, was a Turkic Chinese monk turned diplomat of the "Nestorian" Church of the East in China.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Richard Foltz (born 1961) is a Canadian scholar of American origin.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Beijing (Archidioecesis Pechimensis) is a Metropolitan Latin archdiocese in PR China.
The commerce of the Roman Empire was a major sector of the Roman economy during the early Republic and throughout most of the imperial period.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
During the Roman Republic, the Roman economy was largely agrarian, centered on the trading of commodities such as grain and wine.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.
The Royal Road was an ancient highway, part of the Silk Road and the Uttara Path built in ancient South Asia and Central Asia, reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE.
Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sancai is a versatile type of decoration on Chinese pottery using glazes or slip, predominantly in the three colours of brown (or amber), green, and a creamy off-white.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Sarai (also transcribed as Saraj or Saray, from Persian sarāi, "palace" or "court") was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde, the Mongol kingdom which ruled much of Central Asia and Eastern Europe, in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Serica was one of the easternmost countries of Asia known to the Ancient Greek and Roman geographers.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Caravanserai – is a historical monument in Sheki, a part of which is used as a hotel.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road Economic Belt (Chinese: “丝绸之路经济带”) is the land-based component that together with the oceanic Maritime Silk Road forms One Belt, One Road, a Chinese government economic development framework for primarily integrating trade and investment in Eurasia.
The Silk Road Fund (p) is a state owned investment fund of the Chinese government to foster increased investment in countries along the One Belt, One Road, an economic development initiative primarily covering Eurasia.
Silk Road Numismatics is a special field within Silk Road studies and within numismatics.
Silk Road sites in India are sites that were important for trade on the ancient Silk Road.
Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor is a UNESCO World Heritage Site which covers the Chang'an-Tianshan portion of the ancient Silk Road and historical sites along the route.
Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo may be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was a kingdom located in southern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.
In the mid-6th century AD, two monks, with the support of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, successfully smuggled silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire, which led to the establishment of an indigenous Byzantine silk industry.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Soapstone (also known as steatite or soaprock) is a talc-schist, which is a type of metamorphic rock.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
Sonargaon (সোনারগাঁও; also transcribed as Sunārgāon, meaning Village of Gold) was a historic administrative, commercial and maritime centre in Bengal.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The concept of the Silk Road has fascinated Europeans for more than a century, symbolizing the exchange between the West and the East since Antiquity.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
The spoke-hub distribution paradigm is a form of transport topology optimization in which traffic routes are organized as a series of 'spokes' that connect outlying points to a central 'hub.' Simple forms of this distribution/connection model may be contrasted with point-to-point transit systems in which each point has a direct route to every other point, and which was the principal method of transporting passengers and freight until the 1970s.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Staryi Krym (Старий Крим, Старый Крым, Eski Qırım) is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area currently disputed between Russia and Ukraine.
The Steppe Route was an ancient overland route through the Eurasian Steppe that was an active precursor of the Silk Road.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Su Dingfang (591–667), formal name Su Lie (蘇烈) but went by the courtesy name of Dingfang, formally Duke Zhuang of Xing (邢莊公), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who succeeded in destroying the Western Turkic Khaganate in 657.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
Suyab (سوی آب), also known as Ordukent (modern-day Ak-Beshim), was an ancient Silk Road city located some 50 km east from Bishkek, and 8 km west southwest from Tokmok, in the Chui River valley, present-day Kyrgyzstan.
Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO,Wennerholm, Eric (1978) Sven Hedin - En biografi, Bonniers, Stockholm (19 February 1865 – 26 November 1952) was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer, and illustrator of his own works.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
The Talas River (Kyrgyz, Талас) rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan.
Talgar (Талғар / Talg'ar; Талгар) is a town in Almaty Region, southeastern Kazakhstan.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (r. 626-649), the second emperor of Chinese Tang Dynasty, faced a major threat from Tang's northern neighbor, the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taraz (Тараз) (known to Europeans as Talas) is a city and the administrative center of Jambyl Region in Kazakhstan, located on the Talas (Taraz) River in the south of the country near the border with Kyrgyzstan.
The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشكېنت,; Ташкент) is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in Central Asia with a population in 2012 of 2,309,300.
Taxila (from Pāli: Takkasilā, Sanskrit: तक्षशिला,, meaning "City of Cut Stone" or " Rock") is a town and an important archaeological site in the Rawalpindi District of the Punjab, Pakistan, situated about north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road.
The Tea Horse Road or chamadao, now generally referred to as the Ancient Tea Horse Road or chamagudao was a network of caravan paths winding through the mountains of Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet in Southwest China.
TED Conferences, LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is a media organization that posts talks online for free distribution, under the slogan "ideas worth spreading".
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Temple University Press is a university press founded in 1969 that is part of Temple University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
Termez (Termiz/Термиз; Термез; Тирмиз; ترمذ Termez, Tirmiz; ترمذ Tirmidh) is a city in the southernmost part of Uzbekistan near the Hairatan border crossing of Afghanistan.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia (published as The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia in the USA) is a book on the history of the region by Peter Hopkirk.
The Silk Roads: A New History of The World is a 2015 non-fiction book written by Peter Frankopan, a British academic at the University of Oxford.
Book of the Marvels of the World (French: Livre des Merveilles du Monde) or Description of the World (Devisement du Monde), in Italian Il Milione (The Million) or Oriente Poliano and in English commonly called The Travels of Marco Polo, is a 13th-century travelogue written down by Rustichello da Pisa from stories told by Marco Polo, describing Polo's travels through Asia between 1271 and 1295, and his experiences at the court of Kublai Khan.
The three hares (or three rabbits) is a circular motif or meme appearing in sacred sites from the Middle and Far East to the churches of Devon, England (as the "Tinners' Rabbits"), and historical synagogues in Europe.
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
The Tian Shan,, also known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
Tianzhu is the historical East Asian name for India.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.
A TLV mirror is a type of bronze mirror that was popular during the Han Dynasty in China.
Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family.
Thomas M. "Tom" Engelhardt (born 1944) is an American writer and editor.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Trans-Eurasia Logistics was a joint venture between German and Russian rail companies Deutsche Bahn and RZhD, operating container freight trains between Germany and China via Russia.
Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as (– 'what beyond the river') and in Persian as (فرارود, —'beyond the river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic Khaganate (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰 Kök Türük) or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.
The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Valerie Hansen is an American professor, historian and author.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Victor Henry Mair (born March 25, 1943) is an American Sinologist and professor of Chinese at the University of Pennsylvania.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Viktor Ivanovich Sarianidi or Victor Sarigiannides (Ви́ктор Ива́нович Сариани́ди; Βίκτωρ Σαρηγιαννίδης; September 23, 1929 – December 22, 2013) was a Soviet archaeologist.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Wari-Bateshwar region (উয়ারী-বটেশ্বর Uari-Bôṭeshshor) in Narsingdi, Bangladesh is the site of an ancient fort city dating back to 450 BCMM Hoque and SS Mostafizur Rahman,, Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 20 February 2012 during the era of Maurya dynasty.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Warwick Ball is an Australian-born near-eastern archeologist.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia or sometimes more specifically the easternmost portion of it (e.g. Altishahr or the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang), though it was sometimes used more generally to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent (as in the novel Journey to the West).
Wild silks have been known and used in many countries from early times, although the scale of production is far smaller than that from cultivated silkworms.
William of Rubruck (c. 1220 – c. 1293) was a Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer.
There are 3 main sets of works attributed to Florus (a Roman cognomen): Virgilius orator an poeta, an Epitome of Roman History and a collection of poems (26 tetrameters, and 5 hexameters about roses).
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
The Wusun were an Indo-European semi-nomadic steppe people mentioned in Chinese records from the 2nd century BCE to the 5th century CE.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Xiangtan is a prefecture-level city in Hunan province, China.
Xinjiang Province is a historical administrative area of northwest China, between 1884 and 1955.
Xinru Liu (born 1951) is an associate professor of early Indian history and world history at The College of New Jersey, and has held since 1993 a full professorship at the Institute of World History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Zein-o-Din Caravanserai (زين الدين) is located in Zein-o-din, Yazd, Iran.
Zarafshan River (also Zaravshan or Zarafshon; Дарёи Зарафшон, Daryoyi Zarafşon; Zeravshon, Зеравшон, زېرەۋشان; from the Persian word Zar-afšān, زرافشان, meaning "the spreader of gold") is a river in Central Asia.
Zhang Qian (d. 113) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
Zhang Yichao (張義朝 or 張義潮 or 張議潮) (799?-872) was an ethnic Han Chinese resident of Sha Prefecture (in modern Dunhuang, Gansu).
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Great Silk Way, Indian Ocean Maritime System, Indian Silk Road, Jade Road, Marine Silk Road, Seidenstrasse, Seidenstraße, Shadow of the Silk Road, Silk Roads, Silk Route, Silk Routes, Silk Way, Silk road, Silk route, Silk trade, Silkroad, Silkroute, Sites along the Silk Road, The Maritime Silk Road, The Silk Road, The Silk Route.