383 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Acanthite, Accretion (astrophysics), Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Acetylene, Adduct, Aegean Sea, Ages of Man, Akkadian language, Alchemy, Alcohol, Alkene, Alkyl, Alkyne, Allotropy, Alloy, Alsace, Aluminium, Amalgam (dentistry), Amide, Amine, Ammonia, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Anemia, Antamina mine, Argentina, Argentite, Argyria, Athens, Atomic number, Australia, Bacteria, Balto-Slavic languages, Bandage, Base metal, Beryllium, Beta decay, Bible, Bimetallism, Biological activity, Bis(acetonitrile)palladium dichloride, Black Forest, Bleach, Block (periodic table), Blood pressure, Bohemia, Bolivia, Boron, ..., Brazing, Bullet, Bullion, Bullion coin, Cadmium, Canada, Cannington Mine, Capillary action, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carl Nägeli, Catalysis, Catheter, Central Asia, Cerussite, Chalcogenide, Chalcolithic, Charge-transfer complex, Charlemagne, Chelation, Chemical affinity, Chemical element, Chile, China, Chlorargyrite, Chloro(dimethyl sulfide)gold(I), Circulatory system, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cloud seeding, Cobalt, Coin, Concentration, Contact resistance, Coordination complex, Coordination number, Copper, Copper(I) oxide, Covalent bond, Cross section (physics), Crucible, Crystallographic defect, Cubic crystal system, Cupellation, Currency, Cyanide, Cyanosis, Decay product, Denarius, Diamond, Diarrhea, Diarsine, Diatomaceous earth, Diol, Diphosphane, Dirham, Disinfectant, Dragée, Ductility, E number, Early Middle Ages, Electrical conductor, Electrical contacts, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolysis, Electromagnet, Electron affinity, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electronegativity, Electroplating, Electrum, Ethanol, Ethylene, Ethylene oxide, European Union, Eutectic system, Explosive material, Fétizon oxidation, Fluorine, Fluorocarbon, Formaldehyde, Free silver, Galena, Gastroenteritis, Germanic languages, Germanium, Glyoxal, Gold, Gravimetric analysis, Greek drachma, Group 11 element, Half-life, Hardness, Heavy metals, Hesiod, Household silver, Hungary, Hydration energy, Hydrofluorocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrogen sulfide, Hypochlorite, In vitro, India, Indian rupee, Indium, Industrial Revolution, Investment, Ion, Iron meteorite, ISO 4217, Isopropyl alcohol, Isotope, Japan, Jeremiah, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jewellery, John Dryden, Joseph Fontenrose, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Judas Iscariot, Jupiter, Koenigs–Knorr reaction, Krypton difluoride, Lactone, Lahn, Latin, Laurium, Lead, Lead(II) oxide, List of countries by silver production, Litharge, Lithium, Lithuanian language, Lydia, Manganese, Medical device, Medical uses of silver, Medication, Mercury (element), Metal, Metallothionein, Metallurgy, Metals of antiquity, Metamorphoses, Methanol, Mexico, Middle Ages, Mina Proaño, Money, Monster, Mucous membrane, Mughal Empire, Native metal, Natural abundance, Nevada, New South Wales, New Testament, Nickel, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrile, No Silver Bullet, Noble metal, Norway, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear reactor, Nucleosynthesis, Old English, Old High German, Old Testament, Oligodynamic effect, Orbital hybridisation, Ore Mountains, Organic synthesis, Organometallic chemistry, Ovid, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxidation state, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Palladium, Parkes process, Parts-per notation, Peñasquito Polymetallic Mine, Per mille, Percussion cap, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Peroxydisulfate, Peru, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Phoenicia, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, Photochromic lens, Photographic film, Photosensitivity, Pi backbonding, Planchet, Planet, Platinum, Pneumonia, Pnictogen, Poland, Polish language, Polishing, Post-transition metal, Potassium bromide, Potassium dichromate, Potassium permanganate, Precious metal, Printed circuit board, Protecting group, Proto-Indo-European language, R-process, Radio frequency, Radio-frequency engineering, Radio-frequency identification, Radioactive decay, Radiogenic nuclide, Radionuclide, Reagent, Redox, Refining, Reflectance, Relative atomic mass, Respiratory arrest, Roman currency, Roman economy, Roman metallurgy, Route of administration, Rudna mine, Russian Far East, Russian language, S-process, Salzburg, San Cristóbal mine (Bolivia), Santa Clara, Durango, Sardinia, Saturn, Saxony, Selenide, Serbia, Siberia, Siegerland, Silesia, Silicon, Silver (color), Silver acetylide, Silver as an investment, Silver azide, Silver bromide, Silver bullet, Silver carbonate, Silver chlorate, Silver chloride, Silver coin, Silver cyanide, Silver diammine fluoride, Silver fulminate, Silver iodide, Silver medal, Silver nanoparticle, Silver nitrate, Silver oxalate, Silver oxide, Silver standard, Silver sulfadiazine, Silver sulfide, Silver(I) fluoride, Silver(I,III) oxide, Silver(II) fluoride, Silverpoint, Single crystal, Skin effect, Slag, Sodium azide, Sodium carbonate, Software engineering, Solar panel, Solar System, Solvation, Spain, Spanish dollar, Sphalerite, Stained glass, Standard electrode potential (data page), Sterling silver, Styria, Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superconductivity, Superfluid helium-4, Telluride (chemistry), Tertiary, Thermal conductivity, Thiocyanate, Thiosulfate, Tonne, Tooth decay, Tracheal tube, Transition metal, Transition metal carbene complex, Troy weight, Ultraviolet, Unified atomic mass unit, Unit of account, United States, Uranium, Urinary catheterization, Urinary tract infection, Vacuum flask, Vark, Very high frequency, Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Water filter, Werewolf, Western concert flute, Wet chemistry, Witchcraft, Works and Days, World War II, X-ray, Zeolite, Zinc, Zintl phase, 4th millennium BC. 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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Acanthite is a form of silver sulfide with the chemical formula Ag2S.
In astrophysics, accretion is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an accretion disk.
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology and its subsequent Roman interpretation.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
The Antamina mine in the Andes Mountains of Peru is one of the largest copper/zinc mines in the world.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
In mineralogy, argentite (from the Latin argentum, silver) is cubic silver sulfide (Ag2S), which can only exist at temperatures above 173 °C, 177 °C or 179 °C.
Argyria or argyrosis is a condition caused by excessive exposure to chemical compounds of the element silver, or to silver dust.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to or to restrict the movement of a part of the body.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Bis(acetonitrile)palladium dichloride is the coordination complex with the formula PdCl2(NCCH3)2.
The Black Forest (Schwarzwald) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Cannington Silver and Lead Mine is an Australian underground mine located in north-west Queensland, in the Shire of McKinlay, about southeast of Mount Isa.
Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli (26 or 27 March 1817 – 10 May 1891) was a Swiss botanist.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Cerussite (also known as lead carbonate or white lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead.
A chalcogenide is a chemical compound consisting of at least one chalcogen anion and at least one more electropositive element.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chlorargyrite is the mineral form of silver chloride (AgCl).
Chloro(dimethyl sulfide)gold(I) is a coordination complex of gold.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification that changes the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
The term contact resistance refers to the contribution to the total resistance of a system which can be attributed to the contacting interfaces of electrical leads and connections as opposed to the intrinsic resistance, which is an inherent property, independent of the measurement method.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cupellation is a refining process in metallurgy, where ores or alloyed metals are treated under very high temperatures and have controlled operations to separate noble metals, like gold and silver, from base metals like lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, antimony or bismuth, present in the ore.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diatomaceous earth – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Diphosphane is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P2H4.
Dirham, dirhem or dirhm (درهم) was and, in some cases, still is a unit of currency in several Arab states.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
A dragée is a bite-sized form of confectionery with a hard outer shell—which is often used for another purpose (e.g. decorative, symbolic, medicinal, etc.) in addition to consumption.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
An electrical contact is an electrical circuit component found in electrical switches, relays, connectors and circuit breakers.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fétizon oxidation is the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols utilizing the compound silver(I) carbonate absorbed onto the surface of celite also known as Fétizon's reagent first employed by Marcel Fétizon in 1968.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Fluorocarbons, sometimes referred to as perfluorocarbons or PFCs, are, strictly speaking, organofluorine compounds with the formula CxFy, i.e. they contain only carbon and fluorine, though the terminology is not strictly followed.
Free silver was a major economic policy issue in late 19th-century American politics.
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Glyoxal is an organic compound with the chemical formula OCHCHO.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gravimetric analysis describes a set of methods used in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of an analyte (the ion being analyzed) based on its mass.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Group 11, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, consisting of copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Household silver or silverware (the silver, the plate, or silver service) includes tableware, cutlery, and other household items made of sterling silver, Britannia silver, or Sheffield plate silver.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hydration energy (also hydration enthalpy) is the amount of energy released when one mole of ions undergo hydration which is a special case of solvation.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), organic compounds that contain fluorine and hydrogen atoms, are the most common type of organofluorine compounds.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron meteorites are meteorites that consist overwhelmingly of an iron–nickel alloy known as meteoric iron that usually consists of two mineral phases: kamacite and taenite.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
John Dryden (–) was an English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who was made England's first Poet Laureate in 1668.
Joseph Eddy Fontenrose (17 June 1903, Sutter Creek – 7 July 1986, Ashland, Oregon) was an American classical scholar.
The Journal of Organometallic Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier, covering research on organometallic chemistry.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Judas Iscariot (died AD) was a disciple and one of the original Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Koenigs–Knorr reaction in organic chemistry is the substitution reaction of a glycosyl halide with an alcohol to give a glycoside.
Krypton difluoride, KrF2 is a chemical compound of krypton and fluorine.
Lactones are cyclic esters of hydroxycarboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure, or analogues having unsaturation or heteroatoms replacing one or more carbon atoms of the ring.
| The Lahn is a -long, right (or eastern) tributary of the Rhine in Germany.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laurium or Lavrio or Lavrion (Λαύριο; Λαύριον; before early 11th century BC: Θορικός Thorikos; from Middle Ages until 1908: Εργαστήρια - Ergastiria) is a town in southeastern part of Attica, Greece.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(II) oxide, also called lead monoxide, is the inorganic compound with the molecular formula PbO.
This is a list of countries by silver production in 2016 based on United States Geological Survey Data.
Litharge (from Greek lithargyros, lithos (stone) + argyros (silver) λιθάργυρος) is one of the natural mineral forms of lead(II) oxide, PbO.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.
The medical uses of silver include its use in wound dressings, creams, and as an antibiotic coating on medical devices.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
The metals of antiquity are the seven metals which humans had identified and found use for in prehistoric times: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and mercury.
The Metamorphoses (Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mina Proaño, an underground silver mine located in central Mexico, is one of the world's largest and most profitable silver mines.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
A monster is a creature which produces fear or physical harm by its appearance or its actions.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
"No Silver Bullet – Essence and Accident in Software Engineering" is a widely discussed paper on software engineering written by Turing Award winner Fred Brooks in 1986.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The oligodynamic effect (from Greek oligos "few", and dynamis "force") is a biocidal effect of metals, especially heavy metals, that occurs even in low concentrations.
In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.
The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains") in Central Europe have formed a natural border between Saxony and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
The Parkes process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process for removing silver from lead during the production of bullion.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The Peñasquito Polymetallic Mine is the fifth largest silver mine in the world and the second largest in Mexico.
A per milleCambridge Dictionary Online.
The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloading firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The peroxydisulfate ion,, is a oxyanion.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photochromic lenses are optical lenses that darken on exposure to specific types of light of sufficient intensity, most commonly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
π backbonding, also called π backdonation, is a concept from chemistry in which electrons move from an atomic orbital on one atom to an appropriate symmetry antibonding orbital on a π-acceptor ligand.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.) In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. As with all hexavalent chromium compounds, it is acutely and chronically harmful to health. It is a crystalline ionic solid with a very bright, red-orange color. The salt is popular in the laboratory because it is not deliquescent, in contrast to the more industrially relevant salt sodium dichromate.Gerd Anger, Jost Halstenberg, Klaus Hochgeschwender, Christoph Scherhag, Ulrich Korallus, Herbert Knopf, Peter Schmidt, Manfred Ohlinger, "Chromium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
Radio-frequency engineering, or RF engineering, is a subset of electrical engineering involving the application of transmission line, waveguide, antenna and electromagnetic field principles to the design and application of devices that produce or utilize signals within the range of about 20 kHz up to 300 GHz.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
Respiratory arrest is caused by apnea (cessation of breathing) due to failure of the lungs to function effectively.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
During the Roman Republic, the Roman economy was largely agrarian, centered on the trading of commodities such as grain and wine.
Metals and metal working had been known to the people of modern Italy since the Bronze Age.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
The Rudna mine is a large mine in the west of Poland in Polkowice, Polkowice County, south-west of the capital, Warsaw.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.
The San Cristobal mine in Lipez, Potosí Department, Bolivia is an open-pit silver, lead and zinc mine near the town of San Cristóbal, Potosí.
Santa Clara is a town and seat of the municipality of Santa Clara, in the state of Durango, north-western Mexico.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2&minus), much as sulfur does in a sulfide.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siegerland is a region of Germany covering the old district of Siegen (now part of the district of Siegen-Wittgenstein in North Rhine-Westphalia) and the upper part of the district of Altenkirchen, belonging to the Rhineland-Palatinate adjoining it to the west.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver or metallic gray is a color tone resembling gray that is a representation of the color of polished silver.
Silver acetylide is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Ag2C2, a metal acetylide.
Silver may be used as an investment like other precious metals.
Silver azide is the chemical compound with the formula AgN3.
Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, water-insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light.
In folklore, a bullet cast from silver is often the only weapon that is effective against a werewolf, witch, or other monsters.
Silver carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2CO3.
Silver chlorate (AgClO3) forms white, tetragonal crystals.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.
Silver cyanide is the chemical compound with the formula AgCN.
Silver diammine fluoride (also spelled "diamine") is a topical medicament (drug) used to treat and prevent dental caries (cavities) and relieve dentinal hypersensitivity.
Silver fulminate (AgCNO) is the highly explosive silver salt of fulminic acid.
Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc.
Silver nanoparticles are nanoparticles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size.
Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula.
Silver oxalate is commonly employed in experimental petrology to add carbon dioxide to experiments as it will break down to silver (Ag) and carbon dioxide under geologic conditions.
Silver(I) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2O.
The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.
Silver sulfadiazine, sold under the brand Silvadene among others, is a topical antibiotic used in partial thickness and full thickness burns to prevent infection.
Silver sulfide is the sulfide of silver.
Silver(I) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula AgF.
Silver(I,III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Ag4O4.
Silver(II) fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula AgF2.
Silverpoint (one of several types of metalpoint) is a traditional drawing technique first used by medieval scribes on manuscripts.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Sodium azide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
The data values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below, in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, and are for the following conditions.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Superfluid helium-4 is the superfluid form of helium-4, an isotope of the element helium.
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Thiosulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; sometimes thiosulphate in British English) is an oxyanion of sulfur.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
A tracheal tube is a catheter that is inserted into the trachea for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent airway and to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A transition metal carbene complex is an organometallic compound featuring a divalent organic ligand.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.
Vark, also called varak (also silver leaf, German paper), is super fine filigree foil sheet of pure metals, typically silver but sometimes gold, used to decorate South Asian sweets and food to make those look more appetising.
Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves (radio waves) from 30 to 300 megahertz (MHz), with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meter.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
In folklore, a werewolf (werwulf, "man-wolf") or occasionally lycanthrope (λυκάνθρωπος lukánthrōpos, "wolf-person") is a human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf (or, especially in modern film, a therianthropic hybrid wolflike creature), either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction (often a bite or scratch from another werewolf).
The Western concert flute is a transverse (side-blown) woodwind instrument made of metal or wood.
Wet chemistry is a form of analytical chemistry that uses classical methods such as observation to analyze materials.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
In chemistry, a Zintl phase is the product of a reaction between a group 1 (alkali metal) or group 2 (alkaline earth) and any post-transition metal or metalloid (i.e. from group 13, 14, 15 or 16).
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
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