74 relations: Annals, Astronomy, Ban Gu, Book of Documents, Book of Han, Book of Rites, Burton Watson, Cao Shen, Castration, China, Chinese calendar, Chinese historiography, Chinese literature, Chronicle, Classic of Music, Classic of Poetry, Collins English Dictionary, Commutation (law), Confucius, Courtesy name, Earthquake, Emperor Gaozu of Han, Emperor Shun, Emperor Wu of Han, Empress Lü, Eunuch, Fan Kuai, Fu (poetry), Goryeo, Han dynasty, Han Xin, Hancheng, Hejin, History of China, Huai'an, Hunan, I Ching, Jiangsu, Korea, Li Guangli, Li Ling, Li Sao, Lu Xun, Miluo River, Ming dynasty, Mount Xianglu, Ningyuan County, Qin dynasty, Qu Yuan, Qufu, ..., Records of the Grand Historian, Samguk sagi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sima (Chinese surname), Sima Guang, Sima Tan, Solar eclipse, Song dynasty, Spring and Autumn Annals, Tang dynasty, Tongzhi (book), Treatise, Vietnam, Xi'an, Xia dynasty, Xiahou Ying, Xiang Yu, Xiao He, Xiongnu, Yangtze, Yellow Emperor, Yu the Great, Zizhi Tongjian. Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
Annals (annāles, from annus, "year") are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year, although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
The Book of Rites or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods.
Burton Dewitt Watson (June 13, 1925April 1, 2017) was an American scholar best known for his numerous translations of Chinese and Japanese literature into English.
Cao Shen or Cao Can (died 190 BC), courtesy name Jingbo, was a chancellor of the Western Han dynasty.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
The Classic of Music was a Confucian classic text lost by the time of the Han dynasty.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
In law, a commutation is the substitution of a lesser penalty for that given after a conviction for a crime.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A courtesy name (zi), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
Shun, also known as Emperor Shun and Chonghua, was a legendary leader of ancient China, regarded by some sources as one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
Lü Zhi (241–180 BC), courtesy name Exu, commonly known as Empress Lü and Empress Dowager Lü, or formally Empress Gao of Han, was the empress consort of Emperor Gaozu, the founder and first ruler of the Han Dynasty.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Fan Kuai (died 189 BC) was a military general of the early Western Han dynasty.
Fu, sometimes translated "rhapsody" or "poetic exposition", is a form of Chinese rhymed prose that was the dominant literary form during the Han dynasty (206AD220).
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Xin (died 196 BC) was a military general who served Liu Bang during the Chu–Han Contention and contributed greatly to the founding of the Han dynasty.
Hancheng is a city in Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China, about 125 miles northeast of Xi'an, at the point where the south-flowing Yellow River enters the Guanzhong Plain.
Hejin is a county-level city of Yuncheng City, in the southwest of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China, located on the east (left) bank of the Yellow River.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Huai'an, formerly called Huaiyin until 2001, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province of Eastern China.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
The I Ching,.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Li Guangli (died 88 BC) was a Chinese general of the Han dynasty and a member of the Li family favoured by Emperor Wu of Han.
Li Ling (died 74 BC), courtesy name Shaoqing (少卿), was a Han Dynasty general, who served under the reign of Emperor Wu (汉武帝) and later defected to the Xiongnu after being defeated in an expedition in 99 BC.
"Li Sao" is a Chinese poem dating from the Warring States period of ancient China.
Lu Xun (Wade–Giles romanisation: Lu Hsün) was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (25 September 1881 – 19 October 1936), a leading figure of modern Chinese literature.
The Miluo River (and with modified Wade–Giles using the form Mi-lo) is located on the eastern bank of Dongting Lake, the largest tributary of the Xiang River in the northern Hunan Province.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mount Xianglu is a mountain near Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China.
Ningyuan County is a county of Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Yongzhou prefecture-level City.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qu Yuan (–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, China.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Samguk sagi (삼국사기, 三國史記, History of the Three Kingdoms) is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Sima is a Chinese family name.
Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.
Sima Tan (c. 165 BC – 110 BC) was a Chinese astrologist and historian during the Western Han Dynasty.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tongzhi ("Comprehensive Records") is a 1161 Chinese general knowledge encyclopedia written by Zheng Qiao (鄭樵) in the Song dynasty, containing 200 chapters on diverse topics.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Xiahou Ying (died 172 BC) was an official who served as a Minister Coachman (太僕) in the early Western Han dynasty.
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.
Xiao He (died 193 BC) was a Chinese statesman of the early Western Han dynasty.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Yu the Great (c. 2200 – 2100 BC) was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.
Chien Ssu-ma, Chien Szu Ma, Chien Szu-ma, Qian Sima, Si Ma Qian, Ssu-Ma Ch'ien, Ssu-Ma Chi'En, Ssu-ma Ch'ien, Ssu-ma Cheng-chen, Ssu-ma Cheng-chen,, Ssu-ma Chien, Ssuma Ch'ien, Ssuma Chien, SsumaChien, Ssŭma Ch'ien, Suma Qien, Szu-ma Ch'ien, Szu-ma Chien, Szuma Chien, Sīmǎ Qiān, T'ai Shih Kung, The Grand Historian, Zicháng, Zǐcháng, 司馬遷, 司马迁, 子長, 子长, 사마천.