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Index Single-stage-to-orbit

A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids. [1]

113 relations: Aerospike engine, Air launch, Airbreathing jet engine, Alan Bond (engineer), Altitude compensating nozzle, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo program, Aquarius (rocket), Atmosphere of Earth, ATREX, Avatar (spacecraft), Big dumb booster, Blue Origin, Bristol Spaceplanes, British Interplanetary Society, China National Space Administration, Chrysler, Chrysler SERV, Cryogenics, Delta-v, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Douglas Aircraft Company, Economies of scale, European Space Agency, Expanding nozzle, Expendable launch system, Gravity drag, Haas (rocket), HOTOL, Hydrogen, Hypersonic speed, Jet engine, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Kankoh-maru, Kerosene, Krafft Arnold Ehricke, Launch loop, LGM-25C Titan II, Lift-to-drag ratio, Lockheed Martin X-33, Low Earth orbit, Luna programme, Mars, Mass production, Mass ratio, Materials science, Maximum takeoff weight, McDonnell Douglas, McDonnell Douglas DC-X, Moon, ..., Multistage rocket, NASA, NASA X-43, Natural logarithm, NEXUS (rocket), Nozzle, Nuclear thermal rocket, Orbit, Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students, Orbital ring, OTRAG, OTRAG (rocket), Oxygen, Payload, Philip Bono, Precooled jet engine, Project Orion (nuclear propulsion), Propane, Propellant, Propellant mass fraction, Quicklaunch, Reaction Engines Limited, Research and development, Reusable launch system, Robert Truax, Rocket sled launch, Rockwell X-30, Roscosmos, Rotary Rocket, SABRE (rocket engine), Scramjet, Silicon dioxide, Single-stage-to-orbit, Skylon (spacecraft), Space elevator, Space fountain, Space gun, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Atlantis, Space Shuttle main engine, Space Shuttle thermal protection system, Space tether, Spacecraft propulsion, Spaceplane, SpaceX reusable launch system development program, Specific impulse, Standard gravity, StarTram, Strategic Defense Initiative, STS-51-J, STS-61-B, Supersonic speed, Thermal expansion, Three-stage-to-orbit, Thrust-to-weight ratio, Tripropellant rocket, Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, Turbopump, Two-stage-to-orbit, United States Air Force, VentureStar, West Germany, XS-1 (spacecraft). Expand index (63 more) »

Aerospike engine

The aerospike engine is a type of rocket engine that maintains its aerodynamic efficiency across a wide range of altitudes.

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Air launch

Air launching is the practice of releasing a rocket, missile, parasite aircraft or other aircraft payload from a mother ship or launch aircraft.

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Airbreathing jet engine

An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.

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Alan Bond (engineer)

Alan Bond (born 1944) is an English mechanical and aerospace engineer, as well as Managing Director of Reaction Engines Ltd and associated with Project Daedalus, Blue Streak missile, HOTOL, Reaction Engines Skylon and the Reaction Engines A2 hypersonic passenger aircraft.

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Altitude compensating nozzle

An altitude compensating nozzle is a class of rocket engine nozzles that are designed to operate efficiently across a wide range of altitudes.

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Apollo Lunar Module

The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Aquarius (rocket)

Aquarius was a low-cost launch vehicle concept designed by Space Systems/Loral to carry small, inexpensive payloads into LEO.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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The ATREX engine (Air Turbo Ramjet Engine with eXpander cycle) developed in Japan is an experimental precooled jet engine that works as a turbojet at low speeds and a ramjet up to mach 6.0.

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Avatar (spacecraft)

Avatar (अवतार) (from "Aerobic Vehicle for Transatmospheric Hypersonic Aerospace TrAnspoRtation") is a concept study for a robotic single-stage reusable spaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation.

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Big dumb booster

Big Dumb Booster (BDB) is a general class of launch vehicle based on the premise that it is cheaper to operate large rockets of simple design than it is to operate smaller, more complex ones regardless of the lower payload efficiency.

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Blue Origin

Blue Origin, LLC is an American privately funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company headquartered in Kent, Washington.

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Bristol Spaceplanes

Bristol Spaceplanes (BSP) is a British aerospace company based in Bristol, England, who have designed a number of spaceplanes with sub-orbital and orbital capabilities.

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British Interplanetary Society

The British Interplanetary Society (BIS), founded in Liverpool in 1933 by Philip E. Cleator, is the oldest space advocacy organisation in the world.

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China National Space Administration

The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China.

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Fiat Chrysler Automobiles US LLC (commonly known as Chrysler) is the American subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V., an Italian-American automobile manufacturer registered in the Netherlands with headquarters in London, U.K., for tax purposes.

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Chrysler SERV

SERV, short for Single-stage Earth-orbital Reusable Vehicle, was a proposed space launch system designed by Chrysler's Space Division for the Space Shuttle project.

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In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

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Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Douglas Aircraft Company

The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California.

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Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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Expanding nozzle

The expanding nozzle is a type of rocket nozzle that, unlike traditional designs, maintains its efficiency at a wide range of altitudes.

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Expendable launch system

An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.

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Gravity drag

In astrodynamics and rocketry, gravity drag (or gravity losses) is a measure of the loss in the net performance of a rocket while it is thrusting in a gravitational field.

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Haas (rocket)

Haas is a family of rocket space launchers developed by the Aeronautics and Cosmonautics Romanian Association (ARCA) for the Google Lunar X Prize competition and for their national manned space program.

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HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was a 1980s British design for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spaceplane that was to be powered by an airbreathing jet engine.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hypersonic speed

In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.

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Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

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Journal of the British Interplanetary Society

The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society (JBIS) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1934.

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The is the name of a proposed vertical takeoff and landing (VTVL), single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), reusable launch system (rocket-powered spacecraft).

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Krafft Arnold Ehricke

Krafft Arnold Ehricke (March 24, 1917 – December 11, 1984) was a German rocket-propulsion engineer and advocate for space colonization.

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Launch loop

A launch loop or Lofstrom loop is a proposed system for launching objects into space orbit using a moving cable-like system situated inside a sheath attached to the Earth at two ends and suspended above the atmosphere in the middle.

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LGM-25C Titan II

The Titan II was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and space launcher developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from the earlier Titan I missile.

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Lift-to-drag ratio

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air.

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Lockheed Martin X-33

The Lockheed Martin X-33 was an unmanned, sub-scale technology demonstrator suborbital spaceplane developed in the 1990s under the U.S. government-funded Space Launch Initiative program.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Luna programme

The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Mass ratio

In aerospace engineering, mass ratio is a measure of the efficiency of a rocket.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Maximum takeoff weight

The maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) or maximum gross takeoff weight (MGTOW) or maximum takeoff mass (MTOM) of an aircraft is the maximum weight at which the pilot is allowed to attempt to take off, due to structural or other limits.

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McDonnell Douglas

McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft and the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967.

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McDonnell Douglas DC-X

The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle built by McDonnell Douglas in conjunction with the United States Department of Defense's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) from 1991 to 1993.

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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Multistage rocket

A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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The X-43 was an experimental unmanned hypersonic aircraft with multiple planned scale variations meant to test various aspects of hypersonic flight.

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Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.

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NEXUS (rocket)

The NEXUS reusable rocket was a concept design created in the 1960s by a group at General Dynamics led by Krafft Arnold Ehricke.

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A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.

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Nuclear thermal rocket

A nuclear thermal rocket is a proposed spacecraft propulsion technology.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students

Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students is an aerospace engineering textbook by Howard D. Curtis, in its third edition.

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Orbital ring

An orbital ring is a concept for a space elevator that consists of an artificial ring placed around the Earth that rotates at an angular rate that is faster than the rotation of the Earth.

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OTRAG (Orbital Transport und Raketen AG, or Orbital Transport and Rockets, Inc.), was a German company based in Stuttgart, which planned in the late 1970s and early 1980s to develop an alternative propulsion system for rockets.

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OTRAG (rocket)

The OTRAG rocket was a modular satellite-delivery rocket developed by the OTRAG company in the 1970s and 80s.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.

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Philip Bono

Philip Bono (13 January 1921 – 23 May 1993) was a Douglas Aircraft Company engineer.

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Precooled jet engine

A precooled jet engine is a concept for high speed jet engines that features a cryogenic fuel-cooled heat exchanger immediately after the air intake to precool the air entering the engine.

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Project Orion (nuclear propulsion)

Project Orion was a study of a spacecraft intended to be directly propelled by a series of explosions of atomic bombs behind the craft (nuclear pulse propulsion).

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

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Propellant mass fraction

In aerospace engineering, the propellant mass fraction is the portion of a vehicle's mass which does not reach the destination, usually used as a measure of the vehicle's performance.

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Quicklaunch is a currently inactive company attempting to use a type of space gun to launch payloads into low Earth orbit.

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Reaction Engines Limited

Reaction Engines Limited (REL) is a British aerospace manufacturer based in Oxfordshire, England.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Reusable launch system

A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.

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Robert Truax

Captain Robert C. Truax (USN) (September 3, 1917 – September 17, 2010) was an American rocket engineer in the United States Navy, and companies such as Aerojet and Truax Engineering, which he founded.

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Rocket sled launch

A rocket sled launch, also known as "ground based launch assist", "catapult launch assist", and "sky ramp launch", is a proposed method for launching space vehicles.

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Rockwell X-30

The Rockwell X-30 was an advanced technology demonstrator project for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), part of a United States project to create a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spacecraft and passenger spaceliner.

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The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.

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Rotary Rocket

Rotary Rocket Company was a rocketry company that developed the Roton concept in the late 1990s as a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) manned spacecraft.

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SABRE (rocket engine)

SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.

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A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.

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Skylon (spacecraft)

Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.

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Space elevator

A space elevator is a proposed type of planet-to-space transportation system.

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Space fountain

A space fountain is a proposed form of structure extending into space that, like a space elevator, can extend to geostationary orbit, but does not rely on tensile strength for support.

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Space gun

A space gun, sometimes called a Verne gun because of its appearance in From the Earth to the Moon by Jules Verne, is a method of launching an object into space using a large gun- or cannonlike structure.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle Atlantis

Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.

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Space Shuttle main engine

The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.

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Space Shuttle thermal protection system

The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.

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Space tether

Space tethers are long cables which can be used for propulsion, momentum exchange, stabilization and attitude control, or maintaining the relative positions of the components of a large dispersed satellite/spacecraft sensor system.

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Spacecraft propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

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A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.

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SpaceX reusable launch system development program

The SpaceX reusable launch system development program is a privately funded program to develop a set of new technologies for an orbital launch system that may be reused many times in a manner similar to the reusability of aircraft.

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Specific impulse

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.

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Standard gravity

The standard acceleration due to gravity (or standard acceleration of free fall), sometimes abbreviated as standard gravity, usually denoted by or, is the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the Earth.

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StarTram is a proposal for a maglev space launch system.

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Strategic Defense Initiative

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).

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STS-51-J was the 21st NASA Space Shuttle mission and the first flight of Space Shuttle ''Atlantis''.

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STS-61-B was NASA's 23rd Space Shuttle mission, and its second using Space Shuttle Atlantis.

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Supersonic speed

Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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The three-stage-to-orbit launch system is a commonly used rocket system to attain Earth orbit.

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Thrust-to-weight ratio

Thrust-to-weight ratio is a dimensionless ratio of thrust to weight of a rocket, jet engine, propeller engine, or a vehicle propelled by such an engine that indicates the performance of the engine or vehicle.

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Tripropellant rocket

A tripropellant rocket is a rocket that uses three propellants, as opposed to the more common bipropellant rocket or monopropellant rocket designs, which use two or one propellants, respectively.

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Tsiolkovsky rocket equation

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation, describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum.

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A turbopump is a propellant pump with two main components: a rotodynamic pump and a driving gas turbine, usually both mounted on the same shaft, or sometimes geared together.

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A two-stage-to-orbit or two-stage rocket launch vehicle is a spacecraft in which two distinct stages provide propulsion consecutively in order to achieve orbital velocity.

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United States Air Force

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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VentureStar was a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch system proposed by Lockheed Martin and funded by the U.S. government.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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XS-1 (spacecraft)

The DARPA XS-1 is a planned experimental spaceplane/booster designed to deliver small satellites into orbit for the U.S. Military.

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Redirects here:

1STO, OSTO, One Stage To Orbit, One Stage to Orbit, One stage to orbit, SSTO, Single Stage to Orbit, Single stage rocket, Single stage to orbit, Single-stage rocket, Single-stage to orbit, Stage and a half, Stage-and-a-half.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-stage-to-orbit

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