143 relations: Amédée Courbet, Annam (French protectorate), Bakumatsu, Battle of Đồng Đăng (1885), Battle of Bang Bo (Zhennan Pass), Battle of Cầu Giấy (Paper Bridge), Battle of Fuzhou, Battle of Gia Cuc, Battle of Hòa Mộc, Battle of Núi Bop, Battle of Palan, Battle of Phủ Hoài, Battle of Phu Lam Tao, Battle of Shipu, Battle of Thuận An, Battle of Yu Oc, Battle of Zhenhai, Bắc Lệ ambush, Bắc Ninh, Bắc Ninh Campaign, Beiyang, Beiyang Fleet, Biarritz, Black Flag Army, Cambodia, Cao Bằng, Capture of Hưng Hóa, Capture of Nam Định (1883), Catholic Church, Charles-Théodore Millot, Chũ, Chinese corvette Yangwu, Chinese ironclad Dingyuan, Chinese ironclad Zhenyuan, Empress Dowager Cixi, Ernest François Fournier, Extraterritoriality, Far East Squadron, Feng Zicai, First Sino-Japanese War, Foochow Arsenal, France–Asia relations, Francis Garnier, Franco-Siamese War, French Cochinchina, French Indochina, French ironclad Bayard, French ironclad La Galissonnière, French Third Republic, Friendship Pass, ..., Fujian, Fujian Fleet, Fuzhou, Gapsin Coup, Gia Long, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hanoi, Hạ Hòa District, Hưng Hóa, Hưng Yên, Henri Brisson, Henri Rivière (naval officer), Henryk Sienkiewicz, Hoàng Kế Viêm, Hong Kong, Huai Army, Jacques Duchesne, Jean-Baptiste Campenon, Jules Ferry, Jules Louis Lewal, Jules Patenôtre des Noyers, Kaohsiung, Kép, Keelung, Keelung Campaign, Kep Campaign, Kim Ok-gyun, Korea, Krupp, Lam Cốt, Laos, Lạng Sơn, Lạng Sơn Campaign, Lục Nam, Lào Cai, Li Hongzhang, Liu Mingchuan, Liu Yongfu, Louis Brière de l'Isle, Magong, Mainland China, Miura Gorō, Nam Định, Nanyang Fleet, Nguyễn dynasty, Ningbo, Ninh Bình, Oscar de Négrier, Pacification of Tonkin, Pan Dingxin, Paul-Armand Challemel-Lacour, Penghu, Pescadores Campaign, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, Prince Gong, Prosper Giquel, Qing dynasty, Quảng Yên, Red River (Asia), Retreat from Lạng Sơn, Sébastien Lespès, Sơn Tây Campaign, Sơn Tây, Hanoi, Siege of Tuyên Quang, Sun Kaihua, Tainan, Taipei, Taiwan, Tamsui District, Tang Jingsong, Tây Hòa District, Thái Nguyên, Tianjin, Tientsin Accord, Tonkin, Tonkin (French protectorate), Tonkin Affair, Tonkin Campaign, Tonkin Expeditionary Corps, Treaty of Huế (1883), Treaty of Huế (1884), Treaty of Tientsin (1885), Tuyên Quang, Unequal treaty, Vietnam, Xiang Army, Yunnan, Zeng Jize, Zhang Peilun, Zhang Zhidong, Zhejiang, Zuo Zongtang. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Anatole-Amédée-Prosper Courbet (26 June 1827 – 11 June 1885) was a French admiral who won a series of important land and naval victories during the Tonkin campaign (1883–86) and the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.
The Battle of Đồng Đăng (23 February 1885) was an important French victory during the Sino-French War.
The Battle of Bang Bo, known in China as the battle of Zhennan Pass (Chinese:鎮南關之役), was a major Chinese victory during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
The Battle of Cầu Giấy or Paper Bridge, fought on 19 May 1883, was one of the numerous clashes during the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86) between the French and the Black Flags.
The Battle of Fuzhou, or Battle of Foochow, also known as the Battle of the Pagoda Anchorage (French: Combat naval de Fou-Tchéou, Chinese:, 馬江之役 or 馬尾海戰, literally Battle of Mawei), was the opening engagement of the 16-month Sino-French War (December 1883 – April 1885).
The Battle of Gia Cuc, fought on 27 and 28 March 1883, was a battle in the Tonkin Campaign between the French and Vietnamese, during the period of undeclared hostilities that preceded the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
The Battle of Hoa Moc (2 March 1885) was the most fiercely fought action of the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885).
The Battle of Nui Bop (3–4 January 1885) was a French victory during the Sino-French War.
The Battle of Palan (1 September 1883) was one of several clashes between the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps and Liu Yongfu's Black Flag Army during the Tonkin campaign (1883–1886).
The Battle of Phu Hoai (15 August 1883) was an indecisive engagement between the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps and Liu Yongfu's Black Flag Army during the early months of the Tonkin campaign (1883–1886).
The Battle of Phu Lam Tao (23 March 1885) was a politically significant engagement during the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885), in which a French Zouave battalion was defeated by a mixed force of Chinese soldiers and Black Flags.
The Battle of Shipu (Chinese:石浦沉船事件) was a French naval victory during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
The Battle of Thuan An (20 August 1883) was a clash between the French and the Vietnamese during the period of early hostilities of the Tonkin Campaign (1883 to 1886).
The Battle of Yu Oc (19 November 1884) was a French victory during the Sino-French War.
The Battle of Zhenhai was a minor confrontation that took place on 1March 1885 between Admiral Amédée Courbet's Far East Squadron (escadre de l’extrême-Orient) and Chinese warships and shore batteries near the coastal city of Zhenhai, downstream from Ningbo, China during the Sino-French War (August 1884April 1885).
The Bac Le ambush (guet-apens de Bac-Lé, Vietnamese: trận Bắc Lệ or trận cầu Quan Âm) was a clash during the Tonkin Campaign in June 1884 between Chinese troops of the Guangxi Army and a French column sent to occupy Lang Son and other towns near the Chinese border.
Bắc Ninh is a city in the northern part of Vietnam and is the capital of Bắc Ninh Province.
The Bắc Ninh Campaign (6–24 March 1884) was one of a series of clashes between French and Chinese forces in northern Vietnam during the Tonkin campaign (1883–86).
The term Beiyang (pinyin: Běiyáng; Wade-Giles: Peiyang; meaning 'Northern Ocean') originated toward the end of the Qing dynasty, and it referred to the coastal areas of Zhili (Traditional Chinese:直隸, Simplified Chinese: 直隶, pinyin: Zhílì) (today's Hebei), Liaoning, and Shandong in northeast China.
The Beiyang Fleet (Pei-yang Fleet;, alternatively Northern Seas Fleet) was one of the four modernised Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty.
Biarritz (Biarritz or Miarritze; Gascon Biàrritz) is a city on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the French Basque Country in Southwestern France.
The Black Flag Army was a splinter remnant of a bandit group recruited largely from soldiers of ethnic Zhuang background, who crossed the border in 1865 from Guangxi, China into Upper Tonkin, then part of the Empire of Annam (Central Vietnam).
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cao Bằng is a city in northern Vietnam.
The Capture of Hưng Hóa (12 April 1884) was an important French victory in the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86).
The Capture of Nam Định (27 March 1883), a confrontation between the French and the Vietnamese, was one of the early engagements of the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles-Théodore Millot (28 June 1829 – 17 May 1889) was a French general who distinguished himself in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and the Tonkin campaign (1883–86).
Chũ is a township (Thị trấn) and town and capital of Lục Ngạn District, Bắc Giang Province, in north-eastern Vietnam.
Yangwu was a wooden corvette built for the Imperial Chinese Navy.
Dingyuan was an ironclad battleship and the flagship of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet.
Zhenyuan (Wade-Giles: Chen Yuen) was a German-built Chinese Beiyang Fleet turret ship of the 19th century.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
Ernest François Fournier (1842-1934) was a French diplomat and admiral born in Toulouse on May 23, 1842.
Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.
The French Far East Squadron (escadre de l'Extrême-Orient) was an exceptional naval grouping created for the duration of the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885).
Feng Zicai (1818–1903) was a bandit from Qinzhou, Guangxi, China who later became a general in the Imperial Army during the Qing dynasty.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
The Foochow Arsenal, also known as the Fuzhou or Mawei Arsenal, was one of several shipyards in Qing China as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.
France–Asia relations span a period of more than two millennia, starting in the 6th century BCE with the establishment of Marseille by Greeks from Asia Minor, and continuing in the 3rd century BCE with Gaulish invasions of Asia Minor to form the kingdom of Galatia and Frankish Crusaders forming the Crusader States.
Marie Joseph François Garnier (Ngạc Nhi; 25 July 1839 – 21 December 1873) was a French officer, inspector of Indigenous Affairs of Cochinchina and explorer.
The Franco-Siamese War of 1893 was a conflict between the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Siam.
French Cochinchina, sometimes spelled Cochin-China (Cochinchine Française, Nam Kỳ, Hán tự: 南圻), was a colony of French Indochina, encompassing the Cochinchina region of southern Vietnam.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The French ironclad Bayard was an early stationary battleship of the French Navy, lead ship of her class.
La Galissonnière was lead ship of a class of wooden-hulled, armored corvettes built for the French Navy during the 1870s.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Friendship Pass, also commonly known by its older name Ải Nam Quan (隘南關), is a pass near the border between China's Guangxi and Vietnam's Lạng Sơn Province, on the Chinese side of the border.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The Fujian Fleet founded in 1678 as the Fujian Marine Fleet was one of China's four regional fleets during the closing decades of the nineteenth century.
Fuzhou, formerly romanized as Foochow, is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian province, China.
The Gapsin Coup, also known as the Gapsin Revolution, was a failed three-day coup d'état during 1884 in Korea.
Gia Long (8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh), was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. A nephew of the last Nguyễn lord who ruled over southern Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh was forced into hiding in 1777 as a fifteen-year-old when his family was slain in the Tây Sơn revolt. After several changes of fortune in which his loyalists regained and again lost Saigon, he befriended the French Catholic priest Pigneau de Behaine. Pigneau championed his cause to the French government—and managed to recruit volunteers when this fell through—to help Nguyễn Ánh regain the throne. From 1789, Nguyễn Ánh was once again in the ascendancy and began his northward march to defeat the Tây Sơn, reaching the border with China by 1802, which had previously been under the control of the Trịnh lords. Following their defeat, he succeeded in reuniting Vietnam after centuries of internecine feudal warfare, with a greater land mass than ever before, stretching from China down to the Gulf of Siam. Gia Long's rule was noted for its Confucian orthodoxy. He overcame the Tây Sơn rebellion and reinstated the classical Confucian education and civil service system. He moved the capital from Hanoi south to Huế as the country's populace had also shifted south over the preceding centuries, and built up fortresses and a palace in his new capital. Using French expertise, he modernized Vietnam's defensive capabilities. In deference to the assistance of his French friends, he tolerated the activities of Roman Catholic missionaries, something that became increasingly restricted under his successors. Under his rule, Vietnam strengthened its military dominance in Indochina, expelling Siamese forces from Cambodia and turning it into a vassal state.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hạ Hòa is a rural district of Phú Thọ Province in the Northeast region of Vietnam.
Thành Hưng Hóa was a fort and settlement in present-day Phú Thọ Province, northern Vietnam.
Hưng Yên is a city in Vietnam.
Eugène Henri Brisson (31 July 183514 April 1912) was a French statesman, Prime Minister of France for a period in 1885-1886 and again in 1898.
Henri Laurent Rivière (1827 – 1883) was a French naval officer and a writer who is chiefly remembered today for advancing the French conquest of Tonkin (northern Vietnam) in the 1880s.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (also known by the pseudonym "Litwos"; 5 May 1846 – 15 November 1916) was a Polish journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize laureate.
Hoàng Kế Viêm (1820–1909) was a general of the Nguyễn Dynasty.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Huai Army, named for the Huai River, was a Qing dynasty military force raised to contain the Taiping Rebellion in 1862.
General Jacques Charles René Achille Duchesne (3 March 1837 – 27 April 1918) was a 19th-century French military officer.
General Jean Baptiste Marie Edouard Campenon (5 May 1819 in Tonnerre – 16 March 1891 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) was a French general and politician.
Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
Jules Louis Lewal (13 December 1823 – 22 January 1908) was a French general.
Jules Patenôtre des Noyers (April 20, 1845 – December 26, 1925) was a French diplomat.
Kaohsiung City (Hokkien POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan and facing the Taiwan Strait.
Kép is a township (Thị trấn) and town and capital of Lạng Giang District, Bắc Giang Province, in north-eastern Vietnam.
Keelung, officially known as Keelung City, is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan.
The Keelung Campaign (August 1884–April 1885) was a controversial military campaign undertaken by the French in northern Formosa (Taiwan) during the Sino-French War. After making a botched attack on Keelung in August 1884, the French landed an expeditionary corps of 2,000 men and captured the port in October 1884. Unable to advance beyond their bridgehead, they were invested inside Keelung by superior Chinese forces under the command of the imperial commissioner Liu Mingchuan. In November and December 1884 cholera and typhoid drained the strength of the French expeditionary corps, while reinforcements for the Chinese army flowed into Formosa via the Pescadores Islands, raising its strength to 35,000 men by the end of the war. Reinforced in January 1885 to a strength of 4,500 men, the French won two impressive tactical victories against the besieging Chinese in late January and early March 1885, but were not strong enough to exploit these victories. The Keelung campaign ended in April 1885 in a strategic and tactical stalemate. The campaign was criticised at the time by Admiral Amédée Courbet, the commander of the French Far East Squadron, as strategically irrelevant and a wasteful diversion of the French navy.
The Kep Campaign (2 to 15 October 1884) was an important campaign in northern Vietnam during the opening months of the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Kim Ok-gyun (김옥균; 金玉均; February 23, 1851 – March 28, 1894) was a reformist (Gaehwapa, 개화파) activist during the late Joseon Dynasty of Korea.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
Lam Cốt is a commune (xã) and village in Tân Yên District, Bắc Giang Province, in northeastern Vietnam.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lạng Sơn (chữ nho: 諒山) is a city in far northern Vietnam, which is the capital of Lạng Sơn Province.
The Lang Son Campaign (3 to 13 February 1885) was a major French offensive in Tonkin (northern Vietnam) during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Lục Nam is a township (Thị trấn) and town and capital of Lục Nam District, Bắc Giang Province, in north-eastern Vietnam.
Lào Cai is a city in the Northwest region of Vietnam.
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.
Liu Mingchuan (1836–1896), courtesy name Xingsan, was a Chinese official who lived in the mid-Qing dynasty.
Liu Yongfu (1837–1917) was a Chinese soldier of fortune and commander of the celebrated Black Flag Army.
Louis Alexandre Esprit Gaston Brière de l'Isle (24 June 1827 – 19 June 1897) was a French Army general who achieved distinction firstly as Governor of Senegal (1876–81), and then as general-in-chief of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Magong, formerly romanized as Makung, is a county-controlled city and seat of Penghu, Taiwan.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Viscount was a lieutenant general in the early Imperial Japanese Army.
Nam Định is a city in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam.
The Nanyang Fleet was one of the four modernised Chinese naval fleets in the late Qing Dynasty.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
Ninh Bình city is a small city in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam; it is the capital of Ninh Bình Province.
François Oscar de Négrier (2 October 1839 – 22 August 1913) was one of the most charismatic French generals of the Third Republic, winning fame in Algeria in the Sud-Oranais campaign (1881) and in Tonkin during the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1887).
The Pacification of Tonkin (1886–96) was a slow and ultimately successful military and political campaign undertaken by the French Empire in the northern portion of Tonkin (modern-day north Vietnam) to re-establish order in the wake of the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885), to entrench a French protectorate in Tonkin, and to suppress Vietnamese opposition to French rule.
Pan Dingxin (1828–1888) was a Qing dynasty governor and military commander, best known for his role in the Sino-French War.
Paul-Armand Challemel-Lacour (19 May 1827 – 26 October 1896) was a French statesman.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
The Pescadores Campaign which took place in late March, 1885, was one of the last campaigns of the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Pierre Joseph Georges Pigneau (2 November 1741 in Origny-en-Thiérache – 9 October 1799, in Qui Nhơn), commonly known as Pigneau de Béhaine, also Pierre Pigneaux and Bá Đa Lộc ("Pedro" 百多祿 or 伯多祿), was a French Catholic priest best known for his role in assisting Nguyễn Ánh (later Emperor Gia Long) to establish the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam after the Tây Sơn rebellion.
Yixin (11January 1833– 29May 1898), better known in English as PrinceKung or Gong, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.
Prosper Marie Giquel (1835–1886), was a French naval officer who played an important role in the modernization of 19th century China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quảng Yên is a county-level town of Quảng Ninh Province in the north-east region of Vietnam.
The Red River (Sông Hồng), also known as the and (lit. "Mother River") in Vietnamese and the in Chinese, is a river that flows from Yunnan in Southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin.
The Retreat from Lang Son (retraite de Lang-Son) was a controversial French strategic withdrawal in Tonkin at the end of March 1885 that brought down the government of the French premier Jules Ferry and brought the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885) to an end in circumstances of considerable embarrassment for France.
Sébastien-Nicolas-Joachim Lespès (13 March 1828 – 24 August 1897) was a French admiral who played an important role in naval operations during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885), as second-in-command of Admiral Amédée Courbet's Far East Squadron.
The Son Tay Campaign (11 December 1883 to 17 December 1883) was a campaign fought by the French to capture the strategically important city of Son Tay in Tonkin (northern Vietnam) from Liu Yongfu's Black Flag Army and allied contingents of Vietnamese and Chinese troops.
Sơn Tây is a provincial town in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam.
The Siege of Tuyen Quang was an important confrontation between the French and the Chinese armies in Tonkin (northern Vietnam) during the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885).
Sun Kaihua (died 1893) was a military student of Hunan, who joined Bao Chao's army and fought bravely against the Taiping and Nien rebels, receiving many wounds.
Tainan (Hokkien POJ: Tâi-lâm), officially Tainan City, is a special municipality of Taiwan, facing the Formosan Strait or Taiwan Strait in the west and south.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tamsui also Danshui is a sea-side district in New Taipei, Taiwan.
Tang Jingsong (1841–1903) was a Chinese general and statesman.
Tây Hòa is a rural district (huyện) of Phú Yên Province in the South Central Coastal region of Vietnam.
Thái Nguyên is a city and municipality in Vietnam.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Tientsin Accord or Li–Fournier Convention, concluded on 11 May 1884, was intended to settle an undeclared war between France and China over the sovereignty of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
Tonkin, or Bac Kỳ (北圻), was a French protectorate encompassing modern Northern Vietnam.
The Tonkin Affair, (L'Affaire Tonkin) named after the French colony and protectorate of Tonkin, or Đông Kinh, of March 1885 was a major French political crisis that erupted in the closing weeks of the Sino-French War.
The Tonkin Campaign was an armed conflict fought between June 1883 and April 1886 by the French against, variously, the Vietnamese, Liu Yongfu's Black Flag Army and the Chinese Guangxi and Yunnan armies to occupy Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and entrench a French protectorate there.
The Tonkin Expeditionary Corps (corps expéditionnaire du Tonkin) was an important French military command based in northern Vietnam (Tonkin) from June 1883 to April 1886.
The Treaty of Huế, concluded on 25 August 1883 between France and Vietnam, recognised a French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin.
The Treaty of Huế or Protectorate Treaty was concluded on 6 June 1884 between France and Annam (Vietnam).
The Treaty of Tientsin, signed on 9 June 1885, officially ended the Sino-French War.
Tuyên Quang is a town in Vietnam, and is the capital of Tuyên Quang Province.
Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed with Western powers during the 19th and early 20th centuries by Qing dynasty China after suffering military defeat by the West or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Zeng Guofan, the leader of the Xiang Army The Xiang Army was a standing army organized by Zeng Guofan from existing regional and village militia forces called tuanlian to contain the Taiping rebellion in Qing China (1850 to 1864).
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Marquis Zeng Jize (s) (1839 – April 12, 1890), one of China's earliest ministers to London, Paris and Saint Petersburg, played an important role in the diplomacy that preceded and accompanied the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Zhang Peilun (張佩綸) (1848–1903) was an unsuccessful Chinese naval commander during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Zhang Zhidong (4 September 18375 October 1909) was a Chinese official who lived the late Qing dynasty.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang;; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.